جميع مشاركات المستخدم Mahmoud Badawy . القاهرة و مصر
• Patellar dislocation occurs when there
is no contact between the patella and
the trochlear groove.
• Patellar subluxation is a temporary, partial
dislocation of the patella from the
• Acute dislocations can occur with direct
trauma such as a fall or a direct blow to
the knee; however, most occur from a
noncontact mechanism, typically frequent
exposure to the primary mechanism of injury.
occur laterally, resulting in
severe disruption of the
extensor mechanism as a
result of the patella sliding
over the lateral portion of the
• Acute patellar dislocations account for
2% to 3% of all knee injuries.
• First-time dislocations with a history of prior subluxation are most observed in girls 10 to 17 years of age, but subluxations/dislocations are most often observed in young, athletic individuals.
• Younger children and preadolescents have higher rates of recurrence and
greater underlying mechanical risk factors.
• In those treated nonoperatively after
a one-time dislocation, up to 44% will
dislocate again and >50% will report
symptoms associated with recurrent
MECHANISM OF INJURY
Dislocation/subluxation most often
results from a noncontact, lower extremity
internal rotation and knee valgus stress
on a fixed distal extremity.
COMMON SIGNS AND
• Patients present with a vague anterior knee
pain and swelling, with complaints of giving
way with specific activities such as jumping
, running, or making quick stops and quick
changes in direction.
• In recurrent instability, symptoms are
typically episodic and long term.
• Quick stops
• Quick changes in direction
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Do you toss and turn in bed every night? Do you watch the clock as your wake-up time mercilessly approaches and only manage to fall asleep at some point in the morning? Have you been counting sheep for hours and still can't sleep?
Everybody sometimes can't fall asleep. The problem is when this condition lasts a long time or recurs frequently.
Professionally, the condition where you cannot fall asleep is called insomnia. It is dangerous and it is not pleasant to play with it. Sleep is vital for a person. A person suffering from insomnia cannot fall asleep or wakes up frequently.
Common symptoms are:
- difficulty falling asleep at night.
- waking up early in the morning without the ability to go back to sleep.
- frequent nighttime awakenings
- night watch, confusion of day and night
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If classified as benign, the enlarged prostate is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As for whether it is malignant, it will lead to prostate cancer.
Although it does not endanger the life of the victim, the complaints that arise due to an enlarged prostate are very disturbing activities.
Some people who have an enlarged prostate will feel dissatisfied when urinating.
Symptoms can include a weak urinary stream, increased frequency of urination, frequent awakenings at night, and an inability to hold back the urge to urinate.
In severe cases, an enlarged prostate can cause urinary retention, which is a condition in which a person is unable to excrete urine that is in the bladder.
To overcome the prostate, whether to surgery? Actually, the action to treat this condition depends on the severity.
The main goal of treating an enlarged prostate is to improve the patient's quality of life. The therapy offered also varies, depending on the severity of the symptoms experienced.
To determine the severity, the doctor will perform a series of tests including:
- International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) test score.
- Lab tests, such as urinalysis, prostate- specific antigen (PSA), and kidney function.
- Urophlometry (evaluation of the urine stream), calculation of residual urine.
- Images of the prostate that can be an ultrasound exam.
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