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Hacking is the activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer system or a network to exploit the security to gain access to personal data or business data. An example of computer hacking can be: using a password cracking algorithm to gain access to a computer system.

Who is a Hacker?

A Hacker is a person who finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems and/or networks to gain access. Hackers are usually skilled computer programmers with knowledge of computer security.

Types of Hackers

Hackers are classified according to the intent of their actions. The following list classifies types of hackers according to their intent: White hat hacker

Ethical Hacker (White hat): A security hacker who gains access to systems with a view to fix the identified weaknesses. They may also perform penetration Testing and vulnerability assessments.

Cracker (Black hat): A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer systems for personal gain. The intent is usually to steal corporate data, violate privacy rights, transfer funds from bank accounts etc.

Grey hat: A hacker who is in between ethical and black hat hackers. He/she breaks into computer systems without authority with a view to identify weaknesses and reveal them to the system owner.

Script kiddies: A non-skilled person who gains access to computer systems using already made tools.

Hacktivist: A hacker who use hacking to send social, religious, and political, etc. messages. This is usually done by hijacking websites and leaving the message on the hijacked website.

Phreaker: A hacker who identifies and exploits weaknesses in telephones instead of computers.

State-sponsored hackers/ Nation-State: actors aggressively target and gain persistent access to public and private sector networks to compromise, steal, change, or destroy information. They may be part of a state apparatus or receive direction, funding, or technical assistance from a nation-state.

Type of Cybercrime

The following list presents the common types of cybercrimes:

Computer Fraud: Intentional deception for personal gain via the use of computer systems.

Privacy violation: Exposing personal information such as email addresses, phone number, account details, etc. on social media, hacking a website, etc.

Identity Theft: Stealing personal information from somebody and impersonating that person.

Sharing copyrighted files/information: This involves distributing copyright protected files such as eBooks and computer programs etc.

Electronic funds transfer: This involves gaining an un-authorized access to bank computer networks and making illegal fund transfers.

Electronic money laundering: This involves the use of the computer to launder money.

ATM Fraud: This involves intercepting ATM card details such as account number and PIN numbers. These details are then used to withdraw funds from the intercepted accounts.

Denial of Service Attacks: This involves the use of computers in multiple locations to attack servers with a view of shutting them down.

Spam: Sending unauthorized emails. These emails usually contain advertisements.

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical Hacking is identifying weakness in computer systems and/or computer networks and coming with countermeasures that protect the weaknesses. Ethical hackers must abide by the following rules.

Get written permission from the owner of the computer system and/or computer network before hacking.

Protect the privacy of the organization been hacked.

Transparently report all the identified weaknesses in the computer system to the organization.

Inform hardware and software vendors of the identified weaknesses.

Why Ethical Hacking?

Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization. Keeping information secure can protect an organization’s image and save an organization a lot of money.

Fake hacking can lead to loss of business for organizations that deal in finance such as PayPal. Ethical hacking puts them a step ahead of the cyber criminals who would otherwise lead to loss of business.

Legality of Ethical Hacking

Ethical Hacking is legal if the hacker abides by the rules stipulated in the above section on the definition of ethical hacking. The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) provides a certification program that tests individual’s skills. Those who pass the examination are awarded with certificates. The certificates are supposed to be renewed after some time.

By: Kennedy Njau

Email: [email protected]

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Just about 7months to election, as usual, Kenya leaders are struggling to persuade voters, promise all goodies they have for Kenyans. The raced is already termed as a two horse race. To sartify these allegations, I stole a poll conducted online, in central and Nairobi provinces. The poll only considered two horses Raila and William Ruto. In Nairobi, about 38000 voters were interviewed, through direct phone call, about 23468 favored Raila, while 14532 in favor of Ruto, in central about 40500 were interviewed, where Ruto lead with 26740, Raila with 13760. In total Ruto scoring 41272(52.58%), Raila 37228(47.42%).


The year 2022, is a political year. Although Kenyans ushered this year with hope, they should expect political struggle and rival between UDA and ODM.


Other ways to apologize

  1. Cook them their favorite foods
  2. Take them traveling
  3. Buy them gifts they would love


Gone are the days

Where the houses we live in

The air we breath

Peace and friendship

Was the language we speak

Love was the bond that assured

Our posterity and greeting was so

Special and powerful shared gift

Was a command and obligation

To every boy when girls pride was so

Adored,her priority,dignity respected

At all cost girls would play with boys

With no watch of there parents unlike today

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Sotik technical training institute is located in sotik constituency,

It is along sotik,ndanai road and it is 2 km from makutano junction

Course offered

  1. iCT
  2. Plumbing
  3. Building
  4. Automotive
  5. Food & beverages
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It all started when my parents lacked money to pay for my school fees and I was forced to look for at least a work instead of staying idle at home. I Remember one day I was walking down the street and saw a m


It all started when my parents lacked money to pay for my school fees and I was forced to look for at least a work instead of staying idle at home. I Remember one day I was walking down the street and sasa


It all started with, " You know when we went to America to fight for the respect of Kenya in 2024, I was a very young man with the spirit of a warrior ready to show his skill. Me and my four friends; one from Nairobi, another from Nakuru called Sira, and two of my brothers from the coast, are masters in the art of storytelling. We did not have much money but we had enough to survive in the foreign land.


Keratoconus is an eye disease that influences the design of the cornea, bringing about loss of vision.

Keratoconus happens in roughly one out of 2,000 people, ordinarily starting in adolescence and advancing into the mid-30s.

Beginning phases can be treated with glasses, however with movement of the sickness into late adolescence and early adulthood, corneal transplantation might be expected to reestablish sight. Corneal collagen cross-connecting is a technique intended to stop the movement of keratoconus or dial i back. Keratoconus is a main source of corneal transplantation in the United States.

There is no known anticipation for keratoconus.

What is keratoconus?

Keratoconus is described by the diminishing of the cornea and inconsistencies of the cornea's surface. The cornea is the unmistakable, external layer at the front of your eye. The center layer is the thickest piece of the cornea, generally comprised of water and a protein called collagen. Collagen makes the cornea solid and adaptable, and helps keep its customary, round shape. This solid cornea shines light so you can see plainly. With keratoconus, the cornea diminishes and swells into a sporadic cone shape, bringing about vision misfortune.

Keratoconus by and large starts at pubescence and advances into the mid-30s. It is basically impossible to foresee how rapidly the illness will advance, or then again in the event that it will advance by any means. Keratoconus regularly influences the two eyes, with one being more seriously influenced than the other.

What causes keratoconus?

In spite of the fact that keratoconus has been read for quite a long time, it remains inadequately comprehended. The conclusive reason for keratoconus is obscure, however it is accepted that the inclination to foster the sickness is available upon entering the world. A typical finding in keratoconus is the deficiency of collagen in the cornea. This might be brought about by some irregularity among creation and annihilation of the corneal tissue by the corneal cells.

What are the danger factors for keratoconus?

The next may expand the danger of creating keratoconus:

Hereditary qualities. Patients with a family background of keratoconus or with specific foundational messes, for example, Down condition, are at a higher danger of creating keratoconus.

Ongoing eye irritation. Consistent irritation from sensitivities or aggravations can add to the obliteration of corneal tissue that might bring about creating keratoconus.Eye scouring. Ongoing eye scouring is related with creating keratoconus. It might likewise be a danger factor for infection movement. Age. Keratoconus is frequently found in the high school years. For the most part, youthful patients with cutting edge keratoconus are bound to require some type of careful intercession as the infection advances.

What are the side effects of keratoconus?

Numerous keratoconus patients are uninformed they have the sickness. The most punctual indication is a slight obscuring of vision or logically helpless vision that isn't effortlessly amended.

Different side effects of keratoconus include:

Glare and coronas around lights

Trouble seeing around evening time

Eye bothering or migraines related with eye torment

Expanded affectability to brilliant light

Unexpected declining or obfuscating of vision

How is keratoconus analyzed?

Notwithstanding a total clinical history and eye test, your eye care proficient may play out the accompanying tests to analyze keratoconus:

Corneal geology. This is the most dependable way of diagnosing early keratoconus and follow its movement. An automated picture is taken that makes a guide of the bend of the cornea.

Cut light test. This assessment of the cornea can assist with identifying irregularities in the external and center layers of the cornea.

Pachymetry. This test is utilized to quantify the most slender spaces of the cornea.

How is keratoconus treated?

Treatment of keratoconus centers around revision of vision and relies upon the phase of the infection.

Beginning phases

Current treatment for keratoconus remembers glasses for the soonest stages to treat partial blindness and astigmatism. As keratoconus advances and declines, glasses are presently not equipped for giving clear vision, and patients need to wear a contact focal point, typically a hard contact focal point.

Moderate Stages

Moderate keratoconus can be treated by corneal collagen cross-connecting. This one-time, in-office methodology includes the utilization of a nutrient B answer for the eye, which is then actuated by bright light for around 30 minutes or less. The arrangement causes new collagen bonds to frame, recuperating and saving a portion of the cornea's solidarity and shape.

While the treatment can't make the cornea altogether typical once more, it can hold vision back from deteriorating and, sometimes, may further develop vision. The technique might require the expulsion of the slim external layer of the cornea (epithelium) to permit the riboflavin to all the more effectively enter the corneal tissue.

Cross-connecting was supported as a treatment for keratoconus by the FDA in April 2016, after clinical preliminaries showed that it halted or created a gentle inversion in protruding of the cornea inside three to a year after the strategy.

Progressed Stages

Corneal ring. With extreme keratoconus, a standard contact focal point might turn out to be too awkward to even consider wearing. Intacs are implantable, plastic, C-molded rings that are utilized to smooth the outer layer of the cornea, permitting further developed vision. They may likewise permit a superior contact focal point fit. The system requires around 15 minutes.

Corneal transfer. In a corneal transfer, a benefactor cornea replaces the patient's harmed cornea. Corneal transfers are frequently performed on an outpatient premise and take about an hour to finish. Vision typically stay hazy for around three to a half year after the transfer, and medicine should be taken to keep away from relocate dismissal. In practically all cases, glasses or a contact focal point are important to give the most clear vision after relocate a medical procedure.

Would keratoconus be able to be forestalled?

There is no known avoidance for keratoconus.

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: Kenyan child killer escapes from police custody

  • By Emmanuel Igunza
  • BBC News, Nairobi

14 October 2021



Image caption,

Masten Wanjala confessed to drugging and killing more than 10 children

A man who confessed to killing more than 10 children in Kenya has escaped from police cells in Nairobi.

Masten Wanjala was due to appear in court on Wednesday over the murders of at least 14 boys in the capital, and areas of eastern and western Kenya.

Police say they noticed he had disappeared during the morning roll call.

He was being detained during police investigations into the series of child killings that shocked the nation.

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At a certain point in 2016, Raila Odinga had sustained attacks against the jubilee government by unleashing dossiers at press conferences at his Capitol Hill offices.

But the dossiers would hit a crescendo when he accused President Kenyatta of diverting public water from Murang’a to their vast Northlands Estate in Ruiru through the taxpayer-funded Northern Water Collector Tunnel, sparking a barrage of insults and rebuttals from the then jubilee henchmen now-turned UDA worship crew.

The next time he was scheduled to hold a press conference, a visibly agitated President, while addressing a Jubilee Delegates’ Conference at Bomas, preempted what Raila was set to bring to public limelight: the sleaze surrounding the construction of Itare Dam.

It was then that Raila sensationally claimed that his phone conversations were being tapped and movements trailed.

The incessant attacks would later force the president and his entourage to troop to his Mt. Kenya backyard and beg his kinsmen to shield him from a Muguruki – Raila – who had him in a chokehold.

These, among other ethnic clarion calls, would ignite smoldering fires in the bellies of Mt. Kenya voters, coming out en masse to vote, ostensibly, against Raila Odinga, and not for their man.

So, what exactly are the prospects of Raila Odinga in Mt. Kenya?

At any given point, history has shown that a majority of people from Mt. Kenya will hate Raila Odinga. On any side – whether in opposition or government – he will remain an omnipresent evil in their eyes.

In opposition, he was the bogeyman for 'sabotaging' the economy. And despite the economy nosediving pre-2018 due to Jubilee's voodoo economics, Uhuru remained the darling of the Kikuyu.

And now in government, by virtue of the handshake, the bogeyman suddenly ceased to exist. But because their hate for Raila is constant, the man who aided the extermination of the bogeyman – read Uhuru – effectively became yet another moving symbol of hate in Mt. Kenya.

But for Raila Odinga and his retinue, there is a deep sense of realization that to win Kenya’s presidency, you need a cocktail of support: the masses, corporate entities, diplomatic cops and government machinery.

Previously, Raila enjoyed the support of the former but dismally performed in courting the latter. To them, the time is nigh for a corrective surgery.

Often, it was fashionable for Raila to flash the ‘defendant of the downtrodden’ card. He has carried this tag for the general good of the public but to his personal detriment, costing him the presidency on the account of his radical approach to governance.

The truth is, in the long run, the business of politics is power. Yet, that power seems to abhor the idealism of leftist politics but cherishes the idea of pragmatic politics.

For the longest time, Raila Odinga has won the elections and he has done so without the support of Mt. Kenya. Unfortunately, he has been denied victory all through.

And now United Democratic Alliance (UDA) seems to revel, although pretentiously, in the glory of being the defendants of the rights of the people not knowing that Raila has been over that valley, and has seen those dry bones.

Fundamentally, the question that many people grapple with is, why is Raila Odinga placing so much premium on Mt. Kenya at the expense of his original support base?

I will attempt to answer in two-fold.

For the first time, Mt. Kenya is finding itself at a crossroads at a very critical juncture of our history: 2022 presidential elections.

With the lack of a formidable presidential candidate and a waning presidency of their son, the uncertainty of tomorrow is placing them on the menu when they are used to being at the table.

Effectively, Mt. Kenya is up for grabs!

But since William Ruto seems to be greatly attached to Mt. Kenya commoners, Raila Odinga has chosen to close ranks with the Mt. Kenya elite in a spectacular fulfilment of the phrase: If they go low, we go high! And if they go high, we go higher!

In short, Raila does not need the votes of Mt. Kenya commoners to win elections; he has done so numerously without them.

He only needs the backing of Mt. Kenya cabal to secure victory. For Raila Odinga and his circle, the presidency is the end, and the means will justify itself. Once they get there, they will explain how they got there.

Yet, in the fullness of time, won’t Mt. Kenyans in the lower cadres of the food chain be fed with a steady diet of hate and align themselves at the right time?

Big question.

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Komarock Estate, off Kangundo Road, Nairobi

Komarock Heights is a modern development with all the amenities to support the comfort and lifestyle of its residents. Comprising 1272 beautifully designed apartments nestled within Komarock Estate, the development will be implemented in 3 phases. Phase 1 comprises 480 residential apartments with a mix of 2 and 3 bedroomed apartments in 20 blocks.

In the vicinity of Komarock Heights is K-Mall, Eastlands’ brand new mall and also a development of HFDI. The mall will provide residents convenient access to supermarkets, banks, restaurants, hospitals and other services.

Key Features

  • 2 and 3 bedroomed apartments
  • Separate dining area
  • En-suite master bedroom
  • Common shower and separate WC
  • All bedrooms with built-in wardrobes
  • Dhobi areas with enclosed gas cylinder chambers
  • Lifts to all floors
  • Solar water provision
  • Handicap accessible units
  • Backup water supply from a borehole
  • Gated compound with controlled single entry and exit for enhanced security
  • Ample green landscaped areas with children’s playground


2 bedroomed 92 sqm - was KShs. 6,100,000, now KShs. 5,800,000

3 bedroomed 113 sqm - was KShs. 7,100,000, now KShs. 6,800,000

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HF Group is regulated as a Non – Operating Holding Company by the Central Bank of Kenya

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Sameta High School 2020/2021 KCSE Ranking And Results

Sameta boys high school is a learning institution based in Kisii county. The school is located in Gucha Sub-County, Sameta only accommodates boys.

Over the past years, the school has been referred to as a sleeping giant by local villagers. But last year Sameta recorded a gradual comeback by recording a mean score of 5.3030. 25 students managed to score a C+ and above and got a direct entry to university.

This year the school has recorded a mean score of 5.580 and 62 students scored a grade C+ and above. It is the leading in the whole sub-county. Sameta high managed to outshine their greatest rivals Nyamagwa boys and girls and others like Sameta Mixed Secondary.

Last year Sameta was the only School that recorded an A grade in the entire Gucha sub-county. According to the standard newspaper, the top boy in the school was ranked position 116 nationwide. In an interview with the school principal, Kenaz Rakiro said there was maximum corporation among teachers and students. He also added that the students showed high standards of discipline since his debut in 2018.

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5 Reasons Why President Uhuru Kenyatta Should Rule Kenya For Another 10 Years

His Excellency President Uhuru Kenyatta has been the Kenyan President since 2013 after he was handed over power by his predecessor Emilio Mwai Kibaki. His term currently ends in 2022 which is now under 12 months from now. Although he is seeking to retire from office next year, I think he should be added another 10 years mainly because of the following.1. To Finalize the Universal Health care program

His Excellency should be allowed to finalize the universal healthcare program which he started back in 2018. In those counties where this program has been launched, many people have benefited through the provision of free treatment by the government. If this program is implemented nationwide, then many Kenyan citizens who cannot afford private hospitals will benefit most.

2. Finalize the SGR construction

His Excellency had a good idea of launching the standard gauge railway in the country to replace the old system which was used since the colonial period. This has eased the transportation of goods and passengers from one point to the other.

3. Achieve the goal of free education in Kenya

Since its implementation in Kenya, many school children have benefited from free education at both primary and secondary levels. If President Uhuru Kenyatta runs his term for another 10 years, then no child will miss school, and that one I can guarantee you.

4. Finalize the transition to Huduma number

In 2019, President Kenyatta ordered the interior ministry which is led by Dr. Fred Matiang'i to come up with the Huduma registration system which was to replace the ID cards as from 12 December this year. But not all Kenyans have received their cards. If Uhuru is to be added to another term, he will speed up the exercise.

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