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Hacking is the activity of identifying weaknesses in a computer system or a network to exploit the security to gain access to personal data or business data. An example of computer hacking can be: using a password cracking algorithm to gain access to a computer system.
Who is a Hacker?
A Hacker is a person who finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems and/or networks to gain access. Hackers are usually skilled computer programmers with knowledge of computer security.
Types of Hackers
Hackers are classified according to the intent of their actions. The following list classifies types of hackers according to their intent: White hat hacker
Ethical Hacker (White hat): A security hacker who gains access to systems with a view to fix the identified weaknesses. They may also perform penetration Testing and vulnerability assessments.
Cracker (Black hat): A hacker who gains unauthorized access to computer systems for personal gain. The intent is usually to steal corporate data, violate privacy rights, transfer funds from bank accounts etc.
Grey hat: A hacker who is in between ethical and black hat hackers. He/she breaks into computer systems without authority with a view to identify weaknesses and reveal them to the system owner.
Script kiddies: A non-skilled person who gains access to computer systems using already made tools.
Hacktivist: A hacker who use hacking to send social, religious, and political, etc. messages. This is usually done by hijacking websites and leaving the message on the hijacked website.
Phreaker: A hacker who identifies and exploits weaknesses in telephones instead of computers.
State-sponsored hackers/ Nation-State: actors aggressively target and gain persistent access to public and private sector networks to compromise, steal, change, or destroy information. They may be part of a state apparatus or receive direction, funding, or technical assistance from a nation-state.
Type of Cybercrime
The following list presents the common types of cybercrimes:
Computer Fraud: Intentional deception for personal gain via the use of computer systems.
Privacy violation: Exposing personal information such as email addresses, phone number, account details, etc. on social media, hacking a website, etc.
Identity Theft: Stealing personal information from somebody and impersonating that person.
Sharing copyrighted files/information: This involves distributing copyright protected files such as eBooks and computer programs etc.
Electronic funds transfer: This involves gaining an un-authorized access to bank computer networks and making illegal fund transfers.
Electronic money laundering: This involves the use of the computer to launder money.
ATM Fraud: This involves intercepting ATM card details such as account number and PIN numbers. These details are then used to withdraw funds from the intercepted accounts.
Denial of Service Attacks: This involves the use of computers in multiple locations to attack servers with a view of shutting them down.
Spam: Sending unauthorized emails. These emails usually contain advertisements.
What is Ethical Hacking?
Ethical Hacking is identifying weakness in computer systems and/or computer networks and coming with countermeasures that protect the weaknesses. Ethical hackers must abide by the following rules.
Get written permission from the owner of the computer system and/or computer network before hacking.
Protect the privacy of the organization been hacked.
Transparently report all the identified weaknesses in the computer system to the organization.
Inform hardware and software vendors of the identified weaknesses.
Why Ethical Hacking?
Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organization. Keeping information secure can protect an organization’s image and save an organization a lot of money.
Fake hacking can lead to loss of business for organizations that deal in finance such as PayPal. Ethical hacking puts them a step ahead of the cyber criminals who would otherwise lead to loss of business.
Legality of Ethical Hacking
Ethical Hacking is legal if the hacker abides by the rules stipulated in the above section on the definition of ethical hacking. The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) provides a certification program that tests individual’s skills. Those who pass the examination are awarded with certificates. The certificates are supposed to be renewed after some time.
By: Kennedy Njau
Email: [email protected]
Just about 7months to election, as usual, Kenya leaders are struggling to persuade voters, promise all goodies they have for Kenyans. The raced is already termed as a two horse race. To sartify these allegations, I stole a poll conducted online, in central and Nairobi provinces. The poll only considered two horses Raila and William Ruto. In Nairobi, about 38000 voters were interviewed, through direct phone call, about 23468 favored Raila, while 14532 in favor of Ruto, in central about 40500 were interviewed, where Ruto lead with 26740, Raila with 13760. In total Ruto scoring 41272(52.58%), Raila 37228(47.42%).
The year 2022, is a political year. Although Kenyans ushered this year with hope, they should expect political struggle and rival between UDA and ODM.
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Other ways to apologize
- Cook them their favorite foods
- Take them traveling
- Buy them gifts they would love
GONE ARE THE DAYS
Gone are the days
Where the houses we live in
The air we breath
Peace and friendship
Was the language we speak
Love was the bond that assured
Our posterity and greeting was so
Special and powerful shared gift
Was a command and obligation
To every boy when girls pride was so
Adored,her priority,dignity respected
At all cost girls would play with boys
With no watch of there parents unlike today
Sotik technical training institute is located in sotik constituency,
It is along sotik,ndanai road and it is 2 km from makutano junction
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As humans, we love power. It is appealing, but very addictive. Those in the know, never falter to caution that "power corrupts, but absolute power corrupts absolutely.."
Power gets into your head, makes you heady, and you rarely listen to voices of reason, or take advice from those in the lower rungs of power, when you stray, and abuse those powers vested in you. In numerous, cases those who abuse power, and allow it to corrupt them absolutely, began their stint in power as sheep, but the trappings, and allurement of power, changed them into ravenous wolves.
History is bloated with records of leaders who failed to contain themselves, allowed the tentacles of power to strangle, and corrupt their consciences, turning them into power-hungry oligarchs, who became a nemesis to those under their authority.
As the governed, we at times create the Frankenstein monster in leaders, regarding, hailing them as gods.
Lesson: Never venerate, elevate leaders into godly status...lest they turn into dangerous autocrats..
I'm just a simple man..a run-off-the- mill guy, from the tiny kingdom of Swaziland, ruled by an absolute Monarch, King Mswati III. I am a commoner, who happens to be a writer, and following my childhood passion of writing..
I'm sorry, but I abhor any form of injustice, irrespective from whom it comes from - be it from a friend, relative, ruling authorities, etc. I am an advocate, a proponent, a protagonist of peace, and harmony. I will defend with my back against the wall, the underprivileged, the oppressed, and those whose voices are not heard as they cry for justice.
What is happening in this hell-hole of a country..this animal farm, led by oligarchs who only care about power, money and oppressing the people who reluctantly sponsor their opulent lifestyles, is diabolical. It has no place in a modern society, and belongs in medieval times.
The Living God created us all equal, and it is Him and Him alone, we should worship..not mortal man, who was taken from the dust and shall return to dust.
When the Living and Loving God created Man, He commanded, "Subjue the Earth.." He never commanded Man to subdue Man, oppressing him, like what leaders of this wretched country are doing to such a peace loving people, as Swazis.
I hear there is a coming dialogue which has the propensity to make or break our political future. I believe in dialogue.
I believe that when in conflict, human decency demands that we sit down and thrash out our differences, agree to disagree, and ferociously work on reaching a consensus.
I've more or less, studied the mentality of this government, and its leaders. What I have no doubts about is that there is just no way they will negotiate or dialogue in good faith. They have been in power for more than a jubilee of years. They know the perks and benefits of being in power. We all know what power does. It corrupts...
When you're in power, you feel like a god..you command those under you to jump..and they eagerly ask, "how high your Honour".
The wise say, "power corrupts, absolute power corrupts.. ABSOLUTELY"
It remains to be seen if change will finally come in my country..but the will of the people, and good shall triumph over evil in the end...