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https://avalanches.com/in/delhi_catholic_university_of_de_la_salle_manado_33184_01_03_2020

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF DE LA SALLE MANADO

Article published by

Anike Mararu from Indonesia Catholic Delasalle University of Manado

Recognize Biological Changes in the elderly and Tips for maintaining the health of the elderly

Aging is a natural process that will be experienced by all humans which is characterized by a decrease in the capacity and function of body tissue along with age. Changes experienced by the body include a variety of things including changes in the integumentary system, respiratory system changes in the musculoskletal system and even changes in the brain in carrying out its functions.

1. Change in the integument system

As we get older the skin will lose elasticity so it will sag and wrinkles, there are black spots and thickening of keratin / keratosis.

2. Changes in the head and neck

In the eyes there will be decreased visual function and susceptibility to cataracts, decreased hearing and olfactory function, ears and nose appear larger, decreased sense of taste so that the elderly are vulnerable to diabetes

3. Changes in the respiratory system

In the elderly there is a decrease in respiratory muscle mass or strength

4. Changes in the Cardiovascular System

In the elderly there is a decrease and swelling of the heart muscle. Usually the peripheral pulse or lower extremity pulse is weaker than the upper external pulse.

5. Gastrointestinal and Abdomen Changes

Elderly will lose teeth so that food intolerance, more frequent bowel movements, nausea and vomiting and more often full.

6. Changes in the Reproductive System

In women there is a decrease in mucous membranes / eggs which is often known as menopause while in men the reproductive function is still good until the age of 90 years. For breast changes in women there will be slackening and shrinking while in men breast enlargement will occur.

7. Changes in the Urinary System

In men there will be an enlarged prostate resulting in urinary retention and an inability to control urine output while in women there is a decrease in muscle strength resulting in an inability to control urine output.

8. Changes in the Musculoskeletal System

In old age the bones become more fragile and thin so that osteoporosis is possible. This condition increases the risk of fractures. Not only that in the elderly ranges occur bending / kyphosis, impaired mobilization, and femur in the neck.

9. Changes to the Brain and Nervous System

Increasing age there is a decrease in nerve size, Parkinson's / tremor, decreased body reflexes and changes in sleep quality. in the elderly cells can occur damage to the brain and nerves so that it can cause a condition known as dementia.

Tips for Maintaining the Health of the Elderly

Elderly more vulnerable to health problems for that must know tips or how to maintain the health of the elderly to keep it running well and healthy.

1. Sports

The sport referred to here is mild exercise that is walking casually according to physical abilities in regulating steps and distance so that the immune system can be stable and do not forget to also consume milk and vitamin D to maintain bone health

2. Get enough rest

To keep the body healthy at an advanced age, allow adequate rest. Rest in a day for at least 7-8 hours. Adequate rest can improve body cells, maintain the body's immune system to remain stable and avoid stress.

3. keep your diet

Eat a diet that is rich in fiber, low in fat, and cholesterol free. Frequency of eating 4x a day with small portions and maintaining a diet can prevent obesity and diabetes. Do not forget to avoid eating fast food, and alcohol and smoking.

4. Keep reading

Why reading is important in maintaining the health of the elderly because reading can reduce the risk of memory loss such as Alzheimer's or dementia.

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