“Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.” Yet while we all know water is crucial for life, we trash it anyway. Some 80 percent of the world’s wastewater is dumped—largely untreated—back into the environment, polluting rivers, lakes, and oceans.
This pollution is degrades the water’s consistency making it harmful to humans, livestock and the atmosphere as well as causing problems for the marine ecosystem. These substances may float in the water or settle on the bottom of a body of water.
Because of its position as a universal solvent, water is extremely vulnerable to contamination. Various forms of water contaminants are taken into account such as toxic chemicals, sediments, heat, domestic sewages petroleum (oil), and radioactive substances are some forms of contaminating our water bodies.
Domestic sewages this endangers the quality of lakes and streams, where high levels of oxygen are required for fish and other aquatic organisms to survive.
Moreover, petroleum (oil) occurs when oil from roads and parking lots is carried in surface runoff into water bodies. Accidental oil spills are also a source of oil pollution.
Heat is a pollutant in water because it reduces the ability of water to retain dissolved oxygen in solution and increases the rate of metabolism in fish. Important game fish species, such as trout, cannot live in water with very low dissolved oxygen levels. The process of discharging cooling water from power plants into rivers is a major source of heat; the discharged water.
Sediment affect the water resulting from soil erosion which can be carried into water bodies by runoff.
Coming down to the standard of water
While pure water is uncommon in nature (due to water’s strong ability to dissolve other substances), the classification of water quality (i.e. clean or polluted) is determined by the water’s intended usages.
Furthermore, water pollution has great effect:
• Fish and other marine species suffer as a result of water contamination
• The use of salt-contaminated water increases the soil's alkalinity.
• Human epidemics such as cholera, tuberculosis, jaundice, dysentery, typhoid, and diarrhoea are caused by contaminated water.
• Irrigating agricultural fields with contaminated water from lakes, dams, and rivers kills crops and reduces agricultural production.
• Heavily polluted water affects the soil, decreases its fertility and kills soil microorganisms and even certain useful bacteria.
Above these effects there are some prevention and control methods to curb water pollution.
• Raising public consciousness in rural and urban areas about the importance of maintaining wetlands, rivers, reservoirs, and wells.
• Through washing clothes, bathing, and so, you will keep rivers, lakes and ponds clean
• Food waste, paper, biodegradable vegetables, and plastic should not be disposed of in open drains.
For instance, water that is safe for swimming and fishing may not be safe for drinking or cook and advised keep the water clean.