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HIGHER EDUCATION AND ITS NECESSITY FOR WOMEN
Sanchayita Chakraborty, Assam, India
Education is birth right of every individual irrespective of gender. Women education has been one of the major issues since primitive times. In India many political thinkers, social reformers, philosophers and theorists were supporters of women education. Dr. S Radhakrishnan, the great Philosopher and President of India, said that there cannot be educated people without educated women. According to M.K Gandhi, education enables women to uphold their natural right. Swami Dayananda Swaraswati, a Hindu religious leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, considered that it is duty of the state and society to make education compulsory for all girls. According to Swami Vivekananda, daughters should be given as much education as sons so that they can be free from all fetters as self respecting person and can tackle all the problems that face them. Dr. Annie Besant, the founder of the All India Women’s Conference, was an ardent promoter of women’s education in India. She worked to raise the status of girls and women through education. She organized many groups to strive for the furtherance of girl’s school and colleges in many parts of India where girls and women were neglected. The famous reformers like Iswara Chandra Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Ray also gave emphasis on the education of women.
Women education, In India, is not a result of modern civilization. Even in the early Vedic era, education was open for women. Women had the right to learn fine arts and Veda. They had the right to participate in religious ceremonies along with her husband. Again, if we look towards Epic age, it is found that there is no discrimination of sex in the field of study. In Brihadaranyak Upanishad, a particular mantra was advised to generate a learned daughter. There we notice that the names of Gargi and maitreyi are treated as distinguishing figures in Brahmmavidya – the highest knowledge. In Ramayan and Mahabharta, most of the female characters are found educated. The examples of educated and brilliant women in ancient India is Savitri, Damayanti, Lilawati, Meera etc. But we notice that the position of women has gone through various changes during different ages. At times they had been deteriorated. Although in the Manu Smriti, it was mentioned that women should be highly honoured, we find number of provisions there which actually go against women’s interest. There women are deprived of Upanayana ceremony and thereby of education. From the eleventh century when Mohammad Ghazni conquered India till middle of the eighteenth century when the British rule was established in the country, the ‘Purdah’ system was followed and education of women was stopped. In 1854 women’s education and employment were acknowledged by the East India Company. Then the education was limited only to primary school level and this facility was enjoyed by only richer section of the society. In post independence period the female literacy rate in India was only 8.9%. In 1958, government of India formed a national committee for the education of women and in favor of women education the most of the recommendations of the committee were accepted by the government. As a result, an improvement in the number of female students’ enrolment in higher education is visible since independence. This paper will make a discussion on higher education and its function. How enhancement of female educational level improves not only the standard of living for their children but also improves the prospect of their entire community will also be discussed here. The method of the present work is analytical in nature. The work is theory oriented. An attempt is taken to reach at conclusive point through books, journals and articles available in different libraries in India.
Higher Education and its background in India
Education attained after the completion of secondary level is known as higher education in India. Etymologically, the term ‘Higher Education’ implies the education at degree level and above. In fact, higher educational institutions include not only colleges and universities. All other institutions which allow only post- secondary candidates in their campus are also treated as higher educational institutions. Such as Technological Institutions, Schools of Medicine, Schools in the field of Business, Teacher’s Training School etc. We find higher education had its roots in ancient India. Being influenced by Vedic learning, large teaching institutions like Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramshila were established in ancient India which is often characterized as India’s early universities. During the time of British Raj in India, there were about eighteen universities in the country. At the end of British rule, in 1947, the number of students receiving university education were 1, 80,000 only. By 1957, the number of students in the universities increased up to 6, 00,000. In the various Five Year Plans, education development schemes were adopted and scholarship/stipends were launched for students. As a result, public was attracted towards university education. Now a day, with the growth of population, higher education in India is being complex and challenging. India has large higher educational institutions. It has 777 universities (as per website of UGC as on 02.12.2016) and many degree colleges under the affiliation of nearby universities.
Role of Higher Education
Higher Education can widen our vision and can develop our power of generalization and abstract thought. It does not directly prepare us for any particular profession. Rather, it may indirectly make us better fitted to deal with any situation in which we may find ourselves placed. Throughout history, human progress was possible due to devotion of men and women to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. Today, a university is the best place to acquire knowledge and develop the power of judgment. It can make persons leaders and pioneers in their respective field of thought. If we wish to serve our own nation and the entire world as well, we must exercise leadership intelligently and wisely. This is possible only by developing qualities of clear thinking, hard work and disciplined application. A university is the place where we come into contact with the highest ideas and values evolved by men and try to make them an essential element of our own personality.
Need of Higher Education for Women
Higher education is not restricted to male only. It is very important for female also. It enables women to improve quality of life at home and outside. No doubt higher educated women can provide better guidance to their children which are very necessary in the development process. It is found that sons and daughters of employed mothers are free from traditional gender-role attitude. Moreover, it is found that daughters of employed mother have good academic achievement and higher career success. Higher education is the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence so that they can fix themselves up with position in the society. Higher educated women enjoy better job position. Higher education plays a key role in promotion of women in their working life. Again, higher education increases a woman’s abilities to deal with problems not only of her life and family, but also of society and nation. Women’s higher education leads to social benefit as most of them are likely to engage in civic participation. As higher education of women increases the income of women, it leads to growth in gross domestic product.
From social point of view, it may be said that it is a good sign if status of women in technological, scientific and other spheres are considered as efficient. So, women should be awakened enough so that they cannot be subdued. They should be prepared for participation in social, political and financial aspect of life.
1 Bhatia,K and Bhatia, B.D . (1945) THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION, Delhi, Nai Sarak , Doaba House.
2. Kabir, Humayun. (1961) INDIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, Asia publishing house.
3. Khan, Mohammad Abbas. (2004), MODERN CONPERATIVE EDUCATION, India, New Delhi, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Housemaids financials situation during lockdown --According to report The Hindu, 17-May-2021 — It is getting from bad to worse for women workers During the pandemic, women have borne a disproportionate burden of the severe disruptions to life and the economy. Here I want to share my own experience . Every house in my neighborhood has a housemaid, but during the lockdown, everyone had to give up their job. There are some of them who have no choice but to take responsibility for their own families , because some of them are abandoned by their husbands and some are widowed, There are some whose husbands are intoxicated and do not pay any money at home so they have to take care of their children and elderly parents. Some of them who have sent their son to Bangalore , Delhi to earn money and help them but due to lockdown, their children lost their jobs and moved home. Now their situation is so bad that it cannot be described in language .It seems to me that, the people who have suffered in this lockdown most of them are the housemaids. .
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Omicron'unlikely'the last COVID-19 Variant, Says WHO
People stand in line on a busy commercial street to get tested for COVID-19 in Lima, Peru. Photo by: Sadiya Parveen
With billions of people still unvaccinated worldwide, plenty of opportunities remain for the COVID-19 virus to spread and generate new variants, according to WHO officials.
“We hope that that doesn't happen. But at the moment, we're not doing enough to prevent that happening in terms of protecting people, and in terms of distributing vaccines in a way that would assist with reducing the emergence of variants,” Dr. Michael Ryan, WHO executive director for health emergencies, said during a press briefing Thursday.
According to Our World in Data, 9.33 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered globally. But only 58.8% of the global population has received at least one dose. In low-income countries, only 8.8% of the population has received a vaccine.
When the delta variant emerged as a variant of concern, Ryan recalled, several scientists described it as the “fittest” and “best-adapted virus” they’ve ever seen, and that they “cannot see how this virus could adapt anymore.” But now omicron has been shown to be more transmissible than previous variants, including delta.
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“Unfortunately, I think it's very unlikely that omicron will be the last variant that you will hear us discussing. Certainly, the virus continues to evolve,” said Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove, WHO’s technical lead for COVID-19, at the press briefing.
She said important discussions are taking place on how “much more fit” the COVID-19 virus can become in terms of its transmission and transmissibility. And while the current global focus is on omicron because of how fast it is spreading, “Delta continues to be a variant of concern,” she said, noting that there are currently about 30 “sublineages of delta” that WHO is tracking.
“There's a number of factors that are happening. And the question is … what will happen as this virus continues to evolve? And what will those additional mutations mean?” Van Kerkhove said.
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As humans, we love power. It is appealing, but very addictive. Those in the know, never falter to caution that "power corrupts, but absolute power corrupts absolutely.."
Power gets into your head, makes you heady, and you rarely listen to voices of reason, or take advice from those in the lower rungs of power, when you stray, and abuse those powers vested in you. In numerous, cases those who abuse power, and allow it to corrupt them absolutely, began their stint in power as sheep, but the trappings, and allurement of power, changed them into ravenous wolves.
History is bloated with records of leaders who failed to contain themselves, allowed the tentacles of power to strangle, and corrupt their consciences, turning them into power-hungry oligarchs, who became a nemesis to those under their authority.
As the governed, we at times create the Frankenstein monster in leaders, regarding, hailing them as gods.
Lesson: Never venerate, elevate leaders into godly status...lest they turn into dangerous autocrats..
I'm just a simple man..a run-off-the- mill guy, from the tiny kingdom of Swaziland, ruled by an absolute Monarch, King Mswati III. I am a commoner, who happens to be a writer, and following my childhood passion of writing..
I'm sorry, but I abhor any form of injustice, irrespective from whom it comes from - be it from a friend, relative, ruling authorities, etc. I am an advocate, a proponent, a protagonist of peace, and harmony. I will defend with my back against the wall, the underprivileged, the oppressed, and those whose voices are not heard as they cry for justice.
What is happening in this hell-hole of a country..this animal farm, led by oligarchs who only care about power, money and oppressing the people who reluctantly sponsor their opulent lifestyles, is diabolical. It has no place in a modern society, and belongs in medieval times.
The Living God created us all equal, and it is Him and Him alone, we should worship..not mortal man, who was taken from the dust and shall return to dust.
When the Living and Loving God created Man, He commanded, "Subjue the Earth.." He never commanded Man to subdue Man, oppressing him, like what leaders of this wretched country are doing to such a peace loving people, as Swazis.
I hear there is a coming dialogue which has the propensity to make or break our political future. I believe in dialogue.
I believe that when in conflict, human decency demands that we sit down and thrash out our differences, agree to disagree, and ferociously work on reaching a consensus.
I've more or less, studied the mentality of this government, and its leaders. What I have no doubts about is that there is just no way they will negotiate or dialogue in good faith. They have been in power for more than a jubilee of years. They know the perks and benefits of being in power. We all know what power does. It corrupts...
When you're in power, you feel like a god..you command those under you to jump..and they eagerly ask, "how high your Honour".
The wise say, "power corrupts, absolute power corrupts.. ABSOLUTELY"
It remains to be seen if change will finally come in my country..but the will of the people, and good shall triumph over evil in the end...