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Other News Mahmoud Badawy

What causes Vitamin D deficiency ?

Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3:

Vitamin D is not a single nutrient, but rather a group of related nutrients. Vitamins D2 and D3 are the most popular dietary forms.The two types of vitamin D differ in their food sources and also in structure and function.Vitamin D3 is only available in animal-sourced meals, whereas D2 is mostly found in plant-based foods and fortified foods.

D3 is found in fatty animal-sourced foods like fish oil and egg yolk. It is also produced by your skin in response to sunshine or UV radiation.Surprisingly, vitamin D3 appears to be more effective at increasing vitamin D levels in the blood.

What Does Vitamin D do ?

Vitamin D received from sunlight, meals, and supplements is physiologically inactive and require two hydroxylations in the body to be activated.

The first hydroxylation takes place in the liver and transforms vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as "calcidiol."

The second hydroxylation takes place largely in the kidney and results in the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], also known as "calcitriol"

  • The first hydroxylation takes place in the liver and transforms vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as "calcidiol."
  • The second hydroxylation takes place largely in the kidney and results in the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], also known as "calcitriol"

Importance of Vitamin D:

Low vitamin D levels have been shown in studies to increase your risk for several diseases. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to poor bone health. Much recent contradictory research now demonstrates a link between vitamin D insufficiency and cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune illnesses, and depression.

There are many health benefits associated with getting enough vitamin D each day including:

  • Helping manage weight effectively
  • Lowering blood pressure
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Protecting against infections like influenza
  • Preventing cancer
  • Reducing inflammation
  • Protecting against infections like influenza
  • Reducing the risk for heart disease and stroke
  • Improving insulin sensitivity
  • Promoting healthy pregnancy outcomes
  • Absorb calcium and phosphorus, which are crucial for bone
  • health and strong teeth.

Recommended Vitamin-D Intakes:

RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowance) for vitamin D were developed by an FNB (Food and Nutrition Board) committee to identify daily vitamin D doses that are sufficient to preserve bone health and appropriate calcium metabolism in healthy persons.

Is vitamin-D needed daily ?

If you’re following the latest recommendations, you might be falling short.

According to the National Institutes of Health, adults should get at least 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day to maintain bone and muscle health, boost immune function, and reduce the incidence of a variety of cancers Unfortunately, many people.....

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Posture and Metabolism

There are twelve of body systems: skeletal, muscular, nervous, integumentary (skin), circulatory, respiratory, reproductive, digestive, urinary, lymphatic, endocrine (hormones), and immune. Each of them is subject to stimulation-reaction-response.

Musculoskeletal dysfunction triggers (stimulates) a reaction and response in each of the eleven other systems. When the tape broadcasts the news that something is happening, it's not a warning as such-stimulus is initially regarded as neither good nor bad. But the news that important major muscle groups are not engaging needs to be known by all systems because, for starters, it's going to affect the metabolic process.

Does Posture affect metabolism?

One of the body's most complex biochemical operations, metabolism is the way the body provides fuel to its cells. Muscles play an important role in at least three ways. First, by creating heat from the friction of contracting and relaxing. The heat helps to essentially cook the food, oxygen, and water that we consume until they break down and recombine into substances that can be converted by the cells into usable energy. The more work the muscles do, the more fuel is available to the cells. And the reverse is true: the less work the muscles do, the less fuel for the cells.

The second metabolic role for the muscles is that of being a major metabolic consumer. Large, active muscles have many muscle cells to fuel. This appetite serves to create an expanded metabolic capacity in order to meet muscular demand. But the metabolic supply isn't exclusively used by the muscles, though. When we rest or sleep, our muscles are relatively (and temporarily) inactive, and the fuel that's not needed by the muscles is diverted to other tissue and organs.

That's why poor posture-slumping, misaligned dysfunctional posture-indicates a metabolic dysfunction. Notice that I didn't call it a symptom. Poor posture is actually a cause of metabolic dysfunction. Once the deep muscles-the ones closest to the bones and joints-disengage, the metabolism backs off because the body's monitoring system tells it there are fewer cellular mouths to feed and reduced means to do the feeding. The other eleven organ systems immediately lose.

The benefit of a revved up, efficient, fully functional metabolism. The energy they need to carry out basic functions is no longer as abundant. It puts a strain on every organ in the body and the roughly 75 trillion metabolically dependent individual cells.

Will My Posture Improve If I Lose Weight?

The third important metabolic role played by the muscles is this: reduced muscular engagement means reduced oxygen intake and distribution. Oxygen is the combustion agent that the metabolic process uses to refine the fuel (primarily glucose, amino acids, and enzymes) needed for the operation of the body's cells. Disengaged and dysfunctional major muscle groups mean that the primary vehicle for getting oxygen into and around the body isn't in optimal condition. But suppose circumstances require optimal metabolism. A sudden demand for physical exertion, the effects of stress, or severe illness all call for extra energy to support extra work from the body's organ systems. They depend on the support of a fully functional metabolic process. Since muscular action is involved with drawing oxygen into the lungs and assisting the heart and circulatory system in moving oxygenated blood throughout the body, the disengagement of major posture muscles hinders this work. As a result, fuel production is compromised, as is cell function.

Conceivably, the body could cope with the problem simply by doing less work with less metabolism. After all, our environment is not as rough-and-tumble as it once was. But one system in particular is working as hard as ever-maybe harder.

The immune system is like a network of fire stations scattered strategically throughout the body. The T-cells and various anti-bodies are the fire fighters, ready to deploy, when the alarm sounds, to battle invading viruses, toxins, and other conflagrations. An immune system undermined by an inefficient metabolism cannot respond as quickly or effectively. It just doesn't have enough available energy for aggressive fire fighting, as if many of the fire trucks are out of gas and their crews understaffed.

That's why we're seeing the rise of the new "epidemics" -diabetes, asthma, allergies, virulent but heretofore unknown strains of TB, some types of cancer, and the like. This alarming trend coincides with another epidemic-chronic back pain, headaches, bad hips, knee injuries, hurting wrists, and other musculoskeletal disorders.

I believe the link between this epidemic and the others is visible all around us. If millions of people do not have the strength to stand up straight, to hold their shoulders square and their heads high and level, and to move smoothly without stiffness or pain, how do we expect them to have the strength to fight off disease?

Without adequate musculoskeletal support for the metabolic process, they simply cannot. Around us, the very embodiment of health is crumbling.

I'm painting this gloomy picture not to spread pessimism but to inspire faith. We need to regain our faith in the strength of the human body. After all, it got us through two or three million years of BS-Before Suburbia. Rediscovering it can yield a cure for these epidemics.

By recognizing our strength and its source in muscle and bone, we can escape from the modern delusion that health comes only from experts and technology that soon will be crushingly expensive and beyond the reach of all but a few. Down that road lies misery and future epidemics, the horror of which we can't even begin to imagine.

All of us can afford the price of a genuine miracle cure. We were born with potentially strong, aligned bodies. We were therefore born rich... posture and metabolism.

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Osteoarthritis is a pathology associated with inflammation in the joints of the body. In the case of hand osteoarthritis, the arthritis and inflammation most commonly associated with a loss of carpal, MC, or phalanges glenoid cartilage leading to hand pain.

Osteoarthritis is a term derived from the Greek word“osteo”meaning “of the bone,”“arthro”meaning“joint,”and“itis”meaning inflammation even though the amount of inflammation present in the joint can range from excessive to little or no inflammation.


• Hand arthritis

• Hand degenerative joint disease


( What Causes Hand Osteoarthritis? )

• The wearing down of the hyaline cartilage leads to an inflammatory response. There is thickening and sclerosis of the subchondral bone and development of osteophytes or bone spurs. This leads to a narrowing of the joint space, loss of shock absorption, and ultimately pain.

• Daily wear and tear in combination with various injuries sustained throughout life is the most common cause of the breakdown of healthy tissue.

• Degeneration of the cartilage and resultant arthritis can also be the result of other factors such as trauma or joint injury....

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Other News Cairo


Few people in industrialized societies have true calcium deficiencies,regardless of what the advertisements tell us. The bigger problem is that most people are unable to utilize the calcium they already have in their bodies. Poor calcium metabolism, rather than deficiency, is almost at epidemic proportions. The end result is that not enough calcium gets into the cells, including the bones, muscles and other tissues, with the remaining excess calcium depositing in the joints, tendons, ligaments or even the kidneys as stones. Plaque that clogs the arteries can also contain calcium.

In order for your body to properly metabolize calcium, and more effectively absorb calcium from food, you must have sufficient vitamin D. This nutrient is free and plentiful, yet most people don’t have enough. That’s because it comes from the sun and the public is told that the sun is dangerous. This issue is so important that it’s discussed s in this article. Just remember that without sufficient vitamin D, calcium cannot be properly regulated, and that most problems of insufficient calcium are really due to low levels of vitaminD.

Another important issue regarding calcium is to consume enough

calcium-rich foods; this is easily done without supplementation through good dietary practices. And it does not necessarily mean eating a lot of dairy foods.

Consider the high amounts of calcium in the following single servings of non-dairy foods:

• Salmon: 225 mg

• Sardines: 115 mg

• Almonds: 100 mg

• Seaweed: 140 mg

• Rainbow trout: 100 mg

• Spinach: 135 mg

• Green beans: 100 mg

• Collards: 125 mg

Two other important issues regarding calcium are absorption (the most important part is also having sufficient vitamin D), and getting the calcium into the bones and muscles once it’s absorbed.

Absorption is the first step to utilizing calcium in the body. In general, smaller amounts are better absorbed than larger amounts, whether from food or supplements. If a small amount of calcium is present in the intestine, 70 percent may be absorbed, for example, while a larger amount of calcium may have only a 30 percent absorption rate. If you’re taking calcium supplements, it may be best to take a lower dose several times a day rather than a large dose once daily.

Even though vegetables contain smaller amounts of calcium, larger percentages are absorbed compared to milk. So in some situations, a serving of broccoli may result in more calcium getting into the body than a serving of milk.

The stomach’s natural hydrochloric acid is also very important in making calcium more absorbable. Neutralizing stomach acid has a negative effect on calcium absorption, and a serious impact on digestion and absorption of all nutrients. Once absorbed, calcium is utilized best when the body is in a slightly acidic state. Otherwise, calcium that is absorbed may be more easily deposited in joints, muscles or arteries rather than inside the cells where it’s needed. The cells that are calcium-starved cause symptoms such as muscle tightness and irritability, identical to those of calcium deficiency. Morning stiffness which loosens up only after moving around for a while, is one of the most common symptoms of this calcium problem. Signs of an advanced problem include so-called bone spurs (a deposit of calcium in the ligament) or kidney stones. Rather than needing more calcium,these people need more acidity (and vitamin D) to utilize the calcium.

Two teaspoons daily of apple-cider vinegar may help maintain the proper pH to help calcium work properly. This can be taken as part of your salad dressing, or even mixed into a 4-ounce glass of water. Excess phosphorus intake can be very detrimental for calcium utilization, pulling it out of bones and muscles. Most soft drinks contain large amounts of phosphorus and the people who drink them risk significant calcium loss from their teeth and bones.

The type of calcium supplement may be associated with absorbability. For example, calcium carbonate is more poorly absorbed than calcium lactate or calcium citrate. This is due to the alkaline nature of carbonate, and the acid nature of lactate and citrate.

Taking too much calcium in supplement form can disturb the body’s complex chemical makeup. For example, too much calcium can reduce magnesium. Most people may be in need of more magnesium than calcium it’s necessary for most enzymes to work, including the ones important for fat metabolism. And the best sources of magnesium are vegetables.

What causes Osteoporosis ?

Osteoporosis is usually a multifactorial problem, meaning there’s hardly ever just one cause. We know that a lack of calcium is usually not the cause, nor is low estrogen. Methods that are effective in treating or preventing osteoporosis in one person may have very different results in someone else. In addition, osteoporosis may not be as much of a problem as it has been made into, as Susan Brown, Ph.D., author of “Better Bones, Better Body” emphasizes:

• Osteoporosis itself doesn’t cause bone fractures; half of those with osteoporosis never get fractures.

• Severely osteoporotic vertebrae are strong enough to withstand five times the normal weight-bearing.

• Menopause does not cause osteoporosis, and only 15 percent of a woman’s bones are affected by estrogen.

• Zinc and magnesium may be as important as calcium for bones.

• Up to 80 percent of all hip-fracture patients may have a vitamin D deficiency.

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Jersey/Rugby Finger Syndrome


• Rupture or avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP).

• Classification is based on how far the tendon retracts,which in turn will affect the success of surgical repair.

 A type I injury retracts all the way to the palm.The vincula brevis and longus are ruptured and blood supply is interrupted. Extensive scarring can develop within the tendinous sheath,therefore surgical repair is indicated within 7 to 10 days.

Type II retracts to the PIP joint.The long vinculum may still be intact, and a small chip of bone may be avulsed with the tendon.The avulsed end may become entrapped at the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) chiasma, causing a flexion contracture.

Type III occurs when a bony fragment is avulsed and remains attached to the tendon,which isthen unable to retract through the pulley.The tendon remains in the synovial sheath.


• FDP avulsion

• Rugby finger


• Rupture or avulsion of the FDP tendon can occur during activities that require sustained digital flexion against forceful or unexpected resistance, resulting in hyperextension of the DIP joint and rupture of the FDP tendon.

• Rupture of the FDP tendon commonly occurs when an athlete’s finger catches on another player’s clothing in sports such as football.



Ring finger (fourth digit) is the most common involvement. It is the weakest and accounts for 75% of all cases.


• Forceful passive extension of the digit while the FDP is in maximal contraction.

• The injury causes forced extension of the DIP joint during active flexion...

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Simplifying Stress:

Stress is such an incredibly powerful influence that even if you are doing everything right in terms of diet, nutrition and exercise, it can still crush your efforts to stay healthy. Prolonged periods of too much stress can contribute significantly and directly to many conditions, ranging from reduced quality of life to deadly diseases such as cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer’s and many others.

Stress contributes to fatigue, bacterial and viral infections, inflammatory illness, blood-sugar problems, weight gain, intestinal distress, headaches and most other disorders. Stress-related problems account for more than 75 percent of all visits to primary-care physicians and are responsible each day for millions of people needing to take time off work and school. So stress comes with a monetary price tag as well as a toll on your health.

Charles Darwin said "it’s not the fittest who survive, nor the most intelligent, but those who can best adapt to their environment" we refer to this adaptation as coping.

It’s important to remember that stress is a normal part of life and health, and excess stress is not without a remedy. The body has a great coping mechanism for stress the hormones of the adrenal glands and related nervous system function. However, when the adrenal glands are overworked, bodywide problems can result. Before discussing the adrenal glands and how we can help protect ourselves from stress, I want to describe what stress is. To simplify stress, I will address the three main types: physical, chemical and mental/emotional. These types of stress can have many different effects. Moreover, each individual responds differently to various

combinations of types of stress.

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Other News Egypt

Finger Dislocation

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Let The Sun Shine

Sun & Vitamin-D Story

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Ganglionic Hand Cyst A-Z

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Other world news

African governments are weak in regulating digital spaces-Adenike Aloba

Program Director of Dataphyte, Adenike Aloba has taken a swipe at African governments for their weakness or inability to properly regulate the digital space, an act which limits the full enjoyment of the freedom and fundamental human rights of the masses.

She contends that most of the laws and policies by governments geared towards regulating the digital space in the African context have resulted into a lot of internet shutdowns including attack on press freedom and violation of the rights of journalists and activists among others which have been the trend.

“We’ve seen a lot of journalists being attacked online with bots and being thrown, we’ve seen people being tracked and their things being taken out. We’ve also seen the African governments turn towards when they don’t understand anything they shut it down and that has been the tendency so no, we can’t say that they’re doing well”.

Adenike made this known in an interview with the Human Rights Reporter’s Joseph Wemakor on the sidelines of a 2-day ( Sept. 20-21, 2022) Digital Clinic for Civic Actors in Lagos, Nigeria.

Mr. Wemakor sought to know her views on whether the authorities have lived up to expectation when it comes to proper regulating of digital space within the African continent.

The Digital Clinic which brought together some selected journalists and civic actors from across West Africa namely Ghana, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Nigeria was initiated by the Interactive Initiative for Social Impact (Dataphyte) in collaboration with Spaces for Change (S4C).

The training was aimed at exposing civic actors to the threats in the digital world and equip them with knowledge and practical solutions to deal with the threats to help minimize the risks they pose.

Its goal is to help journalists and civil society protect their information, data, devices and communications against digital security threats.

The participants were taken through topic such as Investigative Journalism Practice in the Digital Space: Risks and Rewards, Deep Dive on Digital Rights in the West African Context, Whistleblowing Policy and Practice in the West African Context and Practical Session on Digital Safety Tools.

It includes Digital Safety and Security Through a Gendered Lens, Data Protection Strategies, Roles and Responsibilities, Social Protection and Rapid Response Mechanisms for Whistleblowing and Digital Safety and Practical Session on Digital Safety Schools-Psychological Safety.

As the world transitions to a digital space, threats are fast increasing online, while people’s rights to freedom of expression, access to the internet and privacy among others are being denied, a trend which is a cause of worry.

But Adenike Aloba who equally doubles as the Managing News Editor of Dataphyte believes the authorities have a major role to play in helping citizens overcome these threats to always remain safe.

“This is a challenge being faced across the world, but it is only in African countries we are seeing laws that want to shut down, that want to control rather than figure out a solution that is more long-term”, she bemoaned.

According to her, although some governments are doing better in terms of regulation of the digital space, others are still lagging behind due to a significant lack of trust between the people and governments.

Citing a typical example of bad regulation of the digital space in the African context, he pointed to a social media bill being set up by the Nigerian government which gives the police the power to determine fake news or abuse of the digital space.

For her, dialogue is a means through which governments can help craft better policies and laws to safeguard the digital space.

“Dialogue is important when you are designing a policy or something then there has to be public engagement because of its public policy for crying out loud”.

She called on all and sundry to do everything humanly possible to protect themselves against the threats while advocating strongly for better laws or policies in place that can help promote and protect digital rights.

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