Southern Kaduna: A Long Story of Herdsme Kaduna

Southern Kaduna: A Long Story of Herdsmen Raids, Reprisal And Government Neglect


In the last five years, more than a thousand lives have been cut short in southern Kaduna in a series of intermittent raids allegedly by Fulani herdsmen and reprisal on Fulani settlements.

The river of bloody conflict in Southern Kaduna can be traced to minor provocations in a tension-prone area of the Northwest state.

These provocations are rooted in feelings of hatred against the Hausa/Fulani settlers by ethnic groups in the state as the region battles land exploitation and religious clashes. SaharaReporters examines the genesis of the crisis in this report.

https://avalanches.com/ng/kaduna_southern_kaduna_a_long_story_of_herdsmen_raids_reprisal_and_governme644369_28_07_2020

How it all started

Before now, the incidents were outbursts of violence that could be traced to a particular event.

After the politically-motivated election violence of 2011, a more dangerous trend of killing that chiefly involved cattle trampling on farmlands and herders carrying guns became the order of the day.

SBM Intelligence said in a research published in January 2017 that the bloodbath in 2016 was the epiphany of the new wave of sustained killings in Southern Kaduna.

“When viewing the current Southern Kaduna crisis, it is important to differentiate between this – killings between September 2016 and January 2017 and the previous historical incidents,” the publication said.

“The first critical difference is in the duration of the incidents. Most of the violent incidents before 2016 were either single incidents or closely related incidents occurring within a short space of time.

“That is not so with the ongoing violence. The violence has occurred in several separate incidents over a while much longer than any others in the history of Southern Kaduna."

SBM, however, recalled that in the aftermath of President Buhari’s loss to Goodluck Jonathan in 2011, there were 13 separate incidents of ethno religious attacks in Kaduna state alone – Southern Kaduna inclusive.

The killings, according to SBM research, was reported to have started in May 2016 and subsided in September 2017.

Land exploitation

A research titled, “Southern Kaduna and the atrocities of Hausa-Fulani Muslim herdsmen,” authored by the African Conflict and Security Analysis Network (ACSAN), said the sustained devastation, which SBM reckons began in 2016, had started earlier.

This report says some communities in Southern Kaduna were “so devastated that they could not even participate in the general election – 2015.”

ACSAN’s paper noted that the bitterness in that part of the state had its roots in the feelings of marginalisation by the different non-Hausa/Fulani groups.

This emotion has festered over the centuries.

“Before colonial and after colonial rule, the indigenous people of Southern Kaduna feel an alien system of governance was imposed upon them.

“In 1450-1850, it was the Saurata System in Zazzau, then came the Emirate System in 1816-1903 and the Native Authority System in 1903-1930, and in all these periods the indigenous people were marginalised and their land exploited,” the report recounted.

Timeline of killing spree

Reports of the frayed relationship between the dominant minority and the marginalised majority started filtering through in the eighties.

Reports reviewed by SaharaReporters showed there were several attacks which culminated in the destruction of properties, before the wildfire of 1987, which led to the death of 19 persons according to official records in 1987.

ACSAN recollects that the fire was reportedly ignited by a Muslim student, Aisha Garba, who was incensed by the preaching of a pastor that had switched from Islam to Christianity, Abubakar Bako.

Ms Garba is said to have jumped onto the podium at the event organised by the Fellowship of Christian Dtudents in the Kafanchan college of education, seized the microphone and “called on all Muslims to rise in defence of Islam.”

On a Sunday thereafter, some Muslim youths attacked an ECWA church.

The governor of the state at that time, Abubakar Umar, issued a broadcast, saying mosques and copies of Koran had been burnt in Kafanchan.

Governor Umar’s seemingly unfounded claim sparked a riot that turned the headquarters of Jema’a local government inside out and spread to other parts of the state.

Before the now frequent herdsmen raids, three more high-fatality riots split the frail cohabitation between the settling Hausa/Fulani and the ethnic non-Muslims of Southern Kaduna.

Between February and May of 1992, the Rahila Cudjoe commission said in its unpublished report that the Zangon-Kataf crisis caused over a thousand deaths and the destruction of multiple properties.

This crisis was sparked by an attempt to relocate the location of the weekly market, which was situated in a clustered Hausa/Fulani neighbourhood.

Within the same period, eight years later, Human Rights Watch said between 2,000 to 5,000 persons were killed, when Muslims and Christians in all of Kaduna went on a violent killing spree.

The deaths were allegedly ignited when Muslim youths attacked a protest organised by the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) against an executive bill to introduce Sharia law in the state.

In November 2001, 1,295 persons were murdered in Gwantu, Sanga LGA of Southern Kaduna, according to a police report. This outpour of blood was provoked by the traditional Muslim head of Gwantu and the Christian chairman of the local government.

ACSAN notes that both parties failed to explain to each other that the creation of a Sharia and customary court in the LGA would not affect their way of life. Once clashes broke out on the streets after Friday prayers, the Sanga LGA chairman was said to have left.

Passive government

Since 1987 when the occasional burst of killings started, the federal and state governments have been reported to be either passive or on the side of the Hausa/Fulani attackers.

In 1987, the riot was sparked by the state governor. In 1992, the Rahila Cudjoe commission failed to publish its report, and no stories of culprits being sentenced were reported.

The military did not step in to quell the violence sparked by the Sharia riots until the third month. Riot police were reported to have stayed back and watched houses, churches and mosques get burnt, done nothing.

While the crisis lasted, people were slaughtered on the streets and barricades of burning tyres erected across the state, including in the South.

The military was said to have stepped in when some youths, reported to be Christians, tried to launch a reprisal in a Muslim neighbourhood.

The present Kaduna State governor, Nasir el-Rufai, has been accused of partiality since the sustained herdsmen attacks began.

On February 15, 2019, the former FCTA minister said 66 persons of Fulani extraction were killed in the troubled local government of Kajuru, which is bordered by three local governments at the heart of the southern Kaduna crisis.

He said the death toll rose to 130 four days later but reportedly refused to comment on the killing of 11 persons from the Adara ethnic group during the same timeline of the massacre he announced.

The senator representing the area, Shehu Sani; human rights advocate, Chidi Odinkalu; and the commissioner of police in the state at the time, Ahmad Abdurrahman, disowned El-Rufai’s claims. Sani said the death toll was between 10 and 15; while Odinkalu noted there were 11 deaths.

El-Rufai, who revealed that most of the herdsmen terrorising residents of southern Kaduna and Kajuru are foreigners, attempted to expand the Ladduga grazing reserve.

The Southern Kaduna people, who said they had already lost lands to the Hausa/Fulani settlers, felt this was an affront.

SBM, in its January 2017 report, noted that the failure of governments at both state and federal level, to make policies out of genuine consultation, could see a full-blown militia created in the region.

The intelligence-gathering company highlighted the moves made by the Tarok, Jukun and Eggon ethnic groups to defend themselves against Fulani herdsmen attacks and carry out reprisal on innocent Fulani settlements when provoked.

In one incident in 2013, the Eggon militia was reported to have killed 90 security personnel.

When will the killings in Southern Kaduna stop? Time will tell.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/borno_borno_nursing_school_suspends_student_for_not_welcoming_buhari_during_1763508_24_06_2021

Borno Nursing School Suspends Student For Not Welcoming Buhari During President's Visit


The Borno State College of Nursing and Midwifery has suspended a student for refusing to welcome President Muhammadu Buhari when he visited the state on June 17.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/ondo_again_ondo_amotekun_deports_137_northerners_from_state1600447_05_05_2021

Again, Ondo Amotekun ‘Deports’ 137 Northerners From State


The Ondo State Security Network Agency, codenamed Amotekun has again evicted 137 northerners from the state forest reserve.

Those evicted were occupying the Elegbeka forest reserve along Ifon-Owo Road

Governor Rotimi Akeredolu had in February ordered herdsmen to vacate the state’s forest reserves within seven days.

Apart from ejecting the herdsmen, the governor also banned underage grazing, night grazing, and movement of cattle within the cities and highways.

Speaking with journalists in Akure, the state commander of Amotekun, Chief Adetunji Adeleye described herdsmen’s continued occupation of the forest reserves as a security threat to the state.

Adeleye said all the illegal forest occupants would be escorted out of the state to wherever they came from.

He said, “We got an Intelligence report that very many people bombarded (forests at) Elegbeka–Ifon area in the state.

“We moved in and questioned the majority of them and they said they were from the northern part of the country. We asked for their mission, they were not able to give us a clear-cut (explanation) of what they were here for.

“We brought some of them (to Akure) and their sponsors here to the headquarters (of Amotekun) for proper investigation. We profiled them and found out that they were conniving with some persons in Ose to be given space for settlement in the government’s forest reserve which makes them illegal occupants in the forest reserve.”

The chairman said, “We are sending them back to where they claimed they came from.”

This comes a few days after the government evacuated 42 suspected invaders, who were arrested by Amotekun at Okitipupa, the headquarters of Okitipupa Local Government Area of the state.

The suspected invaders who hailed from Kano and Jigawa states claimed that they were invited to the state by an agent who will engage them as security guards to monitor and guide pipelines in the state.

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https://avalanches.com/ng/enugu_breaking_jubilation_in_enugu_as_father_mbaka_reappears1600446_05_05_2021

BREAKING: Jubilation In Enugu As Father Mbaka Reappears


There was Jubilation in Enugu State on Wednesday after the reappearance of the Spiritual Director of Adoration Ministry, Enugu Nigeria (AMEN), Rev Father Ejike Mbaka.

The Ohanaeze Ndigbo Youth Council Worldwide (OYC) had in a statement raised an alarm saying the whereabouts of the priest were unknown.

The cleric’s supporters and members of his Adoration Ministry in Enugu also took to the streets on Wednesday to protest against his alleged disappearance.

Mbaka had asked President Muhammadu Buhari to resign or be impeached last week.

However, he was attacked by the Presidency, which alleged that the cleric was angry because he sought to secure contracts from the Buhari-led government and was denied.

The cleric was on Wednesday afternoon seen in an open roof car, waving to protesters who surrounded him alongside operatives of the Nigeria Police Force.

His supporters were seen shouting ‘Father Mbaka, Oh! you are home!.”

The reverend father later came out of the vehicle to rejoice with his supporters.

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Other News Kaduna

SUPER EAGLES COACH JOSE PESEIRO ARRIVES UYO TODAY FOR AKWA UTD/PLATEAU UTD CLASH

-TO INSPECT NEST OF CHAMPIONS SUNDAY


MFON PATRICK


Super Eagles head Coach Jose Peseiro will arrive Uyo today to watch Nigeria Professional Football League match between reigning Champions Akwa United and visiting Plateau United slated for Four O'clock in the afternoon at the Godswill Akpabio International Stadium.


Coach Peseiro who took charge of Super Eagles in May will be accompanied by his assistant Acacio Dos Santos and Super Eagles Head of Administration Enebi Achor.


The Portuguese tactician who led the senior national team to a 0-10 victory over Sao Tome and Principe will be the special guest of honour on match-day 35 when 8th placed Akwa United will square up against 2nd placed Plateau United.


Coach Peseiro has been scheduled to have a technical session with Coach Ayodeji Ayeni of Akwa United and the head Coach of Plateau United Fidelis Ilechukwu after the crucial game.


With Godswill Akpabio International Stadium selected by Confederation of African Football CAF as one of the two venues suitable to host international games in Nigeria, coach Peseiro will on Sunday morning be conducted round facilities at the stadium by a member of the NFF technical committee Elder Paul Bassey ahead of the 2023 AFCON qualifier against Guinea-Bissau in September.

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At least eight people have been killed and dozens greater injured in a crush out of doors an Africa Cup of Nations soccer in shape in Cameroon.

Videos showed crowds of screaming football lovers being overwhelmed at the access gates to the Paul Biya stadium in the capital Yaounde.

Witnesses described chaotic scenes outdoor the floor as lots of fans struggled to get get entry to.

Of the 38 individuals who were injured, seven are in a severe circumstance.

One infant is the various lifeless, in keeping with officials quoted by using the AFP news business enterprise.

The stadium has a ability of 60,000, however due to Covid regulations it become now not supposed to be greater than 80% complete for the game on Monday.

Match officers have been quoted as saying that a few 50,000 humans have been looking to attend.

Danish journalist Buster Emil Kirchner informed the BBC he saw "plenty of chaos" by means of the stadium's gates as enthusiasts clamoured to go into the ground.

It become stressful - people strolling, humans climbing fences, human beings breaking thru the barricades," he said, adding he noticed many humans without tickets trying to "pressure themselves in".

Journalist Leocadia Bongben advised the BBC's Newsday programme that she noticed commotion coming from one of the fan zone regions out of doors the stadium.

People started out shouting. A minute after that an ambulance came to the stadium, however when we got to the area the police might not permit us to get near where the stampede changed into," she said.

It's in reality quite a sad scenario that people cross to observe a sport and they come to be loss of life there."

Nick Cavell, a manufacturer for BBC Africa, became on the match and stated information of the crush did not seem to filter thru to the crowd until there were reviews on social media.

Discarded shoes and different debris turned into strewn around the doorway of the stadium, he said.

Nurse Olinga Prudence instructed the Associated Press that a number of the injured had been in a "desperate circumstance".

The Confederation of African Football (CAF) stated in a announcement that it was investigating the state of affairs.

The closing sixteen suit between Cameroon and Comoros befell notwithstanding the incident and ended with a 2-1 win for the hosts.

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Other News Nigeria

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https://avalanches.com/ng/benincity_contact_mr_benjamin_conlis_is_a_nice_mancall_2349037191162_or_ad3198632_23_07_2022
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https://avalanches.com/ng/benincity_contact_mr_benjamin_conlis_is_a_nice_mancall_2349037191162_or_ad3198632_23_07_2022
https://avalanches.com/ng/benincity_contact_mr_benjamin_conlis_is_a_nice_mancall_2349037191162_or_ad3198632_23_07_2022

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https://avalanches.com/ng/benincity_legitimate_official_websites_for_first_african_distance_learning_univ3191862_23_07_2022

Legitimate Official Websites For First African Distance Learning University , FADLU Are :

(1)

www.firstdistanceuniversity.website/

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www.sites.google.com/view/firstafricandistancelearningun/

.

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www.sites.google.com/view/university-fadlu/

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www.sites.google.com/view/e-identification/

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Other world news
https://avalanches.com/eg/cairo_do_you_toss_and_turn_in_bed_every_night_do_you_watch_the_clock_as_you3188903_22_07_2022

Do you toss and turn in bed every night? Do you watch the clock as your wake-up time mercilessly approaches and only manage to fall asleep at some point in the morning? Have you been counting sheep for hours and still can't sleep?


Everybody sometimes can't fall asleep. The problem is when this condition lasts a long time or recurs frequently.


Professionally, the condition where you cannot fall asleep is called insomnia. It is dangerous and it is not pleasant to play with it. Sleep is vital for a person. A person suffering from insomnia cannot fall asleep or wakes up frequently.

Common symptoms are:


- difficulty falling asleep at night.


- waking up early in the morning without the ability to go back to sleep.


- frequent nighttime awakenings


- night watch, confusion of day and night


Read more at :

https://healthretrival.blogspot.com/2022/07/insomina-sleeping.html

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https://avalanches.com/eg/cairo_prostate_enlargement_usually_occurs_in_men_with_age_the_enlargement_c3167882_21_07_2022

Prostate enlargement usually occurs in men with age. The enlargement can be benign or malignant.

If classified as benign, the enlarged prostate is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As for whether it is malignant, it will lead to prostate cancer.


Although it does not endanger the life of the victim, the complaints that arise due to an enlarged prostate are very disturbing activities.


Some people who have an enlarged prostate will feel dissatisfied when urinating.


Symptoms can include a weak urinary stream, increased frequency of urination, frequent awakenings at night, and an inability to hold back the urge to urinate.


In severe cases, an enlarged prostate can cause urinary retention, which is a condition in which a person is unable to excrete urine that is in the bladder.


To overcome the prostate, whether to surgery? Actually, the action to treat this condition depends on the severity.


The main goal of treating an enlarged prostate is to improve the patient's quality of life. The therapy offered also varies, depending on the severity of the symptoms experienced.


To determine the severity, the doctor will perform a series of tests including:


- International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) test score.


- Lab tests, such as urinalysis, prostate- specific antigen (PSA), and kidney function.


- Urophlometry (evaluation of the urine stream), calculation of residual urine.


- Images of the prostate that can be an ultrasound exam.

Read more :


https://healthretrival.blogspot.com/2022/07/dangerous-prostate-size.html

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https://avalanches.com/za/durban_edk_media_attends_a_film_music_and_dance_workshop_in_umlazi_3131657_20_07_2022
https://avalanches.com/za/durban_edk_media_attends_a_film_music_and_dance_workshop_in_umlazi_3131657_20_07_2022

EDK Media attends a film, music and dance workshop in Umlazi


Ezase Durban Media KZN better known as EDK Media is a Film and TV production company established back in 2011, based in the heart of Durban KwaZulu-Natal. It offers a variety of services including: TV Presenting Training, Photoshoots, TV Shows, Documentaries, Events management and many more.


On Friday the 15th of July 2022, EDK Media production team attended an art workshop in Umlazi, the south eastern part of KwaZulu-Natal which was held in Umlazi Cinema Hall.


The event was solely based on ways that the youth could utilize to venture into the corporate sector and the entertainment industry. The gap has been identified, that the youth is seeking employment rather than self employment. With the unemployment rate at its peak in South Africa, it is crystal clear that having a degree does not automatically translate to employment.


Dignitaries and speakers from different places graced the event with their presence, amongst which Mr Xolani Dlamini, the founder and event organizer of Urban Arts Entertainment attended. Menzi Theo (executive director of EDK Media), Bella Mnyandu and Smangele Sokhela commended the event organizers for pulling off such a great event in such a short space of time.


We still have a long way ahead to ensure that our government is democratically accountable for its people and for the young people to be granted equal opportunity. We're hopeful that events of this nature make a dent.

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