In Praise Of Marxism By Edwin Madunagu Calabar

In Praise Of Marxism By Edwin Madunagu


One of the earliest objections we encountered from our opponents when we entered the organized Marxist political activism in the early post-Civil War years was the one built around the thesis that Marxism, our ideology, was alien to Africa and to Nigeria in particular. We soon realized that this objection was not new, that it was as old as the history of the Marxist ideology in Africa and Nigeria.

We found that our older Nigerian comrades (especially the intellectuals and academics among them) had confronted the objection for at least two decades and a half before our entry. Still later, we learnt that the objection we are talking about was, in fact, a particular application of an older and larger objection, namely, that Marxism, as the overwhelmingly dominant ideology in the socialist and anti-capitalist movements, was alien to human nature.

As we grew older and stronger, but still early in our career as revolutionary Marxists, we found that German Nazism, under Adolf Hitler, had proclaimed that Marxism was an international Jewish “conspiracy” – originated by Karl Marx and promoted by international “conspirators” like Rosa Luxemburg and Leon Trotsky. This was, in fact, one of the specific Nazi “charges” against the Jews, as a race. It later became a pillar of Nazism as an ideology.

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This admission may be made: As a young graduate student of mathematics, I was at first destabilized – but not intimidated or tempted – by these objections and charges. But, soon, I became strong enough to begin to respond along this line: To question the relevance, applicability and appropriateness of Marxism in Africa (or Nigeria in particular) is to inquire into the mode of arrival of Marxism in this continent and in this country. And, for a serious student of history (academic or non-academic), to inquire into this arrival is, in some respects, similar to an inquiry into the arrival, in our land, of modern religions, including Christianity and Islam. Finally, the general proposition: To question the relevance of Marxism in the revolutionary understanding of, and intervention in human society or in any segment of it, is to ask how capitalism arrived in human society or in the particular segment, and what it is still doing there.

To put our response more directly: To study the origin of Marxism and its historical trajectory is to study the origin and historical trajectory of Capitalism. Why? Because Capitalism and Marxism are inseparably bound, the latter being the organic “nemesis” of the former. If a young Nigerian asks me what Marxism is doing here, I will ask her/him to go and find out what Capitalism which originated in England is doing here.

I will also tell her/him that both Capitalism and Marxism emerged as adults, with clear identities, in England. Finally, before we end that session, I will re-state the mission of Marxism. This mission is not to defeat Capitalism and thereafter supplant it as “king”. No. The mission statement is that Marxism, as an anti-capitalist “weapon of criticism”, will defeat and bury Capitalism and thereafter become superfluous in an emergent classless and genuinely human society whose initial stages we call socialism.

In my recent published article, “Dialoguing with Pan-Africanist compatriots” (early June 2020), I subscribed to the view that Marxism is a science. Specifically, following Samir Amin, I defined it as the “social science of socialist revolution”. I have also described Marxism as an ideology, an ideology of liberation. I stand by both definitions: Marxism is both an ideology and a science. When I came in contact with Marxism it “fired” me because it rationalized and promoted my previously existing radical and rebellious consciousness. Karl Marx’s writings and deeds between 1843 and 1848, the teachings of my elders and contemporaries in the Nigerian Left and my own studies and experiences contributed immensely to making me a Marxist ideologically. Later, I realized that Marxism is more than an ideology, that it is also a science. Is there a contradiction here? No, not at all.

Speaking specifically about my own development and experiences I would say that I would, perhaps, not have become a Marxist if I had not first encountered Marxism as an ideology. I would, also, probably, not have remained a Marxist if I had not, at a stage in my development beyond the original “firing”, come to see that Marxism is also a science. At the risk of being schematic, I would say that Marx’s writings from 1843 to 1848, including “Towards a Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right”, “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts”, “Theses on Feuerbach”, “The Poverty of Philosophy” and the “Communist Manifesto” made me a Marxist ideologically. But his writings in the decade following the “Manifesto” (which included “Wage Labour and Capital” and “Critique of Political Economy”) plus “Capital, volume One” made me a Marxist scientifically.

The 1848 “Manifesto” remains the clearest statement of the ideology which bears the name of Karl Marx. But, as the world later learnt and saw, even before the appearance of this “Manifesto”, Marx had produced enough materials to lay the foundations of an anti-capitalist ideology of liberation: not just liberation from capitalist wage-labour and slavery but liberation from “all circumstances” (capitalist and pre-capitalist) in which segments of humanity are “oppressed, humiliated or despised”.

These segments include class, gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, culture, and religion. Before the production of the “Manifesto,” Marx had proclaimed that the proletarian, anti-capitalist ideology which was later codified and given the name Marxism was the solution to the “riddle of history”, a solution that was conscious of itself as a solution.

Two quick footnotes should follow here: One: I think the title of the Manifesto should be read in full as “The Manifesto of the Communist Party” – the title given by the authors themselves – rather than “The Communist Manifesto”, a title that editors, writers and codifiers of Marxism later gave to it. The two titles do not mean the same thing when put in the proper historical context. Two: The battle-cry with which the “Manifesto” ended remains ever fresh: “Workers of all countries, unite … you have nothing to lose but your chains … you have a world to win!”

Karl Marx’s 1859 Preface to his “Critique of Political Economy” may be taken as one of the clearest introductions and statements of Marxism as a science. From this point onward Marx poured out scientific works – always spiced, of course, with ideological and journalistic polemics. Speaking personally again and by way of emphasis, I would say that Marx’s simple demonstration of the critical difference between “labour” and “labour power” (a self-correction he made in his “Wage-Labour and Capital”), his demonstration of the inevitability of workers’ vanguard role in the struggle for socialism and his demonstration of the reality of the state and its role in pre-socialist history helped to make me a scientific Marxist in addition to being a Marxist ideologue.

Karl Marx died in 1883. That was 137 years ago. Since then Marxism has grown both as ideology of total and universal liberation and as social science of socialist revolution. But it has also, naturally, and inevitably, developed so many factions and so many tendencies. But then: Is there a line, a red line, beyond which a Marxist faction or tendency can no longer seriously or legitimately claim to be Marxist? Should one of my numerous young Christian compatriots ask me this question, I would polemically, but with sufficient sensibility, answer her or him along the following line: Is there a red line beyond which a Christian individual, or formation, or sect, or tendency cannot continue to claim to be Christian?

The answer I receive will not settle the matter, since there is a big difference between the nature of Christianity and the nature of Marxism. But the answer will provide a sufficient basis for further discussion.

Madunagu, mathematician and journalist, writes from Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

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Borno Nursing School Suspends Student For Not Welcoming Buhari During President's Visit


The Borno State College of Nursing and Midwifery has suspended a student for refusing to welcome President Muhammadu Buhari when he visited the state on June 17.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/ondo_again_ondo_amotekun_deports_137_northerners_from_state1600447_05_05_2021

Again, Ondo Amotekun ‘Deports’ 137 Northerners From State


The Ondo State Security Network Agency, codenamed Amotekun has again evicted 137 northerners from the state forest reserve.

Those evicted were occupying the Elegbeka forest reserve along Ifon-Owo Road

Governor Rotimi Akeredolu had in February ordered herdsmen to vacate the state’s forest reserves within seven days.

Apart from ejecting the herdsmen, the governor also banned underage grazing, night grazing, and movement of cattle within the cities and highways.

Speaking with journalists in Akure, the state commander of Amotekun, Chief Adetunji Adeleye described herdsmen’s continued occupation of the forest reserves as a security threat to the state.

Adeleye said all the illegal forest occupants would be escorted out of the state to wherever they came from.

He said, “We got an Intelligence report that very many people bombarded (forests at) Elegbeka–Ifon area in the state.

“We moved in and questioned the majority of them and they said they were from the northern part of the country. We asked for their mission, they were not able to give us a clear-cut (explanation) of what they were here for.

“We brought some of them (to Akure) and their sponsors here to the headquarters (of Amotekun) for proper investigation. We profiled them and found out that they were conniving with some persons in Ose to be given space for settlement in the government’s forest reserve which makes them illegal occupants in the forest reserve.”

The chairman said, “We are sending them back to where they claimed they came from.”

This comes a few days after the government evacuated 42 suspected invaders, who were arrested by Amotekun at Okitipupa, the headquarters of Okitipupa Local Government Area of the state.

The suspected invaders who hailed from Kano and Jigawa states claimed that they were invited to the state by an agent who will engage them as security guards to monitor and guide pipelines in the state.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/enugu_breaking_jubilation_in_enugu_as_father_mbaka_reappears1600446_05_05_2021

BREAKING: Jubilation In Enugu As Father Mbaka Reappears


There was Jubilation in Enugu State on Wednesday after the reappearance of the Spiritual Director of Adoration Ministry, Enugu Nigeria (AMEN), Rev Father Ejike Mbaka.

The Ohanaeze Ndigbo Youth Council Worldwide (OYC) had in a statement raised an alarm saying the whereabouts of the priest were unknown.

The cleric’s supporters and members of his Adoration Ministry in Enugu also took to the streets on Wednesday to protest against his alleged disappearance.

Mbaka had asked President Muhammadu Buhari to resign or be impeached last week.

However, he was attacked by the Presidency, which alleged that the cleric was angry because he sought to secure contracts from the Buhari-led government and was denied.

The cleric was on Wednesday afternoon seen in an open roof car, waving to protesters who surrounded him alongside operatives of the Nigeria Police Force.

His supporters were seen shouting ‘Father Mbaka, Oh! you are home!.”

The reverend father later came out of the vehicle to rejoice with his supporters.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/calabar_akpabio_denies_saying_60_per_cent_of_nddc_contracts_given_to_lawmakers632063_24_07_2020

Akpabio Denies Saying 60 Per Cent Of NDDC Contracts Given To Lawmakers


Minister of Niger Delta Affairs, Godswill Akpabio, has denied accusing members of the National Assembly of collecting 60 per cent of contracts from the Niger Delta Development Commission.

Akpabio in a letter read on the floor of the House during plenary by Speaker, Femi Gbajabiamila, claimed to have referred to old contracts awarded by the NDDC, which had not been paid for and some of which are part of the constituency projects of the lawmakers.

He said the only reference he made to 60 per cent during his presentation before the NDDC committee on Monday was in response to a question by a member of the committee.

According to the minister, the member had sought to know whether a medical director can serve as an Executive Director, Project, to which he responded by saying that since 50 to 60 per cent of NDDC contracts were medical-related, there was nothing wrong in a medical director serving in that capacity.

The Speaker said Akpabio’s response would be referred to the Committee on Ethics and Privileges to look at the merits of his arguments.

The House had earlier initiated moves to sue Akpabio for perjury.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/calabar_policeman_killed_as_gunmen_abduct_four_chinese_workers_in_cross_river632044_24_07_2020

Policeman Killed As Gunmen Abduct Four Chinese Workers In Cross River


Gunmen have kidnapped four Chinese construction workers in Cross River State.

The police spokesperson for the state, Irene Ugboh Itohan, confirmed the incident to the BBC.

She said a policeman working with the Chinese nationals was killed during the abduction which happened near a quarry site in the remote area of Akampka on Tuesday night.

Security personnel have been deployed to search for the expatriates.

It is not yet clear why the gunmen seized them, but kidnapping for ransom is rampant across Nigeria with both locals and foreigners targeted.

In some cases, the abductors kill their captives if their demands are not met.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/calabar_immigration_to_establish_border_community_committee_in_cross_river603013_15_07_2020

Immigration to establish border community committee in Cross River


The Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) in Cross River has express its readiness to establish the Immigration Border Community Relations Committee in all border communities in the state.


Comptroller of NIS in the state, Mr James Ezugwu, disclosed this on Wednesday in Calabar during a courtesy visit to the Paramount Ruler of Calabar South, Prof. Itam Hogan.

Ezugwu explained that the committee would bring all the traditional rulers, youths and relevant stakeholders together in border management, security and patrol.

According to him, the committee will be charged with checking irregular migration and all forms of illegality along the border posts through a stronger and collaborative security.

He maintained that the committee would be chaired by the Paramount Ruler of each of the border communities in the state.

“My visit here today is to seek for collaboration between the NIS state command and the traditional institution.

“It’s important that we identify with the people of Calabar South because the area is very important to the NIS because it occupies an important security attraction due to its route to Cameroon.

“The traditional rulers and youths are important to us because the security of the country does not rest on the hands of uniform personnel alone, but in the collaborative efforts of all stakeholders.


“It’s in view of this that we are planning to establish the Nigeria Immigration Service Border Community Relations Committee across all border communities in the state,” he said.

The Comptroller said: “when you are in a place where the waters are closer to other countries, you collaborate with the local authority to ensure legal migration of persons.

“We need to collaborate and get it right so that the people we don’t desire are not allowed into the country. This country is ours and we must do everything to secure it.

“I am appealing to the traditional rulers here to collaborate and help us with intelligence. When we get this information on time, our response time will be faster and we will achieve results,” he said.

Responding, Hogan said the collaboration was a welcome idea, adding that it would serve the interest of Calabar South, the state and Nigeria in general.

“On our part, we will do our best to cooperate with you. Calabar South is the most cosmopolitan local government area in Cross River.

“The border committee you are planning to set up will help us to give you the needed support and intelligence that you require for your operations,” he said.

Newsmen report that the Comptroller in company of some traditional rulers and youth leaders went round some of the creeks in Calabar South for an on-the-spot assessment of the area.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/benincity_legitimate_official_websites_for_first_african_distance_learning_univ3191862_23_07_2022

Legitimate Official Websites For First African Distance Learning University , FADLU Are :

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Do you toss and turn in bed every night? Do you watch the clock as your wake-up time mercilessly approaches and only manage to fall asleep at some point in the morning? Have you been counting sheep for hours and still can't sleep?


Everybody sometimes can't fall asleep. The problem is when this condition lasts a long time or recurs frequently.


Professionally, the condition where you cannot fall asleep is called insomnia. It is dangerous and it is not pleasant to play with it. Sleep is vital for a person. A person suffering from insomnia cannot fall asleep or wakes up frequently.

Common symptoms are:


- difficulty falling asleep at night.


- waking up early in the morning without the ability to go back to sleep.


- frequent nighttime awakenings


- night watch, confusion of day and night


Read more at :

https://healthretrival.blogspot.com/2022/07/insomina-sleeping.html

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https://avalanches.com/eg/cairo_prostate_enlargement_usually_occurs_in_men_with_age_the_enlargement_c3167882_21_07_2022

Prostate enlargement usually occurs in men with age. The enlargement can be benign or malignant.

If classified as benign, the enlarged prostate is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As for whether it is malignant, it will lead to prostate cancer.


Although it does not endanger the life of the victim, the complaints that arise due to an enlarged prostate are very disturbing activities.


Some people who have an enlarged prostate will feel dissatisfied when urinating.


Symptoms can include a weak urinary stream, increased frequency of urination, frequent awakenings at night, and an inability to hold back the urge to urinate.


In severe cases, an enlarged prostate can cause urinary retention, which is a condition in which a person is unable to excrete urine that is in the bladder.


To overcome the prostate, whether to surgery? Actually, the action to treat this condition depends on the severity.


The main goal of treating an enlarged prostate is to improve the patient's quality of life. The therapy offered also varies, depending on the severity of the symptoms experienced.


To determine the severity, the doctor will perform a series of tests including:


- International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) test score.


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- Urophlometry (evaluation of the urine stream), calculation of residual urine.


- Images of the prostate that can be an ultrasound exam.

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https://healthretrival.blogspot.com/2022/07/dangerous-prostate-size.html

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https://avalanches.com/za/durban_edk_media_attends_a_film_music_and_dance_workshop_in_umlazi_3131657_20_07_2022
https://avalanches.com/za/durban_edk_media_attends_a_film_music_and_dance_workshop_in_umlazi_3131657_20_07_2022

EDK Media attends a film, music and dance workshop in Umlazi


Ezase Durban Media KZN better known as EDK Media is a Film and TV production company established back in 2011, based in the heart of Durban KwaZulu-Natal. It offers a variety of services including: TV Presenting Training, Photoshoots, TV Shows, Documentaries, Events management and many more.


On Friday the 15th of July 2022, EDK Media production team attended an art workshop in Umlazi, the south eastern part of KwaZulu-Natal which was held in Umlazi Cinema Hall.


The event was solely based on ways that the youth could utilize to venture into the corporate sector and the entertainment industry. The gap has been identified, that the youth is seeking employment rather than self employment. With the unemployment rate at its peak in South Africa, it is crystal clear that having a degree does not automatically translate to employment.


Dignitaries and speakers from different places graced the event with their presence, amongst which Mr Xolani Dlamini, the founder and event organizer of Urban Arts Entertainment attended. Menzi Theo (executive director of EDK Media), Bella Mnyandu and Smangele Sokhela commended the event organizers for pulling off such a great event in such a short space of time.


We still have a long way ahead to ensure that our government is democratically accountable for its people and for the young people to be granted equal opportunity. We're hopeful that events of this nature make a dent.

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