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https://avalanches.com/mt/sliema_internal_audit_amp_investigations_department_office_of_the_prime_min401237_10_06_2020
https://avalanches.com/mt/sliema_internal_audit_amp_investigations_department_office_of_the_prime_min401237_10_06_2020
https://avalanches.com/mt/sliema_internal_audit_amp_investigations_department_office_of_the_prime_min401237_10_06_2020
https://avalanches.com/mt/sliema_internal_audit_amp_investigations_department_office_of_the_prime_min401237_10_06_2020
https://avalanches.com/mt/sliema_internal_audit_amp_investigations_department_office_of_the_prime_min401237_10_06_2020

I am Ahmad Aziz Maltese national by birth automatically under the laws of Malta.I only have single citizenship Maltese.I was born in Sliema Malta dated 1 November 1983.I grow up in Lahore Pakistan.I belong to Tarar family.Dated 31 December 2011, I joined Ministry of foreign affairs Malta as career diplomat in salary scale 3,I remained Malta's first resident envoy to Pakistan,Iran,Bangladesh,Sri Lanka and UAE.Dated 31 December 2014 European external action service EEAS exchanged my permanent diplomatic employment with EEAS,now I have permanent diplomatic employment with European external action service EEAS and with Ministry of foreign affairs Malta as envoy.Government of Malta and European external action service EEAS did not paid my salaries from 31 December 2011 till today because I am Muslim and I have permanent diplomatic employment.Now I am permanently resident at Dingli mans flat 6,Dingli street Sliema Malta.I am serving as envoy government of Malta at Ministry of foreign affairs Malta and envoy European external action service EEAS at headquarters of the European external action service EEAS.During my appointment in Pakistan government of Malta asked government of Pakistan to arrest Mr Ahmad Aziz envoy government of Malta because they have withdrawn my appointment as envoy government of Malta to Pakistan etc but this was not true.Pakistani authorities arrested me in Pakistan and send me to jail.I was brought before the Pakistani trial court and Pakistani trial court accquited me.

I have a wife one daughter and one son they live in Pakistan according to the law my children's are Maltese national by birth and my wife has right of freedom of movement in Malta.

Dated 13 April 2018 around 12:00 night Gulzar Dar PTI political party Pakistan terrorist wing head together with Punjab police officers, along with his son,His brother,along with ISI Pakistan,MI5 UK,INDIAN RAW,pakistan army officers and near 35 unknown terrorists entered force fully into office of envoy government of Malta and office of the envoy European external action service to Pakistan etc 342M sabzazar scheme Multan Road Lahore Pakistan with weapons,they started beating me,they did gang roberry,they kidnapped me for money together with police and together with Pakistani army etc.Police is not registering FIR against criminals as I have already filed several complaints to government of Pakistan,government of Malta and EEAS etc because eeas and ministry of foreign affairs Malta is responsible issues related to their permanent employees,I have also send several complaints to Ministry of interior Pakistan and National human rights commission Pakistan but no ONE takes action against terrorists.These kidnappers also harrased me to resigned from my permanent diplomatic employment with European external action service EEAS and with Ministry of foreign affairs Malta.I have permanent diplomatic employment with Ministry of foreign affairs Malta and with European external action service EEAS as envoy.Dated 3 may 2018 when I arrived at the Malta international airport from Pakistan. Maltese police arrested me at the Malta international airport.From Luqa airport, police took me to floriana police headquarters.I was informed by the police that they have arrested me under the allegations of abusing of authority and breach of duties as permanent public officer I am suspended but in reality I am never suspended from my permanent diplomatic employment.I explained the police that I am already acquitted by the honourable Pakistani trial court with same allegations but police decided to continue proceedings even after matter is double jeopardy and time barred and Maltese police has no jurisdiction to start criminal proceedings against me in Malta because alleged offences were committed in Pakistan and I was acquitted by the honourable Pakistani trial court.Alleged offences are not the category of international crimes.Police or court may not investigate any other allegations which were not informed by the police during arrest.To investigate any other allegations is breach of the article 39 constitution of Malta.I was in the Maltese jail and media published news against me with out taking my point of view.I was granted bail after around 3 months.I requested the media to publish my reply in the media but media refused to published my reply for courept motives.When I was in jail government of Malta started CIVIL proceedings against me with the same allegations I am facing a criminal case against me in Malta, government of Malta has breached article 6 of ECHR and article 39 constitution of Malta to start CIVIL proceedings against me, because in Malta right of silence is constitutional right.Allegations sheet submitted by the police before the court in Malta is breach of article 360(2) of criminal code Malta because allegation sheet does not show any place of alleged offences,allegation sheet does not show any time and date of alleged offences.According to law criminal action should be dismissed and may not be prosecuted.police has violated article 535 till article 538 of criminal code Malta because their is no complaint or information against me to start criminal proceedings against me in Malta.Malta has no jurisdiction to start criminal together with civil proceedings against me in Malta because alleged offences were committed in Pakistan and alleged offences are not the category of international crimes and Malta has no jurisdiction to start criminal proceedings together with civil proceedings against me in Malta. According to Criminal code Malta and according to constitution of Malta matter is double jeopardy and time barred.Malta is also breaching article 401 criminal code Malta together with ARTICLE 6 of ECHR and article 39 constitution of Malta right of fair hearing on reasonable time.Maltese police started investigation against me in July 2015.

Violation of right of silence to file civil action when criminal proceedings are going on with same facts is breach of article 6 ECHR and breach of article 39 constitution of Malta

The right to remain silent and not to incriminate oneself under Article 6(1)prevents the prosecution from obtaining evidence

by defying the will of the accused not to testify against himself.Accused was interrogated with out the presence of the advocate,when police informed the accused that accused is arrested in the allegations of abusing of authority and breach of duties that as Permanent public officer accused is suspended but continue his employment,police started questioning without the presence of lawyer in the case the Police vs Ahmad Aziz.During interrogation police harrased and pressurised the accused to accept allegations against him other wise accused may face 9 years imprisonment. This kind of Police behaviour during interrogation is clear proof of the violation of ECHR convention.

Accused had filled complaint before the

Internal Audit & Investigations Department office of the Prime minister Malta against Ministry of foreign affairs Malta for the non provision of accused salaries,police produced testimony of officer from Internal Audit & Investigations Department against accused in the case the Police vs Ahmad Aziz in the court of Dr Donatella Frendo Dimech pointing out that such a recorded testimony impinged upon accused right to silence.

To start criminal proceedings against accused on the emails submitted by the accused himself and to use these emails in criminal proceedings against accused is a breach of Right of silence of accused.Police did not handed over to the accused the copy of video recording of accused questioning and AG Malta submitted transcript of video recording to the court this is breach of Right of fair hearing of accused.Identity Malta attested alleged forged documents on the orders of Magistrate Dr Donatella Frendo Dimech it is violation of Right of fair hearing when alleged forged documents are only photocopies and does not exist,Court,police or plaintiff director public registry Malta do not have any original alleged forged documents so how may they certified photocopies of alleged forged documents when their is no original forged documents.I have to sign twice a day in Sliema police station and I can not leave Malta because court has kept my Maltese passport.I can not leave house before morning 7 and after 10 night.

Ahmad Aziz

Dingli mans flat 6

Dingli street Sliema Malta

Cell & WhatsApp 0035677087438

www.facebook.com/ahmadazizmalta

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106
Other News Malta


AFRICA ON THE PATH TO AN INCLUSSIVE TRANSFORMATION

WE ARE IN NO WHERE CLOSE TO WHERE WE SHOULD BE AS AFRICAN.


WHAT IS HOLDING US BACK AS A AFRICAN NATION IN TERM OF DEVELOPMENT IS NOT VERY FER FECHT FROM OUR LESDERSHIP THAT IS LACKING VISION, INTEGRITY, HONESTY AND PATRIOTISM.

WE MUST BEGIN TO DO THING DIFFERENTLY IF WE MUST LIVE OUR TRUE POTENTIAL AS A PEOPLE

AFRICA, CERTAINLY HAS THE POTENTIAL FOR A SUPER POWER. BUT THE LEADERSHIP IS STILL HOLDING US BACK FROM WHERE WE OUGHT TO BE.

.


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19

Who's leading in the battleground states?

At the moment, polls in the battleground states look good for Mr Biden - although the margins have tightened in recent days.

He appears to be ahead in Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin - three industrial states his Republican rival won by margins of less than 1% to clinch victory in 2016.

Latest polling averages in battleground states


Click a column header to sort the table by that column in ascending or descending order

State

BIDEN

TRUMP

Who won in 2016?

Arizona47.9%47.0%Trump by 3.6%Florida47.9%47.0%Trump by 1.2%Georgia47.2%48.2%Trump by 5.2%Iowa45.6%47.6%Trump by 9.5%Michigan50.0%45.8%Trump by 0.2%Minnesota48.0%43.7%Clinton by 1.5%Nevada48.7%46.3%Clinton by 2.4%New Hampshire53.4%42.4%Clinton by 0.4%North Carolina47.6%47.8%Trump by 3.7%Ohio46.3%47.3%Trump by 8.2%Pennsylvania48.7%47.5%Trump by 0.7%Texas46.5%47.8%Trump by 9.1%Virginia51.7%40.3%Clinton by 5.4%Wisconsin51.0%44.3%Trump by 0.8%

Source: Real Clear Politics, Associated Press. Last updated: 3 November


For Mr Trump, it's the battleground states he won big in 2016 that his campaign team will be most worried about. His winning margin in Iowa, Ohio and Texas was between 8-10% back then but it looks much closer in all three this time.

That's one of the reasons why some political analysts rate his chances of re-election as low as things stand.

The Economist thinks Mr Biden is "very likely" to beat Mr Trump while FiveThirtyEight, a political analysis website, sees Mr Biden as "favoured" to win the election but says the president could still come out on top.

  • What has Trump said about your country?


Who won the presidential debates?


IMAGE COPYRIGHT

GETTY IMAGES

Donald Trump and Joe Biden went head-to-head in two live TV debates.

The first, on 29 September, was a chaotic affair, with Mr Trump's combative approach stamping out any chance of a real debate.

A CBS News/YouGov poll taken straight afterwards suggested it was a good night for Mr Biden.

Of those who watched, 48% said Mr Biden was the winner while 41% went for Mr Trump - a similar split to national polling averages. Nearly 70% of people said the debate made them feel "annoyed".

In the second debate, on 22 October, organisers introduced a mute button to help police the arguments.

But it was a much more restrained President Trump on show and there was a much greater focus on the policies of the two candidates.

While that seemed to help Mr Trump somewhat, snap polls still suggested viewers thought Mr Biden's performance was more impressive.

A CNN poll found 53% of viewers thought the Democrat had done a better job in the debate, while 39% went with Mr Trump.

A YouGov snap poll was similar, with 54% saying Mr Biden had won compared to 35% for the president.

So while Mr Trump put in a better performance, it's unlikely to have been enough to change the balance of the race on its own.

  • Key takeaways from the Trump-Biden showdown


Has Covid-19 affected Trump's numbers?

We only had a couple of days to mull over the first debate before President Trump's bombshell tweet in the early hours of 2 October revealed he and the first lady had tested positive for coronavirus.

While the pandemic has dominated headlines in the US since the start of the year, the focus had shifted to the Supreme Court after the death of long-serving Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg in September.

So Mr Trump's positive coronavirus test put his response to the pandemic, which has claimed the lives of more than 230,000 people in the US, back under the spotlight.

According to data from an ABC News/Ipsos poll, just 35% of Americans approve of how the president has handled the crisis. That figure climbs among Republicans, but only to 76%.

On his own health, 72% of respondents said that Mr Trump did not take the "risk of contracting the virus seriously enough," while the same number said he failed to take "the appropriate precautions when it came to his personal health".

A similar Yahoo News/YouGov poll found that about half of respondents believed he could have avoided contracting the disease altogether if he had practised greater social distancing and worn a face mask.

  • Why are Covid-19 infections rising again in US?


Can we trust the polls?


media caption

Can we believe the polls this time?

It's easy to dismiss the polls by saying they got it wrong in 2016 and President Trump frequently does exactly that. But it's not entirely true.

Most national polls did have Hillary Clinton ahead by a few percentage points, but that doesn't mean they were wrong, since she won three million more votes than her rival.

Pollsters did have some problems in 2016 - notably a failure to properly represent voters without a college degree - meaning Mr Trump's advantage in some key battleground states wasn't spotted until late in the race, if at all. Most polling companies have corrected this now.

But this year there's even more uncertainty than normal due to the coronavirus pandemic and the effect it's having on both the economy and how people will vote in November, so all polls should be read with some scepticism.

  • Could postal voting upend the US election?


What questions do you have about the US election?

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History and cases[edit]

The rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events believed to have led to the sustained increase in the incidence of corrupt practices in the country.[7][8]

Efforts have been made by the government to minimize corruption through the enactment of laws and the enforcement of integrity systems but with little success.[9]

Greed, ostentatious lifestyle, customs, and people's attitudes are believed to have led to corruption. Another root cause is tribalism.[10] Friends and kinsmen seeking favor from officials can impose strains on the ethical disposition of the official as these kinsmen see government officials as holding avenues for their personal survival and gain.[11]

Pre-Independence and the First Republic[edit]

Corruption, though prevalent, was kept at manageable levels during the First Republic.[12][13] However, the cases of corruption during the period were sometimes clouded by political infighting.

  • Azikiwe was the first major political figure investigated for questionable practices.[14] In 1944, a firm belonging to Azikiwe and family bought a Bank in Lagos. The bank was procured to strengthen local control of the financial industry. Albeit, a report about transactions carried out by the bank showed though Azikiwe had resigned as chairman of the bank, the current chairman was an agent of his.[15] The report wrote that most of the paid-up capital of the African Continental Bank were from the Eastern Regional Financial Corporation.[16]
  • In western Nigeria, politician Adegoke Adelabu was investigated following charges of political corruption leveled against him by the opposition.[17]
  • In the Northern region, against the backdrop of corruption allegations leveled against some native authority officials in Borno. The Northern Government enacted the Customary Presents order to forestall any further breach of regulations. Later on, it was the British administration that was accused of corrupt practices in the results of elections which enthroned a Fulani political leadership in Kano, reports later linking the British authorities to electoral irregularities were discovered.[18]

Gowon administration (August 1966 – July 1975)[edit]

Corruption for the most part of Yakubu Gowon's administration was kept away from public view until 1975. However, informed officials voiced their concerns. Critics said Gowon's governors acted like lords overseeing their personal fiefdom. He was viewed as timid, and faced with corrupt elements in his government.[19]

In 1975, a corruption scandal surrounding the importation of cement engulfed many officials of the defense ministry and the central bank of Nigeria. Officials were later accused of falsifying ship manifestos and inflating the amount of cement to be purchased.[20]

During the Gowon administration, two individuals from the middle belt of the country were accused of corruption. The Nigerian government controlled the newspapers, so the Daily Times and the New Nigerian gave great publicity to denunciations of the administration of Gomwalk, and Federal Commissioner Joseph Tarka by the two critics. A situation that may signal a cause for exigent action on corruption.[21]

Murtala administration (1975 – February 1976)[edit]

In 1975, the administration of Murtala Mohammed made reformist changes. After a military coup brought it to power, the new government sacked a large number of prior government officials and civil servants, many of whom had been criticized for the misuse of power they wielded under the largely uneducated military of Gowon.[22]

Obasanjo administration (February 1976 – September 1979)[edit]

The first administration of Olusegun Obasanjo was a continuation of the Muritala Mohammed administration and was focused on completing the transition program to democracy, as well as implementing the national development plans. Major projects including building new refineries, pipelines, expanding the national shipping and airlines as well as hosting FESTAC was done during this administration. A number of these national projects were conduits to distribute favors and enrich connected politicians. The famous Afrobeat musician, Fela Kuti, sang variously about major scandals involving the international telecommunication firm ITT led by Chief MKO Abiola in Nigeria, which the then Head of State, Gen Olusegun Obasanjo was associated with.[23] In addition to this, the Operation Feed the Nation Program, and the associated land grab under the Land Use Decree implemented by the then Head of State was used as conduits to reward cronies, and his now-famous Otta Farm Nigeria (OFN) was supposedly a project borne out of this scandal.[24]

Shagari administration (October 1979 – December 1983)[edit]

Corruption was deemed pervasive during the administration of Shehu Shagari.[25] A few federal buildings mysteriously caught fire after investigators started to probe the finances of the officials working in the buildings.[26] In late 1985, investigations into the collapse of the defunct Johnson Mathey Bank of London shed light on some of the abuses carried on during the second republic. The bank acted as a conduit to transfer hard currency for some party members in Nigeria. A few leading officials and politicians had amassed large amounts of money. They sought to transfer the money out of the country with the help of Asian importers by issuing import licenses.[27]

In 1981, a rice shortage led to accusations of corruption against the NPN government. Shortages and subsequent allegations were precipitated by protectionism. After its election, the Nigerian government decided to protect local rice farmers from imported commodities. A licensing system was created to limit rice imports. However, accusations of favoritism and government-supported speculation were leveled against many officials.[28]

Buhari administration (December 1983 – August 1985)[edit]

In 1985, a cross-section of politicians was convicted of corrupt practices under the government of General Muhammadu Buhari, but the administration itself was only involved in a few instances of lapsed ethical judgment. Some cite the suitcases scandal which also coincidentally involved then customs leader Atiku Abubakar, who later became Vice President in 1999, and was indicted for various acts of corruption. "The 53 suitcases saga arose in 1984 during the currency change exercise ordered by the Buhari junta when it ordered that every case arriving the country should be inspected irrespective of the status of the person behind such. The 53 suitcases were, however, ferried through the Murtala Muhammed Airport without a customs check by soldiers allegedly at the behest of Major Mustapha Jokolo, the then aide-de-camp to Gen. Buhari. Atiku was at that time the Area Comptroller of Customs in charge of the Murtala Muhammed Airport."[29]

Babangida administration (August 1985 – August 1993)[edit]

The regime of general Ibrahim Babangida or IBB, has been seen as the body that legalized corruption. His administration refused to give an account of the Gulf War windfall, which has been estimated to be $12.4 billion. He rigged the only successful election in the history of Nigeria on June 12, 1993.[30] He lives in a very exquisite mansion in his home state of Niger.[31]

General Ibrahim Babangida's tenure, corruption became a policy of the state.[32] He routinely disbursed vehicles and cash gifts to people to earn loyalty, and the discipline of the military force eroded. The term "IBB Boys" emerged, meaning fronts for the head of state in the business realm, someone who will transact dirty deals from drug dealing with money laundering.[33]

General Ibrahim Babangida used various government privatization initiatives to reward friends and cronies,[34] which eventually gave rise to the current class of nouveau riche in Nigeria. From banking to oil and import licenses, IBB used these favors to raise cash for himself and his family and is regarded as one of the richest ex-rulers of Nigeria supposedly with significant investment in Globacom[35]—one of the largest telecom operators in Nigeria, regarded as a front for his empire.[36]

Abacha administration (Nov 1993 – June 1998)[edit]

The death of the general Sani Abacha revealed the global nature of graft. French investigations of bribes paid to government officials to ease the award of a gas plant construction in Nigeria revealed the level of official graft in the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars.[37]

In 2000, two years after his death, a Swiss banking commission report indicted Swiss banks for failing to follow the compliance process when they allowed Abacha's family and friends access to his accounts and to deposit amounts totaling $600 million US dollars into them. The same year, a total of more than $1 billion US dollars were found in various accounts throughout Europe.[38]

Abdusalami administration (June 1998 – May 1999)[edit]

The government of Gen. Abdusalami was short and focused on transiting the country quickly to democracy. Albeit, the suspicion remains that quite a huge amount of wealth was acquired by him and his inner circle in such a short period, as he lives in quite an exquisite mansion of his own adjacent IBB's that exceeds whatever he might have earned in legitimate income. Indeed, the major Halliburton scandal implicated his administration, and this might have financed his opulence.[39]

Obasanjo administration (May 1999 – May 2007)[edit]

Various corruption scandals broke out under Olusegun Obasanjo's presidency, including one of the international dimensions when his vice president was caught in cahoots with a US Congressman stashing cold hard cash (literally) in freezers. In addition to this, the KBR and Siemens bribery scandals broke out under his administration, which was investigated by the FBI and led to international indictments indicating high-level corruption in his administration. According to reports,[40] "while Nigeria dithered, the United States Department of Justice on January 18, 2012, announced that a Japanese construction firm, Marubeni Corporation, agreed to pay a $54.6 million criminal penalty for allegedly bribing officials of the Nigerian government to facilitate the award of the $6 billion liquefied natural gas contract in Bonny, Nigeria to a multinational consortium, TSKJ". They paid bribes to Nigerian government officials between 1995 and 2004, in violation of the.[41][42]

Some other acts of corruption tied to Olusegun Obasanjo included the Transcorp shares scandal that violated the code of conduct standards for public officers, and the presidential library donations at the eve of his exit from the power that pressured associates to donate.[43] Obasanjo was also said to widely lobby for his failed campaign to alter the constitution to get a third term by actively bribing the legislators.[44] further deepening corruption at the highest levels.

Umaru Musa Yar'Adua administration (May 2007 – May 2010)[edit]

Yaradua's ascent and time in office were short, although a fair number of corruption scandals from previous administrations came to light under his tenure and went uninvestigated due to lack of political will and poor health. Yaradua's various acts of political corruption using his Attorney-General to frustrate ongoing local and international investigations of his powerful friends like Governors James Ibori, Luck Igbinnedion, and Peter Odili which led to massive losses to their states. Attorney General of the Federation, Michael Aondakaa was unable to obtain a conviction in Nigeria even as the UK and foreign courts successfully tried Nigeria's deeply corrupt governors from the Obasanjo era that helped Yaradua emerge as president. In addition, Wikileaks revealed that the Supreme Court Justices were bribed to legitimize the corrupt elections that saw to his emergence as president through massive rigging.[45] Wikileaks documents also revealed the staying power of corruption under Yaradua, with illegal payments from NNPC to Presidents continuing unabated.[46]

Goodluck Jonathan administration (2010–2015)[edit]

Nigeria corruption rating by TI improved from 143rd to the 136th position in 2014.[47] In late 2013, Nigeria's then Central Bank governor Sanusi Lamido Sanusi informed President Goodluck Jonathan that the state oil company, NNPC, had failed to remit US$20 billion in oil revenues owed to the state. Jonathan, however, dismissed the claim and replaced Sanusi for his mismanagement of the central bank's budget. A Senate committee also found Sanusi’s account to be lacking in substance.[48] After the conclusion of the NNPC's account audit, it was announced in January 2015 that NNPC's non-remitted revenue is actually US$1.48 billion, which it needs to refund to the government.[49] Upon the release of both the PwC and Deloitte report by the government at the eve of its exit, it was however determined that truly close to $20 billion was indeed missing or misappropriated or spent without appropriation.[50]

In addition to these, the government of Goodluck Jonathan had several running scandals including the BMW purchase by his Aviation Minister, to the tune of N255 million naira[51][52] and security contracts to militants in the Niger Delta,[53] massive corruption and kickbacks in the Ministry of Petroleum, the Malabu Oil International scandal, and several scandals involving the Petroleum Ministry.[54] In the dying days of Goodluck Jonathan's administration, the Central Bank scandal of cash tripping of mutilated notes also broke out, where it was revealed that in a four-day period, 8 billion naira was stolen directly by low-level workers in the CBN. This revelation excluded a crime that is suspected to have gone on for years and went undetected until revealed by a whistle-blower. The Central Bank claims the heist undermined its monetary policy.[55] In 2014, UNODC began an initiative to help combat corruption in Nigeria.[56]

New allegations of corruption have begun to emerge since the departure of President Jonathan on May 29, 2015, including:

  1. $2.2 billion illegally withdrawn from Excess Crude Oil Accounts,[57] of which $1 billion supposedly approved by President Jonathan to fund his reelection campaign without the knowledge of the National Economic Council made up of state governors and the president and vice president.[58]
  2. NEITI discovered $11.6 billion was missing from Nigeria LNG Company dividend payments.[59]
  3. 60 million barrels of oil valued at $13.7 billion was stolen under the watch of the national oil company, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, from 2009 to 2012.[60]
  4. NEITI indicates losses due to crude swaps due to subsidy and domestic crude allocation from 2005 to 2012 indicated that $11.63 billion had been paid to the NNPC but that “there is no evidence of the money being remitted to the federation account”.
  5. Diversion of 60% of $1 billion foreign loans obtained from the Chinese by the Ministry of Finance [61]
  6. Massive scam in weapons and defense procurements, and misuse of 3 trillion naira defense budget since 2011 under the guise of fighting Boko Haram[62]

7. Diversion of $2.2 million vaccination medicine fund, by Ministry of Health [63]

8. Diversion of Ebola fight fund up to 1.9 bn naira [64]

9. NIMASA fraud under investigation by EFCC, inclusive of accusation of funding PDP and buying a small piece of land for 13 billion naira [65]

10. Ministry of Finance led by Okonjo Iweala hurried payment of $2.2 million to health ministry contractor in disputed invoices [66]

11. NDDC scams and multifarious scams including 2.7 billion naira worth of contracts that do not conform to the Public Procurement Act[67]

12. Police Service Commission Scam investigated by ICPC that revealed misappropriation of over 150 million nairas related to election-related training. ICPC made refund recommendations, but many analysts indicated prosecution was more appropriate.[68]

Muhammadu Buhari administration (2015–present)[edit]

The Presidency of Muhammadu Buhari has seen major action against corruption in Nigeria. In 2016, the Senate ad-hoc committee on “mounting humanitarian crisis in the North East” led by Senator Shehu Sani indicted the then Secretary to the Government of the Federation appointed by Muhammadu Buhari, Mr. Babachir Lawal in a N200 million contract scandal for the clearing of “invasive plant species” in Yobe State by Rholavision Nigeria Limited; a company he owns.[69]

On October 30, 2017, President Buhari sacked Lawal based on the report of a three-man panel led by Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo that investigated him and one other.[70]

In 2016, Buhari was reportedly presented evidence that his Chief of Staff, Abba Kyari, took N500 million naira bribe from MTN to help it slash the $5 Billion dollar fine slammed against it for violation of Nigeria telecommunications regulations bothering on national security.[71][72] MTN fired the staff involved in the bribery scandal.[72] But Abba Kyari was left intact in his position as Chief of Staff to national outrage forcing Buhari to announce the probe of Kyari.[73] The findings of the investigation was never made public.

Abdulrasheed Maina was the head of the task force on pension reforms during the President Goodluck Jonathan led administration but fled Nigeria in 2015 after claims that he embezzled two billion naira ($5.6 million, 4.8 million euros). Despite the fact that an Interpol arrest warrant was issued, he still managed to return to Nigeria, where he was said to have enjoyed protection from the Buhari government.[74] Maina had been fired from his position by Goodluck Jonathan's administration and was put under investigation for corrupt practices but was reinstated and given double promotion by Buhari administration.[75][76]

According to the senate through its committee on public accounts, 85 government parastatals under the present government under the leadership of Muhammadu Buhari are yet to submit their audit reports since the inception of this government.[77]

The flag bearer of the corruption fight in Nigeria, the EFCC has responded to the senate committee on public account's claim on the nonsubmission of her account report by the institution and 84 others. The Economic and financial crimes commission denied the report issued by the committee claiming it was not true.[78]

Despite criticism, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) announced in May 2018, that 603 Nigerian figures had been convicted on corruption charges since Buhari took office in 2015.[79] The EFCC also announced that for the first time in Nigeria's history, judges and top military officers including retired service chiefs are being prosecuted for corruption.[79] In December 2019, the country's controversial ex-Attorney General Mohammed Adoke, who was accused of being bribed to grant oil licenses to Shell, was extradited back to Nigeria from Dubai and was immediately arrested.[80] In January 2020, however, Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI) still gave Nigeria a low ranking of 146 out of 180 countries surveyed.[81][82]

By October 2020, however, End SARS protestors alleged that Nigerian police officers, despite being employed by what has long been perceived as being the most corruption institution in Nigeria,[83][84][85][86] were no longer paid adequately and, despite calling out police brutality, called for an increase in police salaries as one of their five demands.[87]

Public institutions perceived as corrupt[edit]

The following list contains the institutions perceived as the most corrupt. It is culled from the Nigeria Survey and Corruption Survey Study, Final Report (June 2003) Institute for Development Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (IDR, ABU Zaria)[83]

Nigeria (as of 2003)RatingInstitution1Nigerian Police2Political Parties3National and State Assemblies4Local and Municipal Governments5Federal and State Executive Councils6Traffic police and FRSC7PHCN8NNPC9Nigeria Customs10FIRS

In February 2019, it was reported that Nigerian Police Force officers commonly gained extra money by extorting local residents.[88] On July 30, 2019, three Nigeria Police Force Officers from Anambra State were arrested on charges of extorting three residents.[89] On March 9, 2020, a Nigeria Police Force officers from Lagos, Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) Adebayo Ojo and Sergeant Adeleke Mojisola were both arrested on charges of extorting a woman.[90] The next day, another Nigeria Police Force officer from Lagos, Inspector Taloju Martins, was arrested after being caught on camera exhorting a motorist.[91][92]

Godfatherism[edit]

In Nigeria, there is a very big gap between the rich and the poor. Due to this, there is space in politics for richer people to manipulate results and candidates. The BBC did an article in February 2019 detailing how much of an effect 'godfathers' can have on the outcome. For example, it was reported, "They are political sponsors, who use money and influence to win support for their preferred candidates." It is explained that these 'godfathers' groom a candidate that they trust can implement the policies they want".[93]

See also[edit]

Nigeria portal

  • Brown envelope journalism, Nigeria
  • Innoson Group vs GTBank fraud case
  • List of impeached Nigerian state governors

General:

  • Crime in Nigeria
  • Corruption by country
  • International Anti-Corruption Academy
  • Group of States Against Corruption
  • International Anti-Corruption Day
  • ISO 37001 Anti-bribery management systems
  • United Nations Convention against Corruption
  • OECD Anti-Bribery Conventi

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1
38
Latest news Sliema - here are the news of nearby cities


AFRICA ON THE PATH TO AN INCLUSSIVE TRANSFORMATION

WE ARE IN NO WHERE CLOSE TO WHERE WE SHOULD BE AS AFRICAN.


WHAT IS HOLDING US BACK AS A AFRICAN NATION IN TERM OF DEVELOPMENT IS NOT VERY FER FECHT FROM OUR LESDERSHIP THAT IS LACKING VISION, INTEGRITY, HONESTY AND PATRIOTISM.

WE MUST BEGIN TO DO THING DIFFERENTLY IF WE MUST LIVE OUR TRUE POTENTIAL AS A PEOPLE

AFRICA, CERTAINLY HAS THE POTENTIAL FOR A SUPER POWER. BUT THE LEADERSHIP IS STILL HOLDING US BACK FROM WHERE WE OUGHT TO BE.

.


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19

Who's leading in the battleground states?

At the moment, polls in the battleground states look good for Mr Biden - although the margins have tightened in recent days.

He appears to be ahead in Michigan, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin - three industrial states his Republican rival won by margins of less than 1% to clinch victory in 2016.

Latest polling averages in battleground states


Click a column header to sort the table by that column in ascending or descending order

State

BIDEN

TRUMP

Who won in 2016?

Arizona47.9%47.0%Trump by 3.6%Florida47.9%47.0%Trump by 1.2%Georgia47.2%48.2%Trump by 5.2%Iowa45.6%47.6%Trump by 9.5%Michigan50.0%45.8%Trump by 0.2%Minnesota48.0%43.7%Clinton by 1.5%Nevada48.7%46.3%Clinton by 2.4%New Hampshire53.4%42.4%Clinton by 0.4%North Carolina47.6%47.8%Trump by 3.7%Ohio46.3%47.3%Trump by 8.2%Pennsylvania48.7%47.5%Trump by 0.7%Texas46.5%47.8%Trump by 9.1%Virginia51.7%40.3%Clinton by 5.4%Wisconsin51.0%44.3%Trump by 0.8%

Source: Real Clear Politics, Associated Press. Last updated: 3 November


For Mr Trump, it's the battleground states he won big in 2016 that his campaign team will be most worried about. His winning margin in Iowa, Ohio and Texas was between 8-10% back then but it looks much closer in all three this time.

That's one of the reasons why some political analysts rate his chances of re-election as low as things stand.

The Economist thinks Mr Biden is "very likely" to beat Mr Trump while FiveThirtyEight, a political analysis website, sees Mr Biden as "favoured" to win the election but says the president could still come out on top.

  • What has Trump said about your country?


Who won the presidential debates?


IMAGE COPYRIGHT

GETTY IMAGES

Donald Trump and Joe Biden went head-to-head in two live TV debates.

The first, on 29 September, was a chaotic affair, with Mr Trump's combative approach stamping out any chance of a real debate.

A CBS News/YouGov poll taken straight afterwards suggested it was a good night for Mr Biden.

Of those who watched, 48% said Mr Biden was the winner while 41% went for Mr Trump - a similar split to national polling averages. Nearly 70% of people said the debate made them feel "annoyed".

In the second debate, on 22 October, organisers introduced a mute button to help police the arguments.

But it was a much more restrained President Trump on show and there was a much greater focus on the policies of the two candidates.

While that seemed to help Mr Trump somewhat, snap polls still suggested viewers thought Mr Biden's performance was more impressive.

A CNN poll found 53% of viewers thought the Democrat had done a better job in the debate, while 39% went with Mr Trump.

A YouGov snap poll was similar, with 54% saying Mr Biden had won compared to 35% for the president.

So while Mr Trump put in a better performance, it's unlikely to have been enough to change the balance of the race on its own.

  • Key takeaways from the Trump-Biden showdown


Has Covid-19 affected Trump's numbers?

We only had a couple of days to mull over the first debate before President Trump's bombshell tweet in the early hours of 2 October revealed he and the first lady had tested positive for coronavirus.

While the pandemic has dominated headlines in the US since the start of the year, the focus had shifted to the Supreme Court after the death of long-serving Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg in September.

So Mr Trump's positive coronavirus test put his response to the pandemic, which has claimed the lives of more than 230,000 people in the US, back under the spotlight.

According to data from an ABC News/Ipsos poll, just 35% of Americans approve of how the president has handled the crisis. That figure climbs among Republicans, but only to 76%.

On his own health, 72% of respondents said that Mr Trump did not take the "risk of contracting the virus seriously enough," while the same number said he failed to take "the appropriate precautions when it came to his personal health".

A similar Yahoo News/YouGov poll found that about half of respondents believed he could have avoided contracting the disease altogether if he had practised greater social distancing and worn a face mask.

  • Why are Covid-19 infections rising again in US?


Can we trust the polls?


media caption

Can we believe the polls this time?

It's easy to dismiss the polls by saying they got it wrong in 2016 and President Trump frequently does exactly that. But it's not entirely true.

Most national polls did have Hillary Clinton ahead by a few percentage points, but that doesn't mean they were wrong, since she won three million more votes than her rival.

Pollsters did have some problems in 2016 - notably a failure to properly represent voters without a college degree - meaning Mr Trump's advantage in some key battleground states wasn't spotted until late in the race, if at all. Most polling companies have corrected this now.

But this year there's even more uncertainty than normal due to the coronavirus pandemic and the effect it's having on both the economy and how people will vote in November, so all polls should be read with some scepticism.

  • Could postal voting upend the US election?


What questions do you have about the US election?

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Written and produced by Mike Hills and Will Dahlgreen. Design by Irene de la Torre Arenas. Development by Katie Hassell, Marcos Gurgel, Steven Connor and Shilpa Saraf.

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24

History and cases[edit]

The rise of public administration and the discovery of oil and natural gas are two major events believed to have led to the sustained increase in the incidence of corrupt practices in the country.[7][8]

Efforts have been made by the government to minimize corruption through the enactment of laws and the enforcement of integrity systems but with little success.[9]

Greed, ostentatious lifestyle, customs, and people's attitudes are believed to have led to corruption. Another root cause is tribalism.[10] Friends and kinsmen seeking favor from officials can impose strains on the ethical disposition of the official as these kinsmen see government officials as holding avenues for their personal survival and gain.[11]

Pre-Independence and the First Republic[edit]

Corruption, though prevalent, was kept at manageable levels during the First Republic.[12][13] However, the cases of corruption during the period were sometimes clouded by political infighting.

  • Azikiwe was the first major political figure investigated for questionable practices.[14] In 1944, a firm belonging to Azikiwe and family bought a Bank in Lagos. The bank was procured to strengthen local control of the financial industry. Albeit, a report about transactions carried out by the bank showed though Azikiwe had resigned as chairman of the bank, the current chairman was an agent of his.[15] The report wrote that most of the paid-up capital of the African Continental Bank were from the Eastern Regional Financial Corporation.[16]
  • In western Nigeria, politician Adegoke Adelabu was investigated following charges of political corruption leveled against him by the opposition.[17]
  • In the Northern region, against the backdrop of corruption allegations leveled against some native authority officials in Borno. The Northern Government enacted the Customary Presents order to forestall any further breach of regulations. Later on, it was the British administration that was accused of corrupt practices in the results of elections which enthroned a Fulani political leadership in Kano, reports later linking the British authorities to electoral irregularities were discovered.[18]

Gowon administration (August 1966 – July 1975)[edit]

Corruption for the most part of Yakubu Gowon's administration was kept away from public view until 1975. However, informed officials voiced their concerns. Critics said Gowon's governors acted like lords overseeing their personal fiefdom. He was viewed as timid, and faced with corrupt elements in his government.[19]

In 1975, a corruption scandal surrounding the importation of cement engulfed many officials of the defense ministry and the central bank of Nigeria. Officials were later accused of falsifying ship manifestos and inflating the amount of cement to be purchased.[20]

During the Gowon administration, two individuals from the middle belt of the country were accused of corruption. The Nigerian government controlled the newspapers, so the Daily Times and the New Nigerian gave great publicity to denunciations of the administration of Gomwalk, and Federal Commissioner Joseph Tarka by the two critics. A situation that may signal a cause for exigent action on corruption.[21]

Murtala administration (1975 – February 1976)[edit]

In 1975, the administration of Murtala Mohammed made reformist changes. After a military coup brought it to power, the new government sacked a large number of prior government officials and civil servants, many of whom had been criticized for the misuse of power they wielded under the largely uneducated military of Gowon.[22]

Obasanjo administration (February 1976 – September 1979)[edit]

The first administration of Olusegun Obasanjo was a continuation of the Muritala Mohammed administration and was focused on completing the transition program to democracy, as well as implementing the national development plans. Major projects including building new refineries, pipelines, expanding the national shipping and airlines as well as hosting FESTAC was done during this administration. A number of these national projects were conduits to distribute favors and enrich connected politicians. The famous Afrobeat musician, Fela Kuti, sang variously about major scandals involving the international telecommunication firm ITT led by Chief MKO Abiola in Nigeria, which the then Head of State, Gen Olusegun Obasanjo was associated with.[23] In addition to this, the Operation Feed the Nation Program, and the associated land grab under the Land Use Decree implemented by the then Head of State was used as conduits to reward cronies, and his now-famous Otta Farm Nigeria (OFN) was supposedly a project borne out of this scandal.[24]

Shagari administration (October 1979 – December 1983)[edit]

Corruption was deemed pervasive during the administration of Shehu Shagari.[25] A few federal buildings mysteriously caught fire after investigators started to probe the finances of the officials working in the buildings.[26] In late 1985, investigations into the collapse of the defunct Johnson Mathey Bank of London shed light on some of the abuses carried on during the second republic. The bank acted as a conduit to transfer hard currency for some party members in Nigeria. A few leading officials and politicians had amassed large amounts of money. They sought to transfer the money out of the country with the help of Asian importers by issuing import licenses.[27]

In 1981, a rice shortage led to accusations of corruption against the NPN government. Shortages and subsequent allegations were precipitated by protectionism. After its election, the Nigerian government decided to protect local rice farmers from imported commodities. A licensing system was created to limit rice imports. However, accusations of favoritism and government-supported speculation were leveled against many officials.[28]

Buhari administration (December 1983 – August 1985)[edit]

In 1985, a cross-section of politicians was convicted of corrupt practices under the government of General Muhammadu Buhari, but the administration itself was only involved in a few instances of lapsed ethical judgment. Some cite the suitcases scandal which also coincidentally involved then customs leader Atiku Abubakar, who later became Vice President in 1999, and was indicted for various acts of corruption. "The 53 suitcases saga arose in 1984 during the currency change exercise ordered by the Buhari junta when it ordered that every case arriving the country should be inspected irrespective of the status of the person behind such. The 53 suitcases were, however, ferried through the Murtala Muhammed Airport without a customs check by soldiers allegedly at the behest of Major Mustapha Jokolo, the then aide-de-camp to Gen. Buhari. Atiku was at that time the Area Comptroller of Customs in charge of the Murtala Muhammed Airport."[29]

Babangida administration (August 1985 – August 1993)[edit]

The regime of general Ibrahim Babangida or IBB, has been seen as the body that legalized corruption. His administration refused to give an account of the Gulf War windfall, which has been estimated to be $12.4 billion. He rigged the only successful election in the history of Nigeria on June 12, 1993.[30] He lives in a very exquisite mansion in his home state of Niger.[31]

General Ibrahim Babangida's tenure, corruption became a policy of the state.[32] He routinely disbursed vehicles and cash gifts to people to earn loyalty, and the discipline of the military force eroded. The term "IBB Boys" emerged, meaning fronts for the head of state in the business realm, someone who will transact dirty deals from drug dealing with money laundering.[33]

General Ibrahim Babangida used various government privatization initiatives to reward friends and cronies,[34] which eventually gave rise to the current class of nouveau riche in Nigeria. From banking to oil and import licenses, IBB used these favors to raise cash for himself and his family and is regarded as one of the richest ex-rulers of Nigeria supposedly with significant investment in Globacom[35]—one of the largest telecom operators in Nigeria, regarded as a front for his empire.[36]

Abacha administration (Nov 1993 – June 1998)[edit]

The death of the general Sani Abacha revealed the global nature of graft. French investigations of bribes paid to government officials to ease the award of a gas plant construction in Nigeria revealed the level of official graft in the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars.[37]

In 2000, two years after his death, a Swiss banking commission report indicted Swiss banks for failing to follow the compliance process when they allowed Abacha's family and friends access to his accounts and to deposit amounts totaling $600 million US dollars into them. The same year, a total of more than $1 billion US dollars were found in various accounts throughout Europe.[38]

Abdusalami administration (June 1998 – May 1999)[edit]

The government of Gen. Abdusalami was short and focused on transiting the country quickly to democracy. Albeit, the suspicion remains that quite a huge amount of wealth was acquired by him and his inner circle in such a short period, as he lives in quite an exquisite mansion of his own adjacent IBB's that exceeds whatever he might have earned in legitimate income. Indeed, the major Halliburton scandal implicated his administration, and this might have financed his opulence.[39]

Obasanjo administration (May 1999 – May 2007)[edit]

Various corruption scandals broke out under Olusegun Obasanjo's presidency, including one of the international dimensions when his vice president was caught in cahoots with a US Congressman stashing cold hard cash (literally) in freezers. In addition to this, the KBR and Siemens bribery scandals broke out under his administration, which was investigated by the FBI and led to international indictments indicating high-level corruption in his administration. According to reports,[40] "while Nigeria dithered, the United States Department of Justice on January 18, 2012, announced that a Japanese construction firm, Marubeni Corporation, agreed to pay a $54.6 million criminal penalty for allegedly bribing officials of the Nigerian government to facilitate the award of the $6 billion liquefied natural gas contract in Bonny, Nigeria to a multinational consortium, TSKJ". They paid bribes to Nigerian government officials between 1995 and 2004, in violation of the.[41][42]

Some other acts of corruption tied to Olusegun Obasanjo included the Transcorp shares scandal that violated the code of conduct standards for public officers, and the presidential library donations at the eve of his exit from the power that pressured associates to donate.[43] Obasanjo was also said to widely lobby for his failed campaign to alter the constitution to get a third term by actively bribing the legislators.[44] further deepening corruption at the highest levels.

Umaru Musa Yar'Adua administration (May 2007 – May 2010)[edit]

Yaradua's ascent and time in office were short, although a fair number of corruption scandals from previous administrations came to light under his tenure and went uninvestigated due to lack of political will and poor health. Yaradua's various acts of political corruption using his Attorney-General to frustrate ongoing local and international investigations of his powerful friends like Governors James Ibori, Luck Igbinnedion, and Peter Odili which led to massive losses to their states. Attorney General of the Federation, Michael Aondakaa was unable to obtain a conviction in Nigeria even as the UK and foreign courts successfully tried Nigeria's deeply corrupt governors from the Obasanjo era that helped Yaradua emerge as president. In addition, Wikileaks revealed that the Supreme Court Justices were bribed to legitimize the corrupt elections that saw to his emergence as president through massive rigging.[45] Wikileaks documents also revealed the staying power of corruption under Yaradua, with illegal payments from NNPC to Presidents continuing unabated.[46]

Goodluck Jonathan administration (2010–2015)[edit]

Nigeria corruption rating by TI improved from 143rd to the 136th position in 2014.[47] In late 2013, Nigeria's then Central Bank governor Sanusi Lamido Sanusi informed President Goodluck Jonathan that the state oil company, NNPC, had failed to remit US$20 billion in oil revenues owed to the state. Jonathan, however, dismissed the claim and replaced Sanusi for his mismanagement of the central bank's budget. A Senate committee also found Sanusi’s account to be lacking in substance.[48] After the conclusion of the NNPC's account audit, it was announced in January 2015 that NNPC's non-remitted revenue is actually US$1.48 billion, which it needs to refund to the government.[49] Upon the release of both the PwC and Deloitte report by the government at the eve of its exit, it was however determined that truly close to $20 billion was indeed missing or misappropriated or spent without appropriation.[50]

In addition to these, the government of Goodluck Jonathan had several running scandals including the BMW purchase by his Aviation Minister, to the tune of N255 million naira[51][52] and security contracts to militants in the Niger Delta,[53] massive corruption and kickbacks in the Ministry of Petroleum, the Malabu Oil International scandal, and several scandals involving the Petroleum Ministry.[54] In the dying days of Goodluck Jonathan's administration, the Central Bank scandal of cash tripping of mutilated notes also broke out, where it was revealed that in a four-day period, 8 billion naira was stolen directly by low-level workers in the CBN. This revelation excluded a crime that is suspected to have gone on for years and went undetected until revealed by a whistle-blower. The Central Bank claims the heist undermined its monetary policy.[55] In 2014, UNODC began an initiative to help combat corruption in Nigeria.[56]

New allegations of corruption have begun to emerge since the departure of President Jonathan on May 29, 2015, including:

  1. $2.2 billion illegally withdrawn from Excess Crude Oil Accounts,[57] of which $1 billion supposedly approved by President Jonathan to fund his reelection campaign without the knowledge of the National Economic Council made up of state governors and the president and vice president.[58]
  2. NEITI discovered $11.6 billion was missing from Nigeria LNG Company dividend payments.[59]
  3. 60 million barrels of oil valued at $13.7 billion was stolen under the watch of the national oil company, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, from 2009 to 2012.[60]
  4. NEITI indicates losses due to crude swaps due to subsidy and domestic crude allocation from 2005 to 2012 indicated that $11.63 billion had been paid to the NNPC but that “there is no evidence of the money being remitted to the federation account”.
  5. Diversion of 60% of $1 billion foreign loans obtained from the Chinese by the Ministry of Finance [61]
  6. Massive scam in weapons and defense procurements, and misuse of 3 trillion naira defense budget since 2011 under the guise of fighting Boko Haram[62]

7. Diversion of $2.2 million vaccination medicine fund, by Ministry of Health [63]

8. Diversion of Ebola fight fund up to 1.9 bn naira [64]

9. NIMASA fraud under investigation by EFCC, inclusive of accusation of funding PDP and buying a small piece of land for 13 billion naira [65]

10. Ministry of Finance led by Okonjo Iweala hurried payment of $2.2 million to health ministry contractor in disputed invoices [66]

11. NDDC scams and multifarious scams including 2.7 billion naira worth of contracts that do not conform to the Public Procurement Act[67]

12. Police Service Commission Scam investigated by ICPC that revealed misappropriation of over 150 million nairas related to election-related training. ICPC made refund recommendations, but many analysts indicated prosecution was more appropriate.[68]

Muhammadu Buhari administration (2015–present)[edit]

The Presidency of Muhammadu Buhari has seen major action against corruption in Nigeria. In 2016, the Senate ad-hoc committee on “mounting humanitarian crisis in the North East” led by Senator Shehu Sani indicted the then Secretary to the Government of the Federation appointed by Muhammadu Buhari, Mr. Babachir Lawal in a N200 million contract scandal for the clearing of “invasive plant species” in Yobe State by Rholavision Nigeria Limited; a company he owns.[69]

On October 30, 2017, President Buhari sacked Lawal based on the report of a three-man panel led by Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo that investigated him and one other.[70]

In 2016, Buhari was reportedly presented evidence that his Chief of Staff, Abba Kyari, took N500 million naira bribe from MTN to help it slash the $5 Billion dollar fine slammed against it for violation of Nigeria telecommunications regulations bothering on national security.[71][72] MTN fired the staff involved in the bribery scandal.[72] But Abba Kyari was left intact in his position as Chief of Staff to national outrage forcing Buhari to announce the probe of Kyari.[73] The findings of the investigation was never made public.

Abdulrasheed Maina was the head of the task force on pension reforms during the President Goodluck Jonathan led administration but fled Nigeria in 2015 after claims that he embezzled two billion naira ($5.6 million, 4.8 million euros). Despite the fact that an Interpol arrest warrant was issued, he still managed to return to Nigeria, where he was said to have enjoyed protection from the Buhari government.[74] Maina had been fired from his position by Goodluck Jonathan's administration and was put under investigation for corrupt practices but was reinstated and given double promotion by Buhari administration.[75][76]

According to the senate through its committee on public accounts, 85 government parastatals under the present government under the leadership of Muhammadu Buhari are yet to submit their audit reports since the inception of this government.[77]

The flag bearer of the corruption fight in Nigeria, the EFCC has responded to the senate committee on public account's claim on the nonsubmission of her account report by the institution and 84 others. The Economic and financial crimes commission denied the report issued by the committee claiming it was not true.[78]

Despite criticism, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) announced in May 2018, that 603 Nigerian figures had been convicted on corruption charges since Buhari took office in 2015.[79] The EFCC also announced that for the first time in Nigeria's history, judges and top military officers including retired service chiefs are being prosecuted for corruption.[79] In December 2019, the country's controversial ex-Attorney General Mohammed Adoke, who was accused of being bribed to grant oil licenses to Shell, was extradited back to Nigeria from Dubai and was immediately arrested.[80] In January 2020, however, Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI) still gave Nigeria a low ranking of 146 out of 180 countries surveyed.[81][82]

By October 2020, however, End SARS protestors alleged that Nigerian police officers, despite being employed by what has long been perceived as being the most corruption institution in Nigeria,[83][84][85][86] were no longer paid adequately and, despite calling out police brutality, called for an increase in police salaries as one of their five demands.[87]

Public institutions perceived as corrupt[edit]

The following list contains the institutions perceived as the most corrupt. It is culled from the Nigeria Survey and Corruption Survey Study, Final Report (June 2003) Institute for Development Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (IDR, ABU Zaria)[83]

Nigeria (as of 2003)RatingInstitution1Nigerian Police2Political Parties3National and State Assemblies4Local and Municipal Governments5Federal and State Executive Councils6Traffic police and FRSC7PHCN8NNPC9Nigeria Customs10FIRS

In February 2019, it was reported that Nigerian Police Force officers commonly gained extra money by extorting local residents.[88] On July 30, 2019, three Nigeria Police Force Officers from Anambra State were arrested on charges of extorting three residents.[89] On March 9, 2020, a Nigeria Police Force officers from Lagos, Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) Adebayo Ojo and Sergeant Adeleke Mojisola were both arrested on charges of extorting a woman.[90] The next day, another Nigeria Police Force officer from Lagos, Inspector Taloju Martins, was arrested after being caught on camera exhorting a motorist.[91][92]

Godfatherism[edit]

In Nigeria, there is a very big gap between the rich and the poor. Due to this, there is space in politics for richer people to manipulate results and candidates. The BBC did an article in February 2019 detailing how much of an effect 'godfathers' can have on the outcome. For example, it was reported, "They are political sponsors, who use money and influence to win support for their preferred candidates." It is explained that these 'godfathers' groom a candidate that they trust can implement the policies they want".[93]

See also[edit]

Nigeria portal

  • Brown envelope journalism, Nigeria
  • Innoson Group vs GTBank fraud case
  • List of impeached Nigerian state governors

General:

  • Crime in Nigeria
  • Corruption by country
  • International Anti-Corruption Academy
  • Group of States Against Corruption
  • International Anti-Corruption Day
  • ISO 37001 Anti-bribery management systems
  • United Nations Convention against Corruption
  • OECD Anti-Bribery Conventi

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World news
https://avalanches.com/ng/lagos_olabode_olajumoke_78_celebrating_extraordinary_years_of_positive_impa2739581_30_06_2022

Olabode Olajumoke @78 Celebrating Extraordinary Years of Positive Impacts ,Sterling National Standing


Raji Bomodeoku


In today's climate, leadership is examined from one of the tenets mostly denoted by the values that are appreciated within a culture as an influence that is capable of producing some valuable results that are considered from that cultural standpoint.

Indeed ,many have done far better as individuals and as members of their local and national communities. When the attendance of those who have made remarkable memories in our Nation is called. One name that will feature prominently is Olabode Olajumoke . Olajumoke's impact can be traced to his strides in the political, economic and humanitarian landscape of Nigeria.

Olajumoke has gone on to show that creating insight and taking action are winning combination for anyone coming from a humble background . Only a few people have done more impacts to others like they would to themselves. Olajumoke is a deeply good man from searchlight and one of the evidences that Nigeria was blessed with great Leaders.

Growing up as a young Man in the Precincts of Imeri in Ondo State . Olajumoke's mission from outset was how to serve his fatherland, inspiring many other similar thinkers to stimulate a national synergy for his people’s emancipation at the National front.


One of the inspiring accounts of Olajumoke’s groundbreaking success in community development was the founding of Imeri Unity Group, a socio political group with the intention of increasing the presence of his Yoruba speaking Imeri minority people at the frontline of National Politics . He was concerned that his people of Yoruba extraction should move from regional political theatre to national as the centre influences so many critical decisions in Nigeria. The focus of IUG therefore was to galvanise the Yoruba speaking people of the six Southwest states and the two states of Kogi and Kwara to play central politics.

This strategy was successful as the movement attracted followers of Governor Lateef Jakande and his deputy Rafiu Jafojo, Chief J.S Olawoyin of Offa, Chief Yomi Akintola and Chief Oluwole Awolowo both from the prominent families of late S.L.A. Akintola’s family of Ogbomoso and late Chief Obafemi Awolowo’s of Ikenne among other prominent Western flank leaders.

One of the most significant achievements of IUG was the unification of the two famous Yoruba families of Awolowo and Akintola. For almost 35 years - the rift that several Yoruba monarchs could not resolve at that time was settled. Indeed the only three instances that IUG monthly meetings were ever moved out of Imeri were when Chief Oluwole Awolowo hosted IUG meeting at Efunyela Hall, Ikenne and the following month in the Ogbomoso family home of late Chief SLA Akintola by his eldest son Chief Yomi Akintola. IUG also honoured late Chief J.S. Olawoyin by Senator Salawu of Offa hosting IUG in Offa after the Ogbomoso meeting.

Modern history will be kind with Olajumoke as his emergence to the elite group did not only open ways for a turnaround in public representation , he set some standard metrics for future seekers of public office, building a lasting legacy for his people of Ondo North and influencing a national landmark for people living with disabilities. Prior to being elected into the Nigerian Senate where he served as the Senate’s Committee Chairman on Navy. He is noted for sponsoring the disability bill which drew national consciousness to the need to make all public and private facilities accessible to people living with special needs as it is practiced in civilized world .

This remarkable bill had been tested and actualized some years earlier when Dr Bode Olajumoke was the Pro-Chancellor and Chairman of Council of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko. As the Pro-Chancellor, he converted the institution from a glorified secondary school into a modern University such that within two years of his being Chairman of Council, the school was adjudged the best state university in Nigeria by the Nigerian Universities Commission. Massive road networks sprawled the university landscapes, modern lecture theatres were constructed. He insisted that all the emerging structures - roads, buildings, lecture theatres were all disabled compliant. He did not limit this campaign to Adekunle Ajasin University. As a prominent member of the national conference of Pro-Chancellors, he persuaded his colleagues to adopt the policy of making their campuses disabled friendly. Some Pro-Chancellors visited his University to duplicate the concept. Such was his passion for the disabled and less privileged that at the earliest opportunity he had as a Senator, his major bill on disability in the one term he was privileged to serve was passed by the Senate into law. The Nigerian Navy honored him with a Navy Secondary School in his home town Imeri as a recognition for effective Senate Leadership.

He had served pre-eminently as a Federal Civil Servant and played notable roles in the return of democracy in 1999. His civil service years was condoned after twenty five years of meritorious service. Professionally , Olajumoke was inspired to read Law after covering the famous treasonable felony case of the FGN vs Dr Tunji Otegbeye as an intern-reporter with the Daily times of Nigeria in 1965. He got the Soviet Union Scholarship in 1965 to study law at the famous Friendship University , Moscow where he bagged LL.M in flying colours. He Later proceeded to the University of Edinburgh in the UK where he bagged a Doctorate Degree in the International Law Department of the Prestigious University. Olajumoke has been an advocate of true federalism tackling several extra-constitutional tendencies in teaching and through court prayers as a liberal exponent with complete believe in the principles of liberty, freedom of people and Nations.

Born on the 1st of July ,1944 , in Imeri ,Olajumoke’s growing up set the foundation for his exemplary journey and disciplined life as a member of the Boys Scout where he mastered the most important leadership lessons in developing young people to become self fulfilled as individuals and play constructive roles in the society using the scout method . He has throughout his scouting journey developed special interest in people living with special needs . At the 100th year celebration of the founding of Scouting in 2007 World Scout Jamboree at Essex, London. Olajumoke sponsored several Scouts from Schools of deaf and impaired hearing to the World events raising hope for the children to dream again . He has served on the Board of The Scout Association of Nigeria as its Deputy Board Chairman. He has strong passion for charity and his many years work has created some of the notable charity organizations that are restoring hopes for people with extreme conditions. Among these is the mission to save the helpless MITOSATH. - the first Chairman was late Prof. Olikoye Ransome-Kuti and was succeeded by Dr. Bode Olajumoke. Rtd General T.Y. Danjuma is the Grandpatron.

Dr Bode Olajumoke has been a member, Board of Trustees of PDP since year 2000. He is not a shifty politician and so has been very constant in his vision when he ran for the Nation’s Presidency under APP in 1999.

Long before Dr. Bode Olajumoke contested the Senate seat, he had sponsored many budding politicians for elective and executive offices. In year 2007, he eventually ran for the Senatorial seat of his Ondo North and won one of the largest votes nationwide.

He is a Member of the Board, University of Ibadan Advancement Centre since over a decade.

At 78 , Olajumoke’s example serving leadership is still rubbing positively in the heart of Nigeria and everywhere else that he has made footprints throughout his proud history .

Our thoughts and prayers are with the Statesman on the auspicious occasion of his 78th birthday.

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https://avalanches.com/tz/daressalaam_relationships_2652132_26_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/tz/daressalaam_relationships_2652132_26_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/tz/daressalaam_relationships_2652132_26_06_2022

RELATIONSHIPS


WHAT ARE RELATIONSHIPS?


When we say relationship, what first comes to our mind is the connection between people and how people are connected.


Relationship means how two or more people or things are connected or related to each other by either blood or marriage or in different ways. In this world, in our society, people are related to each other in many ways, either by blood or marriage or by the relation love, friendship, hatred, humanity, etc.


We are connected and are in a relationship with each other, whether it's husband and wife, sister and brother, son/daughter and parents, etc.


Relationships are very delicate and sensitive. We must always be careful not to break them just due to a silly misunderstanding or a fight over a minor issue. They are very precious; take care of them because it is most painful for you to lose them when a person you know becomes a person you knew.


Relationships are very valuable (precious); only for those people that are fortunate to have them, to have someone who takes care, is concerned about them, love them, and were, is, and will always be there for them no matter what happens will always stand beside them.


Every relationship starts with being a stranger, full of excitement, joy, and long-time life commitments and promises.


When people get into relationships, they are always strangers to each other, and later on, they start knowing each other. That relationship begins turning out very precious for them, and every relationship is based on trust between each other.


Trust is the faith you have in someone that they will always remain loyal to you; to trust someone means you can rely on them and are comfortable confiding in them because you feel safe with them.


Trust is the building block for any relationship without which the foundation will always remain shaky, fall apart, won't survive, and tend to break within no time.


A good and healthy relationship is how PEACE, LOVE, RESPECT, and DIGNITY are maintained.


The leading five pillars of a healthy relationship are:

> Good communication and understanding between each other.

> Respect between each other.

> Equality amongst each other.

> Both of them must be within their boundaries and limits with each other.

> Be supportive and cooperate.


To have a healthy relationship, these five pillars must be considered, and not only that, but we should try our level best to avoid misunderstandings and ego. Ego has a role in spoiling relationships try avoiding having ego in relationships, EGO is a small three-letter word that can destroy a big twelve-letter word called RELATIONSHIP.


In the case of any problem, both parties should try and sit with each other alone and try to solve them amongst themselves. I believe that every situation has a solution, and that solution is hidden in the problem; we only have to find it, and I think it's possible.


Guys, please value your relations no matter how many difficulties arise but don't ever give up try to solve them and don't let the relationship fall apart. Most don't ever humiliate or insult that relationship. Try to handle them with care and love. You'll see everything will be possible and always have patience and in case of anything try and apologize to make the relationship more stronger.

"APOLOGIZING DOESN'T MEAN YOU'RE WRONG AND THE OTHER PERSON IS RIGHT. IT JUST MEANS THAT YOU VALUE YOUR RELATIONSHIP MORE THAN YOUR EGO."


While making decisions on certain relationships, always think twice, seek advice, research more about that, have patience, and don't hasten to make decisions.


In a relationship, both partners should try to understand each other and incase of compromising and sacrificing both partners should compromise not only one partner should do, both are supposed to compromise and sacrifice in order to balance the relationship equally. Most importantly, no one is perfect in this world; hence we should accept our partner's flaws, and the relationship will be more vital with time.

Never leave a true relationship for a few faults, nobody is perfect, nobody is correct.

In the end "AFFECTION IS ALWAYS GREATER THAN PERFECTION."


At last I can say,

Strength grows when we dare, Unity grows when we pair, Love grows when we share & Relations grow when we care.

LIVE IN PEACE, NOT IN PIECES.

DEAR FRIENDS AND FAMILY, LETS TRY AND MAINTAIN AND KEEP OUR RELATIONS CAREFULLY. ALL THE BEST.

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https://avalanches.com/gq/malabo_election_monitoring_the_law_and_the_politics2641673_25_06_2022

Election Monitoring (The Law and The Politics)

At the core of an election is legitimacy. Absent legitimacy an election cannot be confirmed and allow for a legitimate outcome. A national election is of paramount importance and has profound individual and national consequences. Organizing an election is a prodigious task that has to be attended in a manner that secures credibility and legitimacy; it is the cornerstone of any democracy. In Zimbabwe the electoral process has been mired in controversy and this has greatly diminished the legitimacy of the entire electoral process. Regardless of comprehensive electoral processes, institutions, legislation and the Constitution 2013 of Zimbabwe, elections in Zimbabwe have fallen short of achieving a legitimate outcome; a situation that has all but led to a disaster to say the least. With the all important 2023 election drawing closer and closer it is crucial that the machinery that safeguards or promotes legitimacy of elections is built, strengthened and or activated. The electoral process is a multi-dimensional process that is as broad as it is complex. For purposes of this paper attention shall be primarily on elections monitoring and “protection of the vote.” We will further look into how private individuals can participate in the monitoring of elections as part of civil organization and or individuals.

The Constitution


Of course in order to understand and better interpret any provisions relating to any law, institution or national process we need to refer to the Constitution for guidance. With regard to election processes and election monitoring the Constitution is the go to provision. Chapter 7 of the Constitution makes provisions for Elections, related processes and principles. Section 155 of the Constitution 2013 sets out the principles of the electoral system in Zimbabwe and of importance to this paper is section 155(1)(d) which reads; Elections, which must be held regularly, and referendums, to which this Constitution applies must be free from violence and other electoral malpractices. This is a key provision that places a mandate on the state/government to ensure that all reasonable measures are in place that prevent election malpractices. Such measures include having independent election observers, transparent processes and a safe environment for voters and election officials alike.


Section 157 of the Constitution further provides the state must enact leglislation that give effect to the principles stated in subsection (1). In Zimbabwe the Electoral Act was enacted to give effect to the same among other electoral legislative provisions. The Act makes provisions for details relating to the electoral process which include voter registration, appointment of election officials, political parties and candidates, and election observers which are the primary subject of discussion herein. The Act sets out how different classes of election observers can be registered as such and what their role is within the confines of the law. This Act together with various other legal provisions are quite elaborate and clear on the principles, rules, and institutions that must be adhered to. However there are various provisions that certainly require reform as they do not serve the purpose of ensuring a free and fair election. Central to these reforms in as far as election observers are concerned is how the Accreditation Commission is constituted and its functions.


The electoral process is highly regulated and the primary reason is for its legitimacy. A free and fair election that is legitimate can only be achieved if there are checks and balances that satisfy all stakeholders, that is the citizens, civil society organization, the government, opposition parties and the international community. Central to this is the reports made by the observers who serve to confirm if the election was conducted in a lawful, free and fair manner. The Constitution deliberately sets out an extensive process and principles that ensure an outcome that satisfies all actors as stated above.


The Electoral Act [Chapter 2:13] (Act No. 25 of 2004) (The Act)


The Act enables the said electoral provisions as stated in the Constitution. It lays out the provisions that are to be followed and establishes the various institutions that are responsible for organizing Elections in the country. It is a very extensive document and is accompanied by various Regulations that serve to regulate the process in a satisfactory matter. Section 40 of the Act sets out the provisions relating to election observers. That is their registration, accreditation, activities and responsibilities. As per the Electoral (Accreditation of Observers) Regulations, 2013; a local organization wishing to apply for accreditation of its representatives as observers must be registered as a Private Voluntary Organization in terms of the Private Voluntary Organizations Act [Chapter 17:05] or established under a notarial deed of trust that is registered in the Deeds Office in terms of the Deeds Registries Act [Chapter 20:05]. This provision is primary designed to provide formality, certainty and accountability for any person who intends be an election observer. This is indeed a well founded provision that furthermore reduces potential anarchy especially in compiling observer reports and assessing the credibility of the observers which can be an administrative nightmare and worst case scenario this can lead manipulation and exploitation by actors acting in bad faith.

At section 40(1)(H) the Act provides for an Observers Accreditation Committee. This Committee constitutes of the Chairperson and other commissioners appointed by different Cabinet Ministers as provided for in the Act. This provision and manner which Commissioners are appointed however allows for political appointments who may be biased. In as far as accreditation of observers is concerned this compromises the legitimacy of the election as the observers can be accredited along party lines especially if the government is comprised of a cabinet belonging to a single party. This is a critical area that must receive attention and be reformed. Instead of appointment by cabinet members other independent Actors must take part in the appointment of the Accreditation Committee. This must include other state institutions and civil society individuals and organizations that are non aligned politically. With the very important work that election observers carryout having objective observers in of paramount importance. The significance of the mentioned need to reform is definitely an area that needs urgent attention before the 2023 election arrives; absent the same, credibility of the electoral system is already in jeopardy.


Registration and Process


Accreditation of Observers is provided for in Section 40(I) of the Act. Subsection (1) provides that An application for accreditation as an observer must be made no later than the fourth day before the first day of polling fixed in a proclamation made under section 38(1)(a), (b) or (c) for the election of the President, constituency members of the National Assembly or councilors. In the event of local observers (that is to say, individuals representing local organizations and eminent persons from within Zimbabwe), application must be made indirectly to the Chief Elections Officer through the appropriate provincial elections officer of the province in which the observers propose to discharge their functions while international observers shall apply directly to the Chief Elections officer.The application shall be made by any of the following persons, the individual or eminent person who wishes to be accredited; or the organization that wishes its representatives to be accredited; or the Minister responsible for foreign affairs, in respect of individuals whom the Minister has invited to observe an election; as the case may be. Once the individuals or organization has made the application the Committee must submit same to the Commission for consideration. The commission must respond to said applications within 48hrs and should it reject said application it must furnish the Committee with sound reasons as to why not.


Section 40(H)(2) sets out that the functions of the Observers Accreditation Committee shall be, subject to this Part, to recommend to the Commission the accreditation of different classes of observers from foreign observers to local observers as provided for therein. Subsection (2b) provides for local observers which are individuals representing local organizations and eminent persons from within Zimbabwe who have applied to be accepted as observers. Such observers must register with the Commission via the Accreditation committee. Citizens can therefore organize themselves and register as election observers that can participate in the election and lawfully observe and monitor the election as provided for in the Constitution and legislation. However as mentioned above the appointment of the Commissioners to the OAC gives the government of the day leeway to appoint biased commissioner. The lack of balance/objectivity in the appointments further compromises the functions and work of the observer mission. Should it turn out that the Commissioners are indeed biased this could further result in the work of the observers being compromised as well. Observers accredited by a partisan Committee and Commission are susceptible to influence and bias which is fatal to the legitimacy of an election. Observers under partisan influence cannot produce credible reports that are factual and unbiased.


Of particular importance is section 40J of the Act. Herein the provision states that only the prescribed number of observers shall be permitted to enter and remain at a poling stations and to be present at the counting or collating of votes at a polling station or constituency centre. The Electoral Regulations of 2018 at section 7 provides that Not more than six observers, or, if there are more than six observers wishing to observe inside a polling station or collation centre, not more than six observers representing different observer groups, may be present at once inside a polling station or a collation centre. Unaccredited persons are not allowed near the or in the polling station. It is therefore crucial to have an adequate number of people and organizations accredited in order have a lawful observer mission especially for the local missions. It is unlawful for a private citizen to be in or near to a polling station during counting as only accredited observers are allowed. Ordinary citizens seeking to participate as observers must contact the Commission or observer missions in order to get direction on how to lawfully participate.


The Politics of Election Monitoring


Credibility

One cannot stress the importance of political parties having election observers that monitor the happenings at and around the polling stations. However political party observers tend to be or are viewed as partial and biased towards their parties. Their credibility of their reports can easily be dismissed as biased. It is therefore important to rope in more independent observers that are non aligned and independent of party influence and interests. Regardless it is crucial for political parties more so opposition parties to deploy adequate enough observers that serve to monitor the entire process more the conduct of Election Agents, voters, counting and announcing.


Training of Observers

Critical to achieving a legitimate result in an election is having observers that are well trained and able to diligently execute their duties. If the observers are able to give an accurate report of what transpired during the casting of votes and counting. This adds confidence to the process and reduces the prospects of having a disputed outcome as well trained observers can provide reports that can be trusted by all stakeholders. The funding of such an endeavour is of fundamental importance to the extent that there may be a need for the legislature to craft laws that set an amount that should be allocated to election observers in as far as their training is concerned.


Foreign Observer

Though this paper did not delve into the subject of foreign observers in great detail, it is essential that foreign observer missions are appointed and given a mandate by an objective Observers Accreditation Committee and the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. Foreign observers moreso from nations and organization that do not have direct interests in Zimbabwe provide further cause to trust the outcome depending on the outcome of the result. The current Government in the 2018 election did allow for foreign observer missions which included the likes of the EU, US, UN, SADC and AU. However it seems their invitation was in bad faith where the observers are from nations that have the Zimbabwe under sanctions and their reports can easily disregarded as being biased against the Zanu Pf government.


Any foreign observer mission must be accredited by a properly constituted and non biased commission that objectively takes into consideration all relevant factors that allow for credible and non biased observers. Again the reforms regarding the Accreditation Commission are crucial here in as far as having observers that can give a balanced report that can be accepted by all interested actors.

Citizen Participation

When all is said and done and the dust settles elections are all about the citizens as the primary stakeholder in any election is the citizen. The primary goal is therefore to express the will of the people. The main objective being the people appointing a government that represents their interest and serves the entire nation. This however does not come naturally or organically. Governments tend to “fly off the hinges” and abandon the very important mandate of serving the people. In Zimbabwe were the Global Corruption Index ranks the country 157 - 180, where human rights are constantly violated and elections are often absent transparency, the government has shown itself to not represent the best interests of the people. Elections are therefore a particular flash point in as far as nation building is concerned. It is crucial thus that citizens participate in their civilian capacity in all aspects of the electoral process in order to make sure that a legitimate and accountable government governs the nation.


As shown above both the Constitution and the Electoral Act provide for citizen participation in the electoral process. Legally citizens can individually or collectively gather and lawfully take part in the process. This is the most important ingredient in the securing of legitimacy in an election. Having citizens report on their own election provides confidence, trust and legitimacy. Further, the more citizens we have involved in the process the more we can strengthen the accountability of all related state institutions, more so the electoral commission and the the Constitution as a whole. If citizens can step up to fulfil their Constitution duties a legitimate election can be a firm reality.


The stats are however not very encouraging. In the 2018 election it is reported that voter registration was under 60% while turnout was about 40%. Civil society participation though visible with the likes of ZESN was largely lacking especially in as far as observers are concerned. There is need for more participation by citizens to ensure that a legitimate election can be achieved. The youths, women and rural based folks are going to be central in this election. Only a hands on approach at all sectors of the electoral process will achieve a legitimate outcome that all stakeholders can accept without much reservations.


General


Observers are the guardians of Elections. They are essential in providing legitimacy to the election process. The process by which they apply and are accredited is therefore immensely important. The appointment of the Accreditation Committee is thus a cause for concern as highlighted above. It allows for the manipulation and bias of the Commissioner tasked with processing observer mission applications. Both foreign and local observer missions are of fundamental importance in an election. Their registration and accreditation is a process that is at the heart of ensuring a legitimate election that satisfied all Actors and citizens. A negative report compiled by observers indicating malpractices by any Actor can render the election illegitimate. The Constitution though very extensive regarding election together with supporting legislation and institutions, the ultimate guarantor of a free and fair election is the citizen who must register to vote, vote and participate in all spheres of the election especially in observer missions that allow for oversight and accountability.


By Danny M

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https://avalanches.com/pk/bahawalnagar_nasir_zaman_as_known_professionally_as_nasir_ranjhy_wala_is_an_pakista2609055_23_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/pk/bahawalnagar_nasir_zaman_as_known_professionally_as_nasir_ranjhy_wala_is_an_pakista2609055_23_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/pk/bahawalnagar_nasir_zaman_as_known_professionally_as_nasir_ranjhy_wala_is_an_pakista2609055_23_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/pk/bahawalnagar_nasir_zaman_as_known_professionally_as_nasir_ranjhy_wala_is_an_pakista2609055_23_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/pk/bahawalnagar_nasir_zaman_as_known_professionally_as_nasir_ranjhy_wala_is_an_pakista2609055_23_06_2022

Nasir Zaman as known professionally as Nasir Ranjhy Wala is an pakistani singer-songwriter and music composer He is best known for his singles "Makeup", "Gangwar","Yaar Beli" His single Makeup has featured on the UK Asian Music Chart and also the Global YouTube weekly chart.


Personal life - Nasir Ranjhy Wala was bron in punjabi muslim Family. Ranjhy Wala Village in Bahawalnagar Punjab Pakistan Father Muhammad Zaman Nasir Ranjhy Wala he completed his school education in city Bahawalnagar.


Career - Ranjhy Wala he started his music journey in June 2021 with a song name Makeup. makeup Full song with lyrical video in the voice of Nasir Ranjhy Wala The music of this song is given by Mehmood J and written by Nasir Ranjhy Wala The lyrical video made by Huzaifa Sharif. In June 2021, his song Makeup was released under the label of Lahoriye.


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youtube-poster

GOD, YOUR LOVE KENYA

It's unfortunate how we become political every electioneering year

Shouting who we are supporting

Who supported you for the last five years?

God, your love Kenya


Who paid Your rent, school fees for your kids,facilities food on your table just to name a few

God, your love Kenya


Cutting across tribal lines... This is mediocrity Bana,

We need to think inner ward lyrics and outside the box,

It's no longer about where the president, comes from, my tribe how did it benefit you?

You probably buying cooking Oil the same price as everyone else is...

This frustrating country my Kenya

God, Your love Kenya


Everything is above the sky

skyrocketing prices on every basic commodity

Kutoka kwa mafuta hadi Unga

God, your love Kenya


I walk into a Supermarket I no longer buy any commodity for quality but for quantity and price consideration is my first priority.

God, your love Kenya


But till when will this go On....

How SURE AM I?

I will not be put in the same shifty hole after 8th August 2022

God, Your love Kenya


We can't tell but then again we are left with ONE, To gather our thoughts and, for once make a sober and informed decisions in terms of who you vote in various seats....

God, Your love Kenya


Fail to which the suffering continues and we pass it to the next generation what a shame?

I wonder what our forefathers are thinking at this certain moments

God, Your love Kenya

It's like we probably sold our country but for WHAT?, You would ask yourself... Is it worth

We have spearheaded development in East and Central Africa we are so Much head compared with other neighboring countries...

But at what expense?

OUR CULTURE, ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION, HERITAGE AND HUMAN EXISTENCE....

I really wonder...

God, Your love Kenya


We live at a time where the money you earn is not enough to cater most people livelihoods

Living in a deficit chasing money more than yourself....

God, your love Kenya

CATCH it if you may, Your life depends on it

Save yourself from the life your have created around yourself

Staying true to your course, your true happiness, love and harmony essentials for our soul

God, your love Kenya


My Country Kenya as we Go to Elections

I love you

May you be Peaceful

I pray and believe

Amen

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https://avalanches.com/ru/kazan_v_kazany_roshvardeits_vpolnyly_zadachy_po_obespechenyiu_bezopasnosty_vo2436125_13_06_2022

В Казани росгвардейцы выполнили задачи по обеспечению безопасности во время празднования Дня России


Военнослужащие казанского специального моторизованного полка Приволжского округа Росгвардии, бойцы ОМОН «Ак Барс» и сотрудники вневедомственной охраны Росгвардии по Республике Татарстан выполнили задачи по обеспечению безопасности жителей и гостей республики во время праздничных мероприятий, посвященных Дню России.

Традиционно, наиболее массовым местом проведения праздничных мероприятий для жителей и гостей столицы республики стала площадка возле центра семьи «Казан», где побывало около 35 тысяч человек. Помимо концерта с участием творческих коллективов и артистов эстрады там было организовано множество развлекательных зон. Завершилось мероприятие красочным салютом над акваторией реки Казанки.

Задачи по охране общественного порядка и обеспечению безопасности во время праздничных мероприятий выполнили военнослужащие казанского специального моторизованного полка Приволжского округа ВНГ России, сотрудники вневедомственной охраны и бойцы ОМОН «Ак Барс» Управления Росгвардии по Республике Татарстан во взаимодействии с сотрудниками МВД по РТ и работниками частных охранных организаций.

Благодаря совместной работе Росгвардии и МВД, при участии работников ЧОО, грубых нарушений общественного порядка и безопасности не допущено.


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https://avalanches.com/sz/manzini_meet_the_78_years_old_high_school_graduate_ted_sams_2417396_12_06_2022

Meet the 78 years old High school graduate Ted Sams...


It was a joyfull moment for Ted Sams (78) and his family when he finally walked on stage to receive his high school diploma sixty years after he missed his 1962 graduation because of some teenage mischief and $4.80 (E3.40) overdue library fine he owed at his former school.


During his high school days, Ted and a friend were in a photography class when they were caught by the vice principal for photographing people without their consent and Ted was later suspended, leading to him missing the final exam and graduation. While he tried keeping up with his studies by attending summer school, Ted then found that he couldn't get his diploma because of the overdue library fine book.


“So I just walked away from it and said, 'Forget it',” he says.


In 2022, after much persuasion from his family Ted joined San Gabriel California High school in Los Angeles and got his high school diploma


Sams says he never expected to be back in high school 60 years later after he dropped out. He recounted how he would repeatedly complain to his children how a meagre $4.80 kept him from having a degree.


His daughter Sherry then suprised him by asking San Gabriel High in Los Angeles for a reprint of his diploma so he can attend graduation.


Luckily for him, the school hasn't thrown away the diploma and It was kept in a box, in senior archives.


In 27 May, Ted received an invitation from the school to be part of the graduation ceremony. The ceremony was attended by his wife and five children.


Even though it has been a long hard road, Ted says attaining his diploma has been a great achievement for him and the graduation was one of the highlights of his life.


“Actually, when he walked and got his diploma, every person on that stage hugged him and then the whole class applauded for him,” Sherry says.


Although the $4.80 fine hasn't been paid, Ted is now a graduate of San Gabriel High School's class of 2022.

Source: News24

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https://avalanches.com/sz/manzini_mlawula_campfire_launch_lets_adopt_a_green_lifestyle_for_nature_to_c2417158_12_06_2022

MLAWULA CAMPFIRE LAUNCH: Let's Adopt a Green Lifestyle for Nature to Continue Sustaining Us- Minister


The Ministry of Tourism and Environmental affairs of Eswatini Moses Vilakati says in order for people to live sustainably and in peace with nature, they should adopt and promote a greener lifestyle.


Vilakati was speaking during the launch of the 3rd edition of the Mlawula Campfire festival on Thursday, while the real event is scheduled to take place from the 28th to 30th of October 2022 at Siphiso Campsite, which is located within the Mlawula nature reserve.


The Minister says as a ministry, it is of paramount importance to them that they monitor the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. "The Ministry has a responsibility, amongst others to oveeseer conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, which is delegated to the Eswatini National Trust Commission" he said.


The launch tabbed, 'Only One Earth' occurred during the World Environmental Month and aims to promote activities that support the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources such as water, land and minerals which also tend not only to bolsters the people's lives but also attracts tourists in a country thus it's economy.


According to Vilakati, tourism is one of the pillars in the country's economic development agenda. He says the government had a wakeup call from the COVID-19 pandemic because it forced it to expand the country's domestic tourism initiatives througn enhanced product development while introducing different adventure promotions.


Vilakati further urged companies and institutions to partner with the government in hosting the event which he described as a perfect epitome of the 'Only One Earth' theme of the environmental month.


He went on saying, "This will provide an opportunity for most companies and institutions to partner with us in hosting a successful event. It is worth mentioning that the intended objectives of such an initiative can only be achieved with your participation and support, as well as inviting others from across the spectrum to enjoy the one of a kind experience. In this way, the tourism economy will increase and enable extended sharing of benefits."

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https://avalanches.com/ru/kazan_v_kanun_dnia_rossyy_prezydent_tatarstana_nahradyl_sotrudnykov_terrytory2414587_11_06_2022
https://avalanches.com/ru/kazan_v_kanun_dnia_rossyy_prezydent_tatarstana_nahradyl_sotrudnykov_terrytory2414587_11_06_2022

В канун Дня России Президент Татарстана наградил сотрудников территориального Управления Росгвардии


Казанском Кремле состоялась церемония награждения выдающихся татарстанцев, внесших большой вклад в развитие республики, республиканскими и федеральными наградами, в числе которых были сотрудники Управления Росгвардии по Республике Татарстан.

Поприветствовав участников церемонии, Президент Татарстана отметил символизм нынешнего торжества, которое проходит в преддверии одного из главных праздников страны.

«Мы гордимся, что живем и работаем в стране с тысячелетней историей и богатейшим культурным наследием. Благодаря созидательному труду многих поколений, поддержке федерального центра и лично Президента России Владимира Путина сегодня наша республика является передовым, опорным регионом страны. Благодаря энергии и таланту людей, увлеченных своим делом, в том числе находящихся в этом зале, воплощаются в жизнь самые смелые идеи в экономике, науке, образовании, медицине, культуре, управлении и других отраслях. Ваш талант и трудолюбие, стойкость и мужество делают нашу республику сильной и процветающей. Хочу поздравить всех вас с заслуженными наградами, поблагодарить за преданность своему делу, а также вклад в развитие родной республики и страны», — сказал Президент Татарстана, обращаясь к присутствующим в зале.

Отдельно руководитель республики Рустам Минниханов подчеркнул вклад присутствующих в зале сотрудников Росгвардии, которые проявили мужество и героизм в деле отстаивания интересов Родины и мирного будущего наших граждан.

В заключение своей речи Президент Татарстана подчеркнул, что все награждаемые – люди, достойные высоких государственных наград. Он искренне поблагодарил их за преданность своему делу и еще раз поздравил с предстоящим Днем России.

По окончании вступительной части состоялась торжественная церемония: Президент РТ вручил орден Пирогова, орден Дружбы, медаль ордена «За заслуги перед Отечеством», медаль «За спасение погибавших», ордена «За заслуги перед Республикой Татарстан» и «Дуслык», медаль «За доблестный труд», благодарности Президента России и другие почетные награды.

Всего высоких наград удостоены 34 человека.

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https://avalanches.com/ke/nairobi_emotional_depletment2412297_11_06_2022

Emotional depletment

Am deep in love right as my heart could now feel

I wonder what my soul is resting on if only it would pass on the soil

Natural soul I am.... Love is in the Air

Am I loving Me really...?

Objectively I can't seem to tackle the Dilemma

At the moment

They may have it...

My mind rings on the intriguing thoughts I have saved my judgment out on the door

You will easily see it visuals as you approach


It seemed such a tassle, I was on the hustle

On the streets screaming Help! Help me

On the other hand you were deep asleep

Waiting to rush to your 8- 2 - 5 monotony


I respect your hustle am just on my own lanes

I see what you doing

But why are you judging me

Juu niko na Nguo chafu

Niko Hustle the money ain't dirty though

Alinicheki na Gunia

Akaanza Chokora toka hapa

Kunitest na anaona... Me ni chizi

You judged me a thousand times I don't care

I step to my Hustler spirit everyday

When sitting am resiting this stories

Spitting to the motion on the emotions

Beast on the beats

My heartbeats ain't limited

Hauwezi ni kataa Ulimi men

Kubonga ni bure

Kubonga mbaya

Utalipia Tilapia

Bei.... Pia

Imepanda kutoka Dala

Dangaa, Omena


Chakula unaweza pikiwa

Osho vyombo ama ulipie


Till now captivating my heart

With lullabies

Lala Bye..

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https://avalanches.com/gq/malabo_the_cyber_security_and_data_protection_bill_20192409592_11_06_2022


The Cyber Security And Data Protection Bill 2019


Commentary On Cyber Protection Bill


Purpose of the Bill


The Bill has a quite well written preamble and has all the hallmarks of well crafted legislation that seeks to serve and protect people’s rights while complying with the Constitution like all legislation is sup[posed] to. The bill firstly intends to consolidate cyber related offenses which should allow for, easy to understand and interpret legal provisions. Recently we have seen what seems to be very biased interpretations of cyber offenses related provisions with what happened to some pro-democracy activists and political opponents who tweeted some things that the government claimed were not true. The Bill on the face of it seems to want to address these issues by having one piece of legislation that deals with cyber offenses. But of course these laws/provisions have to be Constitutional, fair and not prejudicial to any and all rights due to the people. As we shall see, as progressive as the Bill is there are a few provisions that are a little dodge to say the least and lay open to abuse especially by a government seeking to silence opposing voices which of course is not cool.


Another purpose of this bill as articulated in the preamble is for data protection. We are most certainly in the digital age and save for an apocalyptic event like an alien invasion, zombie apocalypse and or nuclear war (did I leave anything out?); we are not going back to the stone age or atleast an age before the internet. This means we are going to “forever” (as long as civilization exists) be operating online and this largely entails the use of personal details and information on line. The Bill’s intention is to identify which data is personal, which should be protected and how to protect it. The Bill draws some of it’s principles and provisions for the European General Data Protection Regulation which now because of it being so well crafted serves as a template which many countries and jurisdictions and have been adopting. It has kind of set global the standard. In this regards the Bill is quite extensive and in tune with the need for the protection of person data and information online. As such it further aligns itself to international standards and laws which allows the country to participate online globally economically and socially.


Well, one thing is for sure, social media and the internet in general changed the “game” for humans out here. The internet especially the social media and business aspect of it has become an immensely important aspect of our everyday lives. We communicate publicly on platforms like Twitter, Facebook, Websites; we upload personal information and details on line for better or more access and we engage in trade and politics on these here platforms. For the most part it has been advantageous in ways we could have never imagined perhaps just 30 years ago. However the web’s insatiable hunger for data and personal information, its abuse by some in perpetrating violence of all kinds and its potential for political influence (in good and bad faith) has prompted the need for legal, legislative controls to keep things in check and protect users of the internet. In Zimbabwe there are various Acts and laws that serve to protect and regulate the use and abuse of the internet. These have been however scattered provisions that are subject to inconsistent interpretations and “misunderstandings” (if you know, you know). The Zimbabwean legislature though, at the instance of the cabinet has drafted and published the Cyber Protection Bill which is designed to consolidate online data protection laws and to regulate the use thereof. Lets explore this baby and see if it passes the Constitutionality test and if it serves as progressive legislation that serves its said purpose and protects against abuses by the government and other actors……. By the way, if you have someone’s nudes out in cyberspace, now is the time to pull them down, this Bill ain’t playing!


Furthermore the Bill seeks to establish a central authority for cyber security, data protection and to provide for the functions of said authority. The authority is further afforded with investigative functions and collection of evidence related to cyber crimes, unauthorized data collection and breaches, and to assist with the admissibility of electronic evidence for such offenses. Having a specialized authority for this highly technical field is necessary for it’s purpose and enforcement. The establishment of said institution/authority is a step in the right direction that will ensure proper regulation and coherence in dispensing the purpose of the Bill.


Its independence though from government especially, will be key in determining it’s effectiveness. If the Government meddles with the cyber authority especially in issues relating to processing evidence in criminal matters and retrieving personal information of opponents and activists (among other potential infringements) then there will be real problems. Governments have been known to approach social media companies and other online actors for the purposes of “unlawfully” retrieving data and information which actually disregards the privacy of individuals.

With our entire lives moving online from our education, businesses and our society, considering how “difficult” it is to regulate the internet (a prickly subject), having such a specialized institution is indeed essential in creating a safe and conducive environment for users. Further the central authority can help properly craft and articulate criminal offenses and other regulations on line which may be difficult to interpret for other responsible authorities with no knowledge or understanding of the cyber world. Lord knows we needs us some of that professionalism with matters relating to the world wide web (Cyber security and all).


Key Provisions


Section 5 – 6 (Establishment of Cyber Security Centre)


The establishment of the Cyber Security centre is right on the “money” as mentioned above. A well run Centre will ensure that the provisions the ‘Act’ can be properly enforced with expert help that understands the legal and technical dynamics of data protection and cyber security. The functions of the Centre are among others to advise Government and implement Government policy on cyber crime and cyber security, identify areas for intervention to prevent cyber crime; establish and operate a protection-assured whistle-blower system that will enable members of the public to confidentially report to the Committee cases of alleged cyber crime; oversee the enforcement of the Act to ensure that it is enforced reasonably and with due regard to fundamental human rights and freedoms; and others as provided for in Section 6 of the Bill. Leaving such matters to a technical institution is the best approach as it will establish uniformity, consistency and accurate interpretation of the legal provisions and their enforcement.


In addition a Data Protection Authority as provided for in section 7 – 8 will serve the purpose of regulation, research, and advice to the Minister on matters relating to data protection. The Authority will also serve as a report and complaints platform which will centralize said function which is necessary for proper and efficient enforcement among other advantages.


Section 31 Whistle-blowing


The Authority is granted in this Bill the power to regulate a whistleblowing system for the reporting of bad practices in as far as data protection and cyber security is concerned. “Whistleblowing” according to the Bill refers to legal provisions permitting individuals to report the behaviour of a member of their organization which, they consider contrary to a law or regulation or fundamental rules established by their organization. The online world can be really difficult to understand and can be used to harvest personal data for more nefarious agendas. With a proper whistleblowing system in place this can aid in reporting unlawful acts and wayward individuals. With the lessons learnt from the Facebook shenanigans a whistleblowing platform is necessary in regulating the industry.


Offenses Relating To Electronic Communications And Material


The Bill is quite thorough when it comes to cyber related offenses and on the face of it, it looks like its all set and good to go. However more discerning scrutiny of all the criminal provisions will reveal a landmine or two within a sea of nuggets. Anyone reading the criminal provisions must consider the relevant Constitutional provisions in the Bill of Rights notably the right to freedom of speech and expression.


Section 164


So here the Bill provides that anyone via a computer medium who incites violence against other people or property shall be guilty of an offence. This is well in line with justifiable provisions that seek to objectively address said problem. Inciting violence even or especially online is dangerous to any civilized society and must be stopped by all means. Violence as we have seen through out the brief history of the internet can be triggered online and have adverse effects including death and destruction of property. In this instance the provision is spot on and necessary. Of course violence in this case should be narrowly interpreted to only definite instances. Wide interpretation of cases where violence is incited may result in the freedom of expression being stunted especially by a government acting in bad faith.


Section 164C


Unlike the above stated provision this provision is a little tricky and subjection to all sorts of bias and interpretations. The provision is in relation to “false” information meant to cause harm, psychological or economic that is posted online. Now the interpretation of what constitutes false information has already been used in what seems to be biased use of the law to silence political opponents. We have seen chaps like Hopewell Chin’ono get arrested for posting what was said to be false information online. Clearly the government was up to no good and it actually seems as if that is the case that inspired this provision. What consequence could this have on journalists, civil rights activists and groups, whistleblowers and so forth? A quick glance at this question would point to a vast potential for abuses. Imagine a journalist who is investigating corruption in government and publishes some of his/her findings on social media or newspaper etc. All of a sudden the government officials in question hide the evidence, cry foul, and press charges in terms of section 164C. The corrupt officials would have considerable power not only to evade prosecution but to silence the journalist and have them sent to prison. This obviously will have other such people choosing to be silent and not tackling such matters as corruption or abuse of power etc. This therefore is in contrast to certain provisions in the Constitutions names section 61 (Freedom of Expression).


Section 164C, the way it is worded would not only affect the aforementioned class of people, it will also put ordinary internet users at risk of such prosecution and this could possibly spell the end of democratic freedoms and processes in Zimbabwe. Corruption and abuse of power will go unchecked as there will be no protection for journalists, activists and individuals that seek to expose it. Issues such as corruption and abuse of power in government are incredibly difficult to prove or even detect. Such a restrictive provision will make it impossible to deal with such. This is a bad provision and must be struck out before this Bill is made Law.


164B Cyber-bullying and harassment


Any person who unlawfully and intentionally by means of a computer or information system generates and sends any data message to another person, or posts on any material whatsoever on any electronic medium accessible by any person, with the intent to coerce, intimidate, harass, threaten, bully or cause substantial emotional distress, or to degrade, humiliate or demean the person of another or to encourage a person to harm himself or herself, shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding level 10 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years or to both such fine and such imprisonment. This is for my fellow social media users. Be careful y’all. This provision is broadly written and extensive. With timelines, twitter spaces, live video broadcasts and the (infamous DM) people of nefarious motives lurk among us. This Bill is out here seeking to curb this global problem within Zimbabwe’s borders.


The problem with this is perhaps politician hiding behind this legislation as they hide from demands for accountability or responsibility. A captured Cyber Authority and legal system could see this provision being abused and used to shut down legitimate calls for accountability online. Politicians and other people of note should not be included in this Bills umbrella and in particular this here section 164B save for perhaps when their lives are threatened.


164 E Transmission of intimate images without consent


Ow boy, where do I start? The spike in the posting of nude images for the purposes of humiliating other people is quite scary. The proliferation of such is becoming unbecoming globally and Zimbabwe is no exception. The current law addressing the issue of posting nudes and so called “revenge porn” is primarily the Censorship and Entertainments Control Act, however large quarters of the society have found this law and others to be inadequate in dealing with the problem. The wider use of smart phones and other devices mean a lot more people have access to the web and the chances of someone in possession of intimate images posting same for whatever reason is on the rise. The Bill sets out a clear provision that sets out clearly defined parameters and consequence. This will make enforcing the law against posting of nudes without consent an offence that is enforceable absent complications. Those that already have nudes posted without the consent of those in the images might want to start pulling them down because they might just get a 5 year jail term according to the Bill. The trouble might come from pre-Act posts that have been posted and then re-posted by others and are still online while the originator has pulled down the primary nude post. It would be interesting to see how the courts will handle such instances. Further what happens to those that “retweet, like, re-post and other such things”.


The Business end Of Things

In today’s business environment everything has moved to the internet. This Bill bring Zimbabwe in line with best practices regarding cyber security and data protection thereby creating a conducive business environment for businesses operating in Zimbabwe. This will allow for lawful operation of businesses online where data is protected and use of cyber space is well regulated. With the world going digital this will be beneficial to Zimbabwean business that will be able not operate locally and internationally too.


Yay or Nay?


The Bill is largely progressive and does create a good framework for providing security and safety of sensitive information online. The creation of a central data authority and the regulations that have been set out in the Bill are well in line with international standards, for the most part. This Bill will drag Zimbabwe well into the global online community and allow for especially local companies to operate online while complying with global security standards. On the other hand it seems the drafters of this Bill slid in a provision or two that are unconstitutional more so section 164C which has the potential to spell the end of the freedom of speech and expression in Zimbabwe. That provision alone dampens if not obliterates the spirit and purpose of this Bill as it constrains a key and important Constitutional right that is essential for democracy and progressive societies.

Cyber Security


By

Danny Boy


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