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History of 2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption

The 2009 Tonga undersea volcanic eruption began on March 16, 2009, near the island of Hunga Tonga, approximately 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) from the Tongan capital of Tongatapu. The volcano is in a highly active volcanic region that represents a portion of the Pacific Ring of Fire. It is estimated that there are up to 36 undersea volcanoes clustered together in the area.

The initial March 16–17 eruption created an ejecta column (tephra) which sent ash and smoke up to 20 kilometers (12 mi) into the atmosphere and an initial inspection reported that the volcano had breached the ocean surface. Authorities suggested at that time that the eruption did not yet pose any threat to the capital's population, and an inspection team was sent out to evaluate the volcano.

Between March 18–20, a number of Surtseyan eruptions sent ash plumes as high as 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) to 5.2 kilometers (3.2 mi) into the atmosphere, with prevailing winds pushing the ash cloud about 480 kilometers (300 mi) east-northeast of the eruption site and widespread and significant haze reported at Vavaʻu 255 kilometers (158 mi) away. Steam plumes on March 20 were measured at 1.8 kilometers (1.1 mi) above sea level. But on March 21, an eruption sent steam and ash just 0.8 kilometers (0.50 mi) into the sky. On March 21, Tonga's chief geologist Kelepi Mafi reported lava and ash from two vents, one on the uninhabited island Hunga Haʻapai and another about 100 m (330 ft) offshore, had filled the gap between the two vents, creating new land surface that measured hundreds of square meters. The eruption devastated Hunga Haʻapai, covering it in black ash and stripping it of vegetation and fauna.

What is an undersea volcano?

An undersea or submarine volcano is located below the ocean surface and mostly erupts under water.

There are an estimated one million undersea volcanoes that, like continental volcanoes, are located near the Earth’s tectonic plates and where they form. These volcanoes not only deposit lava, but can also spew out large amounts of volcanic ash.

According to the Global Foundation for Ocean Exploration group, about “three-quarters of all volcanic activity on Earth actually occurs underwater”.

Undersea volcanic activities give rise to seamounts – underwater mountains that are formed on the ocean floor but do not reach the water surface.

How often does Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai erupt?

The Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai volcano, which lies about 65km (40 miles) north of the capital of Nuku’alofa, has a history of volatility.

In recent years, the Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai breached sea level during a 2009 eruption. In a 2015 eruption, it spewed so many large rocks and ash into the air, it caused a new island to be formed measuring 2km (1.2 miles) long and 1km wide and 100 metres (328 feet) high.

On December 20 last year and then on January 13, the volcano erupted again, creating visible ash clouds that could be seen from the Tonga island Tongatapu. On January 15, another massive eruption occurred, triggering tsunami waves.

Volcanologist and science journalist Robin George Andrews told Al Jazeera that undersea volcanoes like Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha’apai erupt in such an explosive way about once every 1,000 years.

“There was this giant explosion, which scientists think is one in 1,000-year event for this sort of volcano,” he said.

“It takes about 1,000 years to fully recharge and we just happen to be around the point where is unleashed that the vast amount of its magma in a very explosive way,” Andrews said.

Effect of Tongan Volcanic Eruption on 15th January 2022

A tsunami has hit Tonga's largest island, Tongatapu, and reportedly sent waves flooding into the capital after an underwater volcano in the South Pacific exploded in a violent eruption on Saturday, sending a cloud of ash and gas steam into the air.

A tsunami warning has been issued for the islands of Tonga and parts of Japan. Tsunami advisories have also been issued for New Zealand's North Island and the west coast of the United States from California to Alaska, as well as Canada's British Columbia.

This Approach Will Have You Speaking A New Language In Just 3 Weeks.

Satellite imagery shows a massive ash cloud and shockwaves spreading from the eruption.

Waves crossed the shoreline of Tonga's capital, Nuku'alofa, on Saturday, flowing onto coastal roads and flooding properties, according to CNN affiliate Radio New Zealand (RNZ).

Tonga's King Tupou VI was evacuated from the Royal Palace after the tsunami flooded the capital, RNZ reported, citing local media reports that a convoy of police and troops rushed the monarch to a villa at Mata Ki Eua.

Residents headed for higher ground, RNZ said, as waves swept the palace grounds, waterfront and main street.

Ash was falling from the sky in Nuku'alofa on Saturday evening and phone connections were down, RNZ said.

The Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai volcano first erupted Friday, sending a plume of ash 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) into the air, according to RNZ.

The volcano is located about 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) southeast of Tonga's Fonuafo'ou island, according to RNZ, and about 65 kilometers (40 miles) north of Nuku'alofa.

In addition to the tsunami warning, Tonga's Meteorological Services issued advisories for heavy rain, flash flooding and strong winds in lands and coastal waters.

The nearby island of Fiji also issued a public advisory asking people living in low lying coastal areas to "move to safety in anticipation of the strong currents and dangerous waves."

Tsunami alert in effect for Fiji group

the National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) issued a public advisory for those in low-lying coastal areas to evacuate to higher grounds, with anticipation of strong currents and dangerous waves – following a series of underwater volcanic eruptions in Tonga earlier this evening.

The Fijian Government also offered prayers for the people of Tonga. “We are praying for our Tongan sisters and brothers who are beset by tsunami waves and airborne ash stemming from the eruption,” Mr Sayed-Khaiyum said at a press conference.

As a matter of precaution the people were advised to, please cover all household water tanks and stay indoors in the event of rain due to the risk of rainfall becoming acidic.”

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It is well known now that majority of the people in Fiji are misinformed on the pros and cons of a vaccine. Sadly, the government also plays a huge role when analyzing various reasons that could have built up the decision of an individual not getting vaccinated.


Since majority of Fijians are getting their first Jab of vaccination, the Government is hoping to open most of the commercial businesses sometime late this year. However, this is not possible as there are a great number of people that are anti-vaxxers. This anti-vaxxers have a great chance of initiating a 3rd wave of covid19 infecting the public and most likely initiate breakthrough cases in Fiji.


The fact that most of the Fijians don't believe that the vaccine will not work against this covid19 crisis just shows that majority of this anti-vaxxers do not know a lot of facts about the vaccine. Some anti-vaxxers say that it does not fully protect you against the virus. This is not true as the benefit of a vaccine outweighs the risk of not getting fully vaccinated against covid-19. However, surely most of this anti-vaxxers don't know the benefits. These benefits must be given to anti-vaxxers in an informative manner where anti-vaxxers gain a better understanding of the problem at hand, and the solution that is available. What most relevant authorities are doing to influence the public to get vaccinated is shaming anti-vaxxers and inflicting fear amongst those anti-vaxxers. This is not a good approach because shaming this anti-vaxxers will just give them various reason to why they should not get fully vaccinated. Inflicting fear makes anti-vaxxers believe that the Government has too much power and is forcing anti-vaxxers with new policies such as "no jab, no job".

Surely any individual can notice that the current strategy being used to get people vaccinated is not that effective as majority of the public get vaccinated, there will be those anti-vaxxers uninstalling contact tracing apps and hiding because they don't want to go through the shaming process and be afraid.


The current strategy will not eliminate the virus however, the great leaders of Fiji must find a more ethical way to fight against the deadly virus. Hiring individuals that are professionals in public speaking and influencing people with factual benefit, pros, and cons of the deadly virus.

Let’s not inflict fear and continue shaming anti-vaxxers. Let’s find a better approach to handle the problem at hand in a more ethical manner where humanity is not Totally eliminated when approaching anti-vaxxers. More large surveys must be conducted to analyze the effects of this covid19 crisis in terms of social aspects, politics and most importantly the everyday routine of individuals in various neighborhoods in Fiji. Say no to the shaming process and inflicting fear.

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Pop quiz…

Which of these statements would you consider to be bullying?

Tom catches the bus home every day with this girl he has a crush on, Tina. They often joke with each other and Tom starts yelling out, “Hey, shorty!” whenever she gets on the bus. He believes Tina thinks he’s being funny, but she’s really self-conscious about her height and his comments actually upset her.


Not Bullying

A new girl, Elise, has been transferred to your school and starts hanging out with you and your BFF, one lunchtime, the two of them started talking about what they are going to do together on the weekend, and didn’t invite you. You feel totally left out and awkward.


Not Bullying

Your friend Jack, comes to you and starts gossiping about another of your close friend, Mere. You didn’t agree with her but listen as he goes on about what a loser Mere is. You feel really uncomfortable but don’t say anything – after all, they’re both your friends.


Not Bullying

So, what’s the answer? If you have circled all of the Bullyings, you’re correct! Yep, they’re all examples of bulling behaviour – read on to see where they fit on the bullying scale.

Unintentional Bullying (MODERATE)

Sometimes, we can be bullies without realising it – in fact, without any intention to be mean to all. This can happen when you don’t realise or consider the effect your actions have on others. So, while you might know you’re joking about something, the person on the receiving end could be really hurt, likewise, if you’re angry with a friend, you may feel justified in giving him/her the silent treatment.

The problem is, while you might not think you’re bullying, the damage you’re doing is potentially just as bad as if you were deliberately picking on someone. In fact, it can sometimes hurt even more if somethings nasty comes. In any friendship, there’ll be different times where you may feel annoyed, frustrated, jealous or competitive.

Witnessing bulling (HIGH)

Believe it or not, you can contribute to bulling without even doing anything – literally. If you see someone being bullied and just stand by and watch it happen, you’re basically providing the bully with reinforcement and saying what they’re doing is OK – even if it’s totally against what you think. If nobody ever stood up to bullies, we’d never see the end of bullying, while the victims would be left feeling even more isolated, alone and helpless.

Deliberate bullying (EXTERME)

Overt or intentional bullying (such as harassing someone online, group taunting of another student in the school playground or name=calling) is the most obvious and often the most intense type of bullying, because people deliberately want to inflict pain. It sounds crazy that anyone would want to do that, but in most cases, bullies have low self-esteem and insecurities themselves, and by dragging someone else down they feel they temporarily feel more powerful, popular or cool.

The impact

Victims of bullying often blame themselves and experience a massive drop in confidence and self-esteem. It can affect their physical wellbeing (leading to headaches, stomach-aches, sleep problems and changes in appetite) as well as their mental health causing sadness, anger, loneliness, stress, fear and even anxiety and depression.

If you are being bullied, it’s vital you talk to someone you can trust about what’s happening, because you’re not alone and don’t have to deal with things on your own, a school counsellor or phycologist will be able to help you not only deal with the bully but also improve your levels of self-confidence and empowerment.

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Plastic Free Ocean for Turtles

As a kid I always wondered why sea turtles were particularly susceptible to dying from eating plastics trash.

It didn't really make sense to me because even though sea turtles eat jellyfish, there are other animals that primarily eat jellyfish, like Mola. Penguins and sharks, tuna, swordfish and other fish also eat jellyfish. But they don't seem to have as a big of a problem with plastic bags as turtles do.

Also, all species of sea turtles are susceptible to being killed by plastic trash, even the ones that primarily consume ocean plants.

It turns out that it's because turtles can't easily throw u because of their unique food filtering system.

So they are one of the only animal's that are forced to eat the trash, another are unable to get rid of it. That explains alot.

We spend billions of dollars to find life on other planets. And trillions of dollars killing the life on this one. After ruling the entire nature, we somehow manage to find sources for ourselves. But what about other species who are also trying to survive around us?

Let's be kind, let's be responsible. Please think of everyone else around us as well before ruining and wasting anything around you.

A kind reminder to all.

When the last tree is cut down, the last fish eaten, and the last stream poisoned , You will realize that you can't eat money

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City Business School Turkmenistan announces that the season of discounts for new MBA programs begins.

For those who want grandiose changes in 2021, having presented themselves with a top business education, new MBA programs are offered, created taking into account international requirements.

By enrolling in one of the programs, you can get additional benefits and opportunities for MBA students.

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Levuka Weightlifting Club is disappointed with the claims of Commonwealth silver medalist Avolonia Vaivai that she was misled.

Vaivai extended an olive branch to Weightlifting Fiji with a written apology for her part of the boycott in 2018.

Vaivai, Eileen Cikamatana, Manueli Tulo and other Levuka lifters boycotted the 2018 Oceania championship to protest the appointment of Hosein Tavakoli as national coach.

Levuka Weightlifting spokesman Peni Tawai told FBC Sports that Vaivai’s statement had shocked them.

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A Christchurch’s man last attempt to get bail before he faces trial for the alleged murders of five family members in Fiji has failed.

Mohammed Raheesh Isoof, a Fijian citizen who holds permanent residency in New Zealand, was supposed to stand trial on Monday over the deaths of Nirmal Kumar, 63, his wife Usha Devi, 54, their daughter Nileshni Kala and her two children Sana, 11, and Samara, 8.

Their bodies were found on Nausori Highlands, a remote clifftop area in Nadi, west of Fiji, on August 26, 2019.

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This is after the two sides played a friendly match at Churchill Park last night.

The Blues winning the game 5-2.

Sitiveni Cavuilagi opened the account for Lautoka before Dave Radrigai made it two nil.

Shameel Rao pulled one back for Ba from the penalty spot.

New inclusion from Suva Sairusi Nalaubu and Sekove Finau further increased the Blues lead to 4-1 while Ba’s Darold Kakasi closed the gap to 2-4.

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