APPLICATION OF THE “DOCTRINE OF LAST SEE चेन्नई

APPLICATION OF THE “DOCTRINE OF LAST SEEN” IN HOMICIDE TRIALS IN NIGERIA CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background of the Research


The doctrine was stated with much clarity, weight and legal force in the Moses Jua case thus:


The position as firmly settled, is that if Mr. A was last seen alive with or in company of Mr. B and the next thing that happened, was the disappearance of Mr. A, the irresistible inference is that Mr. A was or had been killed by Mr. B. The onus is on Mr. B. to offer an explanation for the purposes of showing that he was not the one who killed Mr. A.


It would seem that the doctrine thrives in hasty conclusions in the sense that once someone disappears, no effort may be made to prove that he is dead before concluding that someone else had killed him. Nonetheless, the “last seen” doctrine is a mere presumption which, like all presumptions, is rebuttable. It means in effect however, that the law presumes that the person “last seen” with the deceased bears the full responsibility for his death if it turns out that the person last seen with him is dead.


In Nigeria, the doctrine is firmly settled, established and/or entrenched, but in other common law jurisdictions, it is applied with caution and flexibility so as to guard against a miscarriage of justice. Applying the doctrine to the law of evidence, the Indian Legal writers , maintained that:

The mere fact that the accused and the deceased were together in the field prior to the occurrence does not by itself lead to irresistible inference that the accused must have murdered the deceased…it could not be deemed to be conclusive unless it is further established that during the interval between the time when they were last seen together and the time at which the victim died, every circumstance was inconsistent with the innocence of the accused. The theory of last seen together is extremely a weak piece of evidence.


This seems to be a better view of the doctrine and its application in deserving circumstances. This is so because, presumptions are created to permit orderly civil and criminal trials. The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and the Supreme Court of Indiana defined the function and legal significance of presumptions as follows:


…a presumption of law is not evidence nor should it be weighed by the fact finder as though it had evidentiary value. Rather, a presumption is a rule of law enabling the party in whose favour it operates to take his case to the jury without presenting evidence of the fact presumed. It serves as a challenge for proof and indicates the party from whom such proof must be forthcoming. When the opponent of the presumption has met the burden of production thus imposed, however, the office of the presumption has been performed, the presumption is of no further effect and drops from the case.


The problem here is that presumption is too vague a concept upon which to hang the fate of an accused person in capital offences such as murder. Again, it imposes on the accused person, a “reverse burden” of proof by calling on him to prove his innocence and this is inconsistent with our adversary system of criminal justice which imposes a legal burden on the prosecution to prove its case against the accused beyond reasonable doubt. The adversary system preserves the presumption of innocence embedded in our criminal jurisprudence and this is inconsistent with the presumption associated with the “last seen” doctrine which is an offshoot of circumstantial evidence.


There is also the “time-lag” principle which is deeply associated with the “last seen” doctrine though consistently glossed-over by the Nigerian courts in their application of the “last seen” doctrine. The principle runs thus:


The last seen theory comes into play where the time-gap between the point of time when the accused and the deceased were last seen alive and where the deceased is found dead is so small that the possibility of any person other than the accused being the author of the crime becomes impossible. It would be difficult in some cases to positively establish that the deceased was last seen with the accused when there is a long gap and possibility of other persons coming in between exists. In the absence of any other positive evidence to conclude that the accused and the deceased were last seen together, it would be hazardous to come to a conclusion of guilt in those cases”.

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https://avalanches.com/in/chennai_karnataka_state_board_test_series_prepare_for_karnataka_state_board_o2667287_27_06_2022

Karnataka state board test series


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https://avalanches.com/in/chennai_online_tests_series_for_ibps_po_exam_questioncloud_is_one_of_the_best2603676_23_06_2022

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https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_kiet_group_of_institutions_delhincr_signs_mou_with_nccu_taiwan_2449601_14_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_kiet_group_of_institutions_delhincr_signs_mou_with_nccu_taiwan_2449601_14_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_kiet_group_of_institutions_delhincr_signs_mou_with_nccu_taiwan_2449601_14_06_2022
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https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_kiet_group_of_institutions_delhincr_signs_mou_with_nccu_taiwan_2449601_14_06_2022

Department of Computer Science, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR has signed MOU with NCCU Taiwan on 13th June 2022 at KIET Campus Ghaziabad.


KIET Group of Institutions is among one of the top engineering colleges in Delhi NCR while National Chung Cheng University is a national university in Minxiong Township, Chiayi County, Taiwan. CCU is a member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. Both the institutions have signed the MOU to extend cooperation in the education sector. During the MOU signing ceremony, Dr. Pradeep Kumar Singh (HoD-CS) highlighted the points mentioned in MOU and how this cooperation will be useful for both the organizations for students and faculty development.


In addition to that, Dr. Pao-Ann Hsiung, Professor and Director, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan; Dr. Jack S.-M. Huang, Professor & Director, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan; and Dr. Shin-Yuan Hung, Professor & Provost, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan joined the inaugural ceremony virtually.


From our institution, Dr. Manoj Goel (Joint Director — KIET Group of Institutions), Dr. K.L.A. Khan (Dean IEC), Prof. Adesh Pandey (Dean ITIS), Professor Dr. Pradeep Kumar Singh (HoD-CS) along with other Heads and Faculty Members were present at the event.

In the beginning of the event, Dr. Manoj Goel (Joint Director — KIET Group of Institutions) and Professor Dr. Pradeep Kumar Singh (HoD-CS) welcomed the guests.

During the session, Dr. Ming-Hung Wang (Assistant Professor- CSIE, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan) delivered his talk on “Recognizing Online Sock Puppets Using Social Activities”; Prof. Wei-Min Liu (Associate Professor- CSIE, NCCU, Taiwan) talked about “Automatic Tissue Segmentation: From Polyps in Colonoscopy to Abdominal Organs in CT Scan”; and Mr. Harsh Khatter (Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, KIET Group of Institutions) talked about “Web Blog Searching Techniques”.


KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi NCR

Website: www.kiet.edu | Toll-Free: 1800 313 0056


#kiet_group_of_institutions #KIETGZB #kietengineeringcollege #KIET #AKTU #AICTE #TopEngineeringCollege #student #KIETGroupofInstitutions #TopEngineeringCollegesinDelhiNCR #BestEngineeringCollegesinDelhiNCR #CivilEngineering #CivilEngineers #CivilEngineeringJobs #Placement #TopPlacementCollege #EngineeringCollegewithBestPlacementRecord #MoU #NationalChungChengUniversity #NCCU #GlobalOutreach #GlobalCooperation

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https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_highlights_of_csit_farewell_2k22_kiet_group_of_institutions_2375641_09_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_highlights_of_csit_farewell_2k22_kiet_group_of_institutions_2375641_09_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_highlights_of_csit_farewell_2k22_kiet_group_of_institutions_2375641_09_06_2022
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https://avalanches.com/in/ghaziabad_highlights_of_csit_farewell_2k22_kiet_group_of_institutions_2375641_09_06_2022

Highlights of CSIT Farewell 2K22: KIET Group of Institutions

The farewell day is an exciting moment for the outgoing batch. It is both an ending and a beginning, with warm memories of the past and big dreams for the future.

A grand Farewell party was organized on 3rd June 2022, by the Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, to bid adieu to the batch of 2018–22. The event was filled with mixed emotions for everyone present at the Auditorium of KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad.

The event started with an address by the Honorable Director, Dr. A. Garg where he spoke encouraging words of wisdom for the first batch of CSIT.

“ I congratulate the first batch of the CSIT branch for completing the course with flying colors. It has been truly an inspiring journey for the students, as well as the teachers who grow in tandem with each other. I wish all the students a great future as they step out of our esteemed institute to make their unique mark in the world. I also have faith in this batch of trained professionals to showcase our institute’s legacy and values through their work in the field,” Dr. Garg said.

Honorable Dean Academics, Prof. (Dr.) Anil Kumar Ahlawat also gave his best wishes to the students followed by the Head of the Department Prof. (Dr.) Abhinav Juneja and Additional HoD, Mr. Ambrish Gangal.

The event progressed with Saraswati Vandana & lightning of lamp. Third-year CSIT students planned a series of events including Band performances, Poetry, Rap, and Dance performances. The event progressed with various rounds of contests for the title of Mr. and Ms. Farewell. Many games/fun events, and Ramp Walk were organized for the Final year students and judged by the faculty members of the CSIT Department.


The Title winners at the event:

Mr. Farewell: Aditya Singh.

Ms. Farewell: Shivangi Pandey.

Mr. Best Attire: Akshit Malik.

Ms. Best Attire: Sanskriti Jaiswal.


Thereafter, the event was followed by an emotional and heart-touching “Memories” video containing the 4-year journey and experience of the students at KIET. After that, Title Distribution for all the final year students was done by third-year students on stage. The event concluded with a photography session with all present in the event.


Convener: Prof. (Dr.) Abhinav Juneja (HoD CSIT)

Coordinators: Ms. Garima Singh and Ms. Shrankhala Saxena along with Team -CSIT.


KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi NCR

Website: www.kiet.edu | Toll-Free: 1800 313 0056


#kiet_group_of_institutions #KIETGZB #kietengineeringcollege #KIET #AKTU #AICTE #TopEngineeringCollege #student #KIETGroupofInstitutions #TopEngineeringCollegesinDelhiNCR #BestEngineeringCollegesinDelhiNCR #DepartmentOfCSIT #ComputerScienceandInformationTechnologyBatch2022Farewell #CSITDepartmentFarewell2022 #June2022Farewell #BiddingFarewell #CSFarewell2022 #ComputerScience #CSIT

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https://avalanches.com/in/chandigarh_ravi_dehru_biography_girlfriend_age_amp_more_2359995_08_06_2022

Ravi Dehru Biography, girlfriend, age, & more.


Ravi Dehru was born on 15 January 1997. ( age:24 years).

At sirsa, haryana, India. Ravi Dehru started his career as a Music director and producer. After all his first song was Intro & his first solo Single was I Know. Ravi Dehru is a independent artist.


Girlfriend :

Ravi Dehru is still single now. He never says something about his personal life.


Other facts about Ravi Dehru :


Ravi Dehru is a Good quotes

Writter he says that "only those who really have feelings can write"

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Other world news
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GOD, YOUR LOVE KENYA

It's unfortunate how we become political every electioneering year

Shouting who we are supporting

Who supported you for the last five years?

God, your love Kenya


Who paid Your rent, school fees for your kids,facilities food on your table just to name a few

God, your love Kenya


Cutting across tribal lines... This is mediocrity Bana,

We need to think inner ward lyrics and outside the box,

It's no longer about where the president, comes from, my tribe how did it benefit you?

You probably buying cooking Oil the same price as everyone else is...

This frustrating country my Kenya

God, Your love Kenya


Everything is above the sky

skyrocketing prices on every basic commodity

Kutoka kwa mafuta hadi Unga

God, your love Kenya


I walk into a Supermarket I no longer buy any commodity for quality but for quantity and price consideration is my first priority.

God, your love Kenya


But till when will this go On....

How SURE AM I?

I will not be put in the same shifty hole after 8th August 2022

God, Your love Kenya


We can't tell but then again we are left with ONE, To gather our thoughts and, for once make a sober and informed decisions in terms of who you vote in various seats....

God, Your love Kenya


Fail to which the suffering continues and we pass it to the next generation what a shame?

I wonder what our forefathers are thinking at this certain moments

God, Your love Kenya

It's like we probably sold our country but for WHAT?, You would ask yourself... Is it worth

We have spearheaded development in East and Central Africa we are so Much head compared with other neighboring countries...

But at what expense?

OUR CULTURE, ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION, HERITAGE AND HUMAN EXISTENCE....

I really wonder...

God, Your love Kenya


We live at a time where the money you earn is not enough to cater most people livelihoods

Living in a deficit chasing money more than yourself....

God, your love Kenya

CATCH it if you may, Your life depends on it

Save yourself from the life your have created around yourself

Staying true to your course, your true happiness, love and harmony essentials for our soul

God, your love Kenya


My Country Kenya as we Go to Elections

I love you

May you be Peaceful

I pray and believe

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https://avalanches.com/ru/kazan_v_kazany_roshvardeits_vpolnyly_zadachy_po_obespechenyiu_bezopasnosty_vo2436125_13_06_2022

В Казани росгвардейцы выполнили задачи по обеспечению безопасности во время празднования Дня России


Военнослужащие казанского специального моторизованного полка Приволжского округа Росгвардии, бойцы ОМОН «Ак Барс» и сотрудники вневедомственной охраны Росгвардии по Республике Татарстан выполнили задачи по обеспечению безопасности жителей и гостей республики во время праздничных мероприятий, посвященных Дню России.

Традиционно, наиболее массовым местом проведения праздничных мероприятий для жителей и гостей столицы республики стала площадка возле центра семьи «Казан», где побывало около 35 тысяч человек. Помимо концерта с участием творческих коллективов и артистов эстрады там было организовано множество развлекательных зон. Завершилось мероприятие красочным салютом над акваторией реки Казанки.

Задачи по охране общественного порядка и обеспечению безопасности во время праздничных мероприятий выполнили военнослужащие казанского специального моторизованного полка Приволжского округа ВНГ России, сотрудники вневедомственной охраны и бойцы ОМОН «Ак Барс» Управления Росгвардии по Республике Татарстан во взаимодействии с сотрудниками МВД по РТ и работниками частных охранных организаций.

Благодаря совместной работе Росгвардии и МВД, при участии работников ЧОО, грубых нарушений общественного порядка и безопасности не допущено.


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https://avalanches.com/sz/manzini_meet_the_78_years_old_high_school_graduate_ted_sams_2417396_12_06_2022

Meet the 78 years old High school graduate Ted Sams...


It was a joyfull moment for Ted Sams (78) and his family when he finally walked on stage to receive his high school diploma sixty years after he missed his 1962 graduation because of some teenage mischief and $4.80 (E3.40) overdue library fine he owed at his former school.


During his high school days, Ted and a friend were in a photography class when they were caught by the vice principal for photographing people without their consent and Ted was later suspended, leading to him missing the final exam and graduation. While he tried keeping up with his studies by attending summer school, Ted then found that he couldn't get his diploma because of the overdue library fine book.


“So I just walked away from it and said, 'Forget it',” he says.


In 2022, after much persuasion from his family Ted joined San Gabriel California High school in Los Angeles and got his high school diploma


Sams says he never expected to be back in high school 60 years later after he dropped out. He recounted how he would repeatedly complain to his children how a meagre $4.80 kept him from having a degree.


His daughter Sherry then suprised him by asking San Gabriel High in Los Angeles for a reprint of his diploma so he can attend graduation.


Luckily for him, the school hasn't thrown away the diploma and It was kept in a box, in senior archives.


In 27 May, Ted received an invitation from the school to be part of the graduation ceremony. The ceremony was attended by his wife and five children.


Even though it has been a long hard road, Ted says attaining his diploma has been a great achievement for him and the graduation was one of the highlights of his life.


“Actually, when he walked and got his diploma, every person on that stage hugged him and then the whole class applauded for him,” Sherry says.


Although the $4.80 fine hasn't been paid, Ted is now a graduate of San Gabriel High School's class of 2022.

Source: News24

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