सभी उपयोगकर्ता पोस्ट Seraj Ahmad Misbahi . दिल्ली , भारत

https://avalanches.com/in/delhi_6178844_23_01_2023

الدكتور سراج أحمد المصباحي

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

ڈاکٹر سراج أحمد مصباحی

Qatar University Library

مكتبة جامعة قطر

الدوحة قطر

0
3
https://avalanches.com/in/delhi_6178843_23_01_2023

الدكتور سراج أحمد المصباحي

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

ڈاکٹر سراج أحمد مصباحی

Qatar Museum of Islamic Arts

متحف الفن الإسلامي

الدوحة قطر

0
3
https://avalanches.com/in/delhi_6178842_23_01_2023

الدكتور سراج أحمد المصباحي

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

ڈاکٹر سراج أحمد مصباحی

Qatar Museum of Islamic Arts

متحف الفن الإسلامي

الدوحة قطر

0
5
https://avalanches.com/in/delhi_dr_seraj_ahmad_misbahi_6178841_23_01_2023

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

ڈاکٹر سراج أحمد مصباحی

الدكتور سراج أحمد المصباحي

الدوحة قطر

0
4

Voice Introduction to Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi is a classical Islamic scholar and English-Arabic-Urdu writer. He has graduated from a leading Islamic seminary of India Aljamiatul Ashrafia Mubarakpur, Azamgarh and acquired Diploma in Arabic and Urdu. He has graduated in Urdu, History and Islamic Studies. He has done his M. A. in Arabic (Hons) from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. He completed his M. Phil. From Delhi University and done his PhD in Humanities and Languages from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

Seraj Ahmad Misbahi was born on 07/11/1992 in UP, India. He got primary education in his village and then at the age of nine he got admission in Madrsa for the memorization of the holy Quran, Alhamdulillah, he completed this process within four years and continued his education in Islamic studies at Darul Uloom Alima, Basti until he completed this nine years course of Fazilah in 2014 at the Arabic University of Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Mubarakpur, Azamgarh along with his graduation in B. A. (Distance Course) from Maulana Azad National Urdu University.

In this thirteen to fourteen years period, he have completed Urdu & Arabic Diploma(NCPUL) CABA MDTP and CCC courses of computer from NIELT Chandigarh.

In order to pursue higher studies, Seraj Ahmad Misbahi applied for M. A. in Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi wherein he has passed out this course in 2016 along with JRF Award (Junior Research Fellowship) at the end of 2015. For further study, Seraj Ahmad Misbahi was selected for M. Phil. (Master of Philosophy) in University of Delhi. Alhamdulillah, he was conferred the award of M. Phil. in 2018. In Feb 2019, Seraj Ahmad Misbahi has been selected for Ph. D in Jamia Millia Islamia.

Seraj Ahmad Misbahi’s Books and Lectures: Who is Imam Hussain? (English) The Political Legacy of Umar The Great (Arabic and English) The Introductory of Jamia Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki(English and Arabic) Practical Method of Arabic and English Translation (English and Arabic Lecture)

Experience: Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi has worked as Arabic into English and vice versa translator since February 2016 till 09/2018 in “ Data Flow Groups Services (India) Private Limited” located In Noida, India. It is a pioneer Middle East based leading company for background screening. He has joined Aegis Global known as Startek (Gurgaon) as a Senior Executive in department of operation in November 2018 till 03/2020.

You can reach now at

Mob: 8588038150

Email: [email protected]

Show more
0
4

My Thoughts on AMU

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

The atmosphere of Aligarh Muslim University campus is becoming vulnerable to the serious threat.

The word "fear" on the faces of Muslims written in capital.

Thousands of police forces are deployed in outskirts of AMU. Teachers association is being reported absconded. Sheikh ul Jamia is missing. Secular leaders of the country have been stunned. Muslim leadership has been unable to react, face the challenge and resolve the issue. Many students are joined together at Baab-e- Sayed. The university has been left alone at the time of need!

Sadly, in 2019, Indian democracy is seeming died !!

Show more
0
3

SUFISM A SHIELD AGAINST RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

Growing radicalization in Muslim societies, particularly through mosque sermons and extremist madrasa teachings, and terrorists’ recruitments on social media is a common knowledge now. Young and naive Muslims with impressionable minds are being drawn into extremism through different channels. Seductive messages, in the false grab of Islamic doctrines, have caught the imagination of the Muslim youths in US, Europe and even the in Indian Subcontinent. Inspired by the neo-Kharijite extremist ideology, jihadists in thousands travel to the Middle East, particularly in Iraq and Syria, for terrorist training that sometimes brings the cancer of extremism back home. Most regrettably, we have acute cyber threats against our peace, pluralism and multiculturalism. Given this, there is a pressing need for a categorical and collective clerical effort to counter the extremist ideology that underpins slaughtering innocent children, wantonly killing women and even Muslims offering prayers in the mosques.


To counter the dangerous radial ideology of the terror outfits, particularly ISIS (also known as Daesh in Arabic), prominent Sufi organisation in India All India Ulama & Mashaikh Board is planning to organise an international Sufi conference in Delhi, India, which will be followed by an international seminar titled: the First World Islamic Spiritual Summit. In the wake of Sufi Indian clerics’ joint fatwa against IS, declaring it un-Islamic, this world Islamic spiritual summit is aimed to counter the ideological misinterpretations of Islam by the Daesh and other extremist and radical outfits. “The Islamic State is the most un-Islamic outfit as it kills innocent people. It tarnishes the image of Islam. There is no justification for killing innocents in Islam, whatever the motive, whatever the reason or whoever the perpetrators” said Syed Muhammad Ashraf Kichchawchwi, the founder president of All India Ulama & Mashaikh Board. He added saying that “a few brainwashed Muslim boys in India had joined the IS driven by the massive recruitment in Europe and the US”. “But we will not let India fall prey to the extremist onslaught of ISIS. Peace is in the DNA of Indian Muslims”, he averred.


While the extremism has penetrated the Muslim countries in different forms, Sufi luminaries, Ulama & Mashaikh, Imams and muftis from all parts of the world need strong consensus to contain the menace of radical thoughts and religious extremism. They need to propound truly unique and immaculate spiritual theories, which can enlarge the ambit of modern approaches to peace, non-violence and conflict resolution. Interestingly, Sufis are not social scientists but their blends of ideas are highly significant for peace and conflict resolution. They have been speaking emphatically about importance of peace, reconciliation and counter extremism. Now, they should begin to explore new paradigms to respond to the imperatives of modern contexts. Given their enormous faith in the synergistic role of the diverse streams of Islamic civilization for the purpose of peace, their proactive role and support is vital to foster peace and pluralism and curb extremism, hatred, conflicts, or intolerance in the name of religion.


A number of Sufi-minded Islamic scholars, writers and activists are brainstorming effective ways to spread the Islamic message of peace and tolerance as a counterattack on the violent extremism that is on the constant rise across the world today. They are constantly on the lookout for ways to work out effective counter-narratives. So far, Sufi scholars and their organisations, not only in Indo-Pak but also in the wider Muslim world, have held back the tide of extremism among the Sufi-oriented Muslim practitioners. In a bid to counter extremism on the religious grounds, they are articulating an Islam-based approach to peace and de-radicalization.


In India, the Sufi Shaikh Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchwi and the organization, All-India Ulama & Mashaikh Board is one of the most notable anti-extremism Sufi Sunni organizations. It is all set to take this gigantic task ahead. To take a glance at this recent development in India, one must consider what the Sufi cleric Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchwi and his anti-extremism organization, All India Ulema & Mashaikh Board (AIUMB) is currently doing. It’s worth mentioning that All India Ulema & Mashaikh Board (AIUMB) is an apex body of Sufi-oriented Muslims in India, which was established with a clear objective of propagating peace, pluralism, tolerance, religious moderation and reconciliation among different faith traditions. As clearly stated in its draft, it particularly aims at disseminating Sufi teachings and practices to foster a composite Indian culture as an anecdote to radical ideologies in the country.


In his recent address to the First Asia & Pacific Countries Muslim Religious Leaders’ Summit organized by the Presidency of Religious Affairs of Turkey (DİB), Syed Mohammad Ashraf Kichauchawi stated: “Islam came to India through ocean and landed in Kerala, but it was widely propagated by the great Sufi luminary Hazrat Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (R.A.) in the country’s heartland. Sufis like Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti connected with all peoples in an effort to impart spiritual wisdom of Islam, spreading its essential messages of peace, harmony, unity, co-existence and unconditional love”. There is no denying the fact that Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti was an ardent crusader of peace, which remains the defining credo of his social work spanning the entire undivided India. His entire mission symbolised peace and nonviolence.

Show more
0
1

The Three Cs of Islamic Democracy

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

The key features of Islamic governance that I have found in Islamic sources – Quran and the Prophetic precedence (Sunnah), and contemporary Muslim discussions on the Islamic State – are Constitution, Consent, and Consultation. Muslims who seek to implement the Shariah are obliged to emulate the Prophet’s precedence. These principles have been explored and articulated in the specific socio-cultural context of different Muslim societies, it is important to understand that they are essential.

Constitution

The compact, or constitution, of Medina that Prophet Muhammad adopted provides a very important occasion for the development of Islamic political theory. After Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE, he established the first Islamic state.

The compact of Medina can be read as both a social contract and a constitution. The second idea that the compact of Medina manifests is that of a constitution. In many ways, the constitution is the document that enshrines the conditions of the social contract upon which any society is founded. The compact of Medina clearly served a constitutional function.

Thus, we can argue that the compact of Medina serves the dual function of a social contract and a constitution. Since it is a historically specific document in its scope. It can serve as a guiding principle to be emulated.

Consent

The constitution of Medina established the importance of consent and cooperation for governance.

The process of bayah, or the pledging of allegiance, was an important institution that sought to formalise the consent. Replacing bayah with ballots made the process of pledging allegiance a part of universal proceedings. Elections, therefore, are not a departure from Islamic principles and traditions.

The Quran, too, recognises the authority of those who have been chosen as leaders, and in a sense extends divine legitimacy to those who have legitimate authority.

O, you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you. [Quran 4:59]

Consultation

The third key principle of Islamic governance is consultation, or Shura in Arabic. This is a very widely known concept, and many Islamic scholars have advanced the Islamic concept of Shura as evidence for Islam’s democratic credentials. Indeed, many scholars actually equate democracy with Shura.

Allah says in the holy Quran:

…and consult them in affairs (of moment). Then, when thou hast taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. [Quran 3:159]

[righteous are those] …who conduct their affairs through [shura baynahum] mutual Consultation. [Quran 42:38]

Muslim scholars tell whether the Quranic injunction for consultation is advisory or mandatory, but it nevertheless remains a divine sanction. Pro-democracy Muslims see it as necessary, and those who fear democratic freedoms and prefer authoritarianism interpret these injunctions as divine suggestions. Consultative governance, therefore, is the preferred form of governance in Islam.

Conclusion

There is much in Islamic sources and Islamic tradition that is favorable to making democracy the vehicle for delivering the Islamic governance, such as social justice, economic welfare, and religious freedoms.Democracy is inherent to Islamic values and Islamic historical experience.


Show more
0
6

What is Islamic Democracy? The Three Cs of Islamic Governance

Download PDF

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

What is Islamic Democracy? Is it a secular democracy in which Islamic leaning parties come to power and Islamic identity influences policy choices, as in Turkey? Or is it, like Iran, a theo-democracy in which Islam and Islamic values are constitutionally privileged and mandated, and where elections serve merely to elect the executive while the legislative function remains subordinate to Islamic law – The divine Shariah?

Islamists for decades have been striving to bring Islamic values to bear on the politics of their societies. There are many shades of Islamists, and they are advancing many different political models that integrate religious values, religious identity, and politics. Some are seeking to establish Islamic states in Muslim majority states (Egypt, Tunisia, Pakistan), some are seeking to establish a global Caliphate (Syria and Iraq), and others are fighting to break away from non-Muslim States (Kashmir and Palestine). The underlying assumption of all these political movements is that Islamic sources postulate a blueprint for governance, and includes the establishment of an Islamic state.

Since the collapse of the Muslim Brotherhood’s government in Egypt in 2013, Islamists by and large have assumed the mantle of democracy and now call for democratisation and oppose authoritarianism. The calls to establish Islamic States and impose Islamic laws are limited to fringe, but armed, violent and increasingly brutal militias such as ISIS (Islamic state in Iraq and Syria) and the TTP (Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan), the Taliban movement in Pakistan. ISIS, which now controls a vast swath of area in Syria and Iraq, has even declared the establishment of the caliphate and named their leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, as Caliph.

Muslim theorists of the state argue that the essential Quranic principle of Amr bil marouf wa nahy anil munkar – “command good and forbid evil” – is the Islamic justification for the creation of an ideological state that is geared toward establishing the Islamic shariah. This principle is essentially drawn from the Quran [3:100, 3:104, and 9:710].

You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) humanity; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong [Quran 3:110]

Since what is good and what is evil, they insist, is articulated in the shariah, in order for Muslims to fulfil the duty to ‘enjoin the good’ and forbid evil, Muslims must “establish the Islamic shariah.” This is the standard justification for the Islamic state and was essentially articulated by a now-prominent medieval scholar, Ibn Taymiyyah. While one can always dispute whether the text of the Quran necessitates the creation of a state, the fact remains that a large segment of the Muslim population believes in it.

Given that many Muslims feel that Islam mandates political engagement as part of religious practice, Islam will continue to play a role in politics and public policy. In this brief essay, I want to depart from discussing the role of Islamic political movements in secular or Islamic states, such Saudi Arabia or Iran, and argue that there has emerged an idea of Islamic democracy in modern Muslim political discussions. In this brief article, written primarily to introduce the readership to the idea of a democratic Islamic polity, I identify and explore some key concepts that have salience to both Islamic religious political tradition and democratic theory.

The Three Cs of Islamic Democracy

The key features of Islamic governance that I have found in Islamic sources – Quran and the Prophetic precedence (Sunnah), and contemporary Muslim discussions on the Islamic State – are Constitution, Consent, and Consultation. Muslims who seek to implement the Shariah are obliged to emulate the Prophet’s precedence and, given the rather narrow definitions of Shariah and Sunnah that most Islamist operate with, there is no escape for them from the three key principles identified here. While these principles need to be explored and articulated in the specific socio-cultural context of different Muslim societies, it is important to understand that they are essential.

Constitution

The compact, or constitution, of Medina that Prophet Muhammad adopted provides a very important occasion for the development of Islamic political theory. After Prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE, he established the first Islamic state. For ten years, Prophet Muhammad was not only the leader of the emerging Muslim community in Arabia, but also the political head of the state of Medina. As the leader of Medina, Prophet Muhammad exercised jurisdiction over Muslims as well as non-Muslims. The legitimacy of his sovereignty over Medina was based on his status as the Prophet of Islam, as well as on the basis of the compact of Medina.

As Prophet of God, he had sovereignty over all Muslims by divine decree. But Muhammad did not rule over the non-Muslims of Medina because he was the messenger of Allah. He ruled over them by virtue of the compact that was signed by the Muhajirun (Muslim immigrants from Mecca), the Ansar (indigenous Muslims of Medina), and the Yahud (several Jewish tribes that lived in and around Medina). It is interesting to note that Jews were constitutional partners in the making of the first Islamic state.

The compact of Medina can be read as both a social contract and a constitution. A social contract, a model developed by English philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, is an imaginary agreement between people in the state of nature that leads to the establishment of a community or a State. In the state of nature people are free and are not obliged to follow any rules or laws. They are essentially sovereign individuals. However, through the social contract they surrender their individual sovereignty to a collective one and create a community or a State.

The second idea that the compact of Medina manifests is that of a constitution. In many ways, the constitution is the document that enshrines the conditions of the social contract upon which any society is founded. The compact of Medina clearly served a constitutional function, since it was the constitutive document for the first Islamic state. Thus, we can argue that the compact of Medina serves the dual function of a social contract and a constitution. Clearly the compact of Medina by itself cannot serve as a modern constitution. It would be quite inadequate, since it is a historically specific document and quite limited in its scope. However, it can serve as a guiding principle to be emulated, rather than a manual to be duplicated. Today, Muslims worldwide can emulate Prophet Muhammad and draw up their own constitutions, historically and temporally specific to their conditions.

Consent

An important principle of the Constitution of Medina was that Prophet Muhammad governed the city-state of Medina by virtue of the consent of its citizens. He was invited to govern, and his authority to govern was enshrined in the social contract. The constitution of Medina established the importance of consent and cooperation for governance.

The process of bayah, or the pledging of allegiance, was an important institution that sought to formalise the consent of the governed. In those days, when a ruler failed to gain the consent of the ruled through a formal and direct process of pledging of allegiance, the ruler’s authority was not fully legitimised. This was an Arab custom that predates Islam, but, like many Arab customs, was incorporated within Islamic traditions. Just as Prophet Muhammad had done, the early Caliphs of Islam, too, practiced the process of bayah after rudimentary forms of electoral colleges had nominated the Caliph, in order to legitimise the authority of the Caliph. One does not need to stretch one’s imagination too far to recognise that in polities that have millions rather than hundreds of citizens, the process of nomination followed by elections can serve as a necessary modernisation of the process of bayah. Replacing bayah with ballots makes the process of pledging allegiance simple and universal. Elections, therefore, are neither a departure from Islamic principles and traditions, nor inherently un-Islamic in any form.

The Quran, too, recognises the authority of those who have been chosen as leaders, and in a sense extends divine legitimacy to those who have legitimate authority.

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and
those in authority from among you. [Quran 4:59]

Consultation

The third key principle of Islamic governance is consultation, or Shura in Arabic. This is a very widely known concept, and many Islamic scholars have advanced the Islamic concept of Shura as evidence for Islam’s democratic credentials. Indeed, many scholars actually equate democracy with Shura.

…and consult them in affairs (of moment). 
Then, when thou hast taken a decision put thy trust in Allah. [Quran 3:159]

[righteous are those] …who conduct their affairs through [shura baynahum] mutual Consultation. [Quran 42:38]

Muslim scholars dispute whether the Quranic injunction for consultation is advisory or mandatory, but it nevertheless remains a divine sanction. Pro-democracy Muslims see it as necessary, and those who fear democratic freedoms and prefer authoritarianism interpret these injunctions as divine suggestions and not divine fiats. The Prophet himself left behind a very important tradition that emphasised the importance of collective and democratic decision making. He said that “the community of Muhammed will never agree upon error.” Consultative governance, therefore, is the preferred form of governance in Islam, and any Muslim who chooses to stay true to his faith sources cannot but prefer a democratic structure over all others to realise the justice and wellbeing promised in Islamic sources.

Conclusion

There is much in Islamic sources and Islamic tradition that is favorable to making democracy the vehicle for delivering the products of Islamic governance, such as social justice, economic welfare, and religious freedoms. I am convinced that Islam is not a barrier to, but instead a facilitator of, democracy, justice, and tolerance in the Muslim world. That said, for that to happen, Muslims must revisit their sources and re-understand them without a bias against things that they erroneously label as Western. Democracy is inherent to Islamic values and Islamic historical experience.

References

Al-Raysuni, Ahmad. Al-Shura: The Quranic Principle of Consultation (London: International Institute of Islamic thought, 2011).

El Fadl, Khaled Abou, et al. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).

Esposito, John L., Mohammed A. Muqtedar Khan, and Jillian Schwedler. “Religion and Politics in the Middle East.” Understanding the Contemporary Middle East (Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000).

Esposito, John L. and John O. Voll. Islam and Democracy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Haykal, M. H. The Life of Muhammad (trans.) Ismael R. Al Faruqi (Indianapolis: NAIT, 1988), pp. 180-83.

Khan, Muqtedar. “Shura and Democracy.” Ijtihad.Org.

Khan, M. A. Muqtedar. Debating Moderate Islam: The Geopolitics of Islam and the West (Salt Lake, Utah, University of Utah Press, 2007).

Khan, Muqtedar Khan. “Islam, Democracy and Islamism after the Counterrevolution in Egypt.” Middle East Policy XXI.1 (2014): 75-86.

Khan, M. A. Muqtedar. “The Islamic States,” in M. Hawkesworth and M. Kogan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Government and Politics, (London: Routledge Press, 2003).

Siddiqui, A. H. The Life of Muhammad (Des Plaines, IL: Library of Islam, 1991).


Show more
0
5

How Madrasas Can Reform their Curriculums to Promote a Broad

Worldview in Place of Extremist Thoughts?

Dr Seraj Ahmad Misbahi

Recent urging of Shaikh of Al-Azhar, Ahmad Al-Tayib for reform in the Islamic education to contain the spread of religious extremism came as a welcome sign of introspection. Significantly this admission of a link between Islamic education and terrorism and the suggestion for change in madrasas curriculum was made in Saudi Arabia, a country that is the source of madrasa text books inspired by its Wahhabi-Salafi ideology that indoctrinate pupils into hate, intolerance and xenophobia. More significantly, it was made at a counter-terrorism conference at Mecca.

This should have stimulated a critical, candid and healthy debate on the curriculums of Islamic studies in madrasas as well as other seminaries and centres of Islamic education. But it seems we Muslims will continue to live in denial. What we need is to critically examine the theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches employed in the study of Islam as a faith, culture, civilization and history in all seats of learning, both of religious and secular nature. Keeping this objective in view, we should objectively and critically debate the text books of theology literature taught in the madrasas. Of course, we also need to critically examine, analyze and overhaul the systems and curriculums adopted in the departments of Islamic studies in secular colleges and universities.

As a pressing need of the time, all references to extremism, exclusivism, supremacism and violent jihadism must be removed from madrasa curricula and replaced by universal messages of Islam fostering global peace, religious harmony and brotherhood of mankind. But more important is the question as to how should we go about re-educating the clerics who control most of our madrasas and are vehemently opposed to any paradigm shift or radical reform in their systems ad curriculums.

After an objective study and rigorous analysis of the mainstream Madrasa curriculum known as Dars-e-Nizami, the conclusion is that Indian madrasas need to be worked upon in the following areas of study in respective subjects which are now included in most Madrasas’ curricula:

Qur’anic Sciences:

In this subject, madrasa students must be given well-reasoned explanation of the so-called militant verses of the Quran, particularly the 24 verses related to jihad or defensive wars fought during the Prophet’s lifetime (Aayat al-Jihad). Students should also be convinced and taught rational arguments and responses to the doubts raised by the orientalists, Islamophobes and western writers about the contents of Quran held objectionable in their views.

However, there must be critical study of all the Qur’anic exegesis (Tafsir) and the classical Arabic Tafsirs (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi, Ibn Kathir, Baidhawi and Jalalain) which are essential part of the traditional Islamic education curriculum. They should be analysed and critically examined in view of the present situations. Special focus must be given on the Indian Ulema’s Tafsir literature in Urdu which play pivotal role in shaping the Indian Muslims’ doctrines and theological worldviews. They are, to name a few, Bayan Ul Quran by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Tafheemul Quran by Syed Abul Ala Maududi, Tadabur-e-Quran By Maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi, Tafsir‑al‑Qur'an Wahu‑wa‑al‑huda wal‑furqan by Syed Ahmed Khan, Tarjuman ul Qur'an by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. It is alarming to note that some Salafi Madrasas in India have incorporated chapters from the foreign radical Quran exegeses such as “Fi Zilal al Qur'an (In the shade of the Qur’an) by Sayid Qutub. It does not augur well for the future generations of Indian madrasa graduates.

Moreover, issues related to Fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence must be in sync with the Quran and should be taught in consonance with the present requirements and changes of the time. An introduction to Modern studies on Qur’anic sciences will help madrasa students to understand different and harmonious dimensions of the universal Qur’anic messages.

Hadith Literature (Prophetic traditions):

An objective, open-minded and critical study of orientalist writings on Hadith and Sirah literature must be carried out in madrasas with an aim to provide the students with clear-cut answers to the questions on hotly debated Hadith contents. The rules of co-relating contradictory or paradoxical Hadith texts and preferring one Hadith over the other should be taught to them so they may have clear viewpoints regarding acceptance and rejection of particular Hadith texts. Assessment of Hadith should always be in a wider and critical perspective in the light of the principles of checking and scrutinising the authenticity of Hadith texts, which are taught in the classical Islamic science of Hadith criticism known as Riwayat and Dirayat. Madrasa students should be taught the rules of hadith criticism in a way that they can rationally address the doubts raised by orinetalists as well as Muslim critical scholars against particular Hadith contents.

Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh)

Madrasas students should be provided with comprehensive study of the background which led to the evaluation of different schools of thought. The philosophy of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) can only be rationally understood by conducting a detailed and critical study of the four schools of thought (Hanafi, Maliki, Sahfa’i and Hanbali). A study of the verses of the Quran which are related to modern jurisprudential (fiqhi) issues must be held in a broader and logical perspective.

Ilm-e- Kalam (Muslim Philosophy)

Use of reason along with revelation should be the prominent feature of Islamic theology propounded in the madrasa curriculums. We should try to comprehend and interpret religious doctrines on rational grounds. In the 21st century, we must put our emphasis on reason along with divine texts. We doo need a rational movement in the theological domain of the Madrasa curricula. Brushing aside theological polemics grounded in the outdated philosophy (qadim ilme-e-kalam), Madrasas students desperately need to be anchored in the Modern Philosophy (jaded ilm-e-kalam) which is taught in many mainstream universities. It will greatly help them in theological discussions and debates on basic principles, doctrines and roots of Islam. The following themes of the subject can be incorporated in the curriculum:

· Origin and development of Qadeem Ilm-e-Kalam with particular reference to Ilm-e- Kalam in India.

· Modern Philosophy which is taught in mainstream universities and is popularly known in madrasa circles as jadeed ilm-e-kalam

· Basic issues and problems discussed under Ilm-e-Kalam.

· Dissent in Islam: Theological, Ideological, Political, Religious and Social causes.

· The Emergence of Mutazilitie, Asharites, Maturidites Qadrites, Jabrites, Murjites.

· The ideologies of modern Kharjites and other extremist cults in the Muslims world; their theological refutation and rational retort to them.

Comparative Religions

Madrasa students must be introduced to all world religions like Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and modern religious currents and spectrums. They should also be made aware of modern approaches to study religions as well as different and myriad interpretations of religion. A comparative study of major religions and their holy scriptures will broaden their worldview and mental horizons. A study of reform movements in Islam and other religions will help them develop scientific and progressive temperament for Islamic reformation.

Islamic Finance

In view of the wider acceptance of the Islamic banking systems, madrasa students should also be taught the theories and concepts of Islamic finance. They should be enlightened on the functionalities of Islamic financial institutions. It is deeply felt that the importance of this subject in Madrasas will increase when the governments will allow their banks to start Islamic banking system. If madrasa students are taught the Islamic principles of investment and their application in the present financial market, they will avail job opportunities available in the market. Thus, they will come out of their narrowed zone of shackled thinking.

Besides the radical change and paradigm shift in the existing madrasa curriculum, modern and mainstream sciences and all lawful academic pursuits should be given good space in the curriculum. At least essential secular subjects such as history, geography, sociology, economics, physics and political science and administration must be taught to the madrasa students to broaden their worldview. It would be wonderful if Madrasa students are also anchored in the soft behavioural skills to groom and upgrade their personality.

SerajAhmad Misbahi is a classical Islamic scholar. He has graduated from a leading Islamic seminary of India, Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Mubarakpur (Azamgarh, U.P.), acquired Diploma in Arabic. He has also graduated from Maulana Azad National Urdu University and his M. A. in language and humanities from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

Show more
0
5