सबै प्रयोगकर्ता पोस्टहरू Bharat Rimal । काठमाडौं , संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक ग

https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__670783_05_08_2020

भरत रिमाल

मानव सभ्यताको विकास सँगै केही विसँगतीहरु पनि समानान्तर रूपमा विकास हुँदै आएका छन्। कतिपय विसंगतिका विषयहरू कुनै निश्चित प्रयोजनको लागि बनाइएका सामाजिक नियमहरूको अपव्याख्या भएर कुरीति बनेर समाजमा रहि आएका छन् भने कति विषयहरू समाजमा आफ्नो प्रभुत्व जमाउन शक्तिशाली वर्गले शक्तिहीन वर्गलाई दवाउन असामाजिक तरिकाले अपनाइएका तथाकथित नियमहरू अन्धविश्वासको भुमरीले अहिले सम्म पनि लिएर आएको छ। विश्व इतिहास हेर्ने हो भने सामाजिक रूपान्तरणको निम्ति कयौं वर्ग संघर्षहरु भए र हालसम्म पनि भइरहेका छन्। अमेरिकाको अश्वेत आन्दोलन होस् कि रूसी कम्नयुष्ट आन्दोलन होस्, श्रीलंका को गृहयुद्ध होस् या नेपालको माओवादी जनयुद्ध होस् समाज रुपान्तरणका लागि गरिएका संघर्षहरु अझै पूर्ण हुन् सकेका छैनन्। अरिस्टोटल देखि कार्ल मार्क्स लेलिन देखि स्टालिन हुँदै माओसेत्युङ सम्मको विचार र मार्ग दर्शनलाई आधार मानेर अहिले पनि विश्वको धेरै ठाउँमा संघर्ष हरु दिनहुँ भइरहेकै छन्। समाज भनेको एउटा जटिल संरचना हो जहाँ जीवन अस्तित्वको लागि एकले अर्कोलाई सिध्याउन पछि नपर्ने मानवले न्यूनतम साझा स्वार्थ पूर्ति लागि समुह बनाएर बस्ने र साझा शत्रु सँग सामूहिक लड्ने अठोटका साथ निश्चित भूगोलमा कब्जा जमाएका हुन्छन्। यसरी मानव अतिक्रमित भूगोल भित्र पनि मानव बीचमै संघर्ष हुन्छ र श्रोत साधन कब्जा गरि समाजमा आफू शक्तिशाली बन्न लालायित मानवीय स्वभावलाई नियन्त्रण गर्न मानवले नै कयौं सिद्धान्त, नियम रीति बनाएका छन् तैपनि मानवीय स्वभावको प्रतिनिधित्व भई हाल्छ।

युग र समय सँगै संघर्षको रूप पनि परिवर्तन हुँदै आएका छन्, प्राचीन इतिहास नीति युद्ध हुन्थ्यो, १२ औं शतब्दीदेखि १९ औँ शताब्दीसम्म भौतिक युद्ध भए, अहिले कहीँ कहीँ भौतिक र धेरै जसो वैचारिक युद्धको समय छ। समय र काल अनुसार वर्ग शत्रु पनि परिवर्तन हुँदै आएका छन्। समाजको आवश्यकता पनि परिमार्जित हुँदै आएका छन्। पहिले को जस्तो भौतिक अस्तित्वको लागि संघर्ष अहिले नभए पनि आफ्नो मजबूत उपस्थितिका लागि संघर्ष गरिरहेको समाजमा हामी छौं र अहिलेको वर्ग शत्रु भनेको श्रोत र साधन कब्जा गरि सामाजिक असमानता फैलाउने वर्ग हो। श्रोत र साधनको असमान पहुँचले गर्दा सामाजिक द्वन्द बढ्दो छ। अबको सामाजिक रूपान्तरण भनेको श्रोत र साधनको सहज पहुँच नै हो र यसको लागि हरेक नागरिक आर्थिक रूपमा मजबूत हुन् जरुरी छ।

देशको १ प्रतिशत जनसंख्या सँग राज्यको ९०% श्रोत र साधन छ भने ९९ % जनसंख्या सँग मात्र १० % श्रोत र साधन छ। ९० प्रतिशत राज्यको श्रोतको मालिक भएका हरु मोज मस्ति मा रमाइरहेका छन् भने ९९% जनसंख्या राज्यको १०% श्रोत साधनले जीविका चलाइरहेका छ्न।

असमान श्रोत बाँडफाँड ले गर्दा सामाजिक भेदभाव, जातिय कुरीति, धार्मिक अन्धविश्वास जस्तो सामाजिक बेथितिको दलदलमा फसेको छ समाज। आर्थिक विपन्नता ले गर्दा मानिस अनेक प्रलोभन र अन्धविश्वास बढ्दै जान्छ र त्यहीँ बाट शुरू हुन्छ जात, धर्म, प्रथा जस्ता असमानता का हाँगा विँगा हरु। अहिलेको नेपाली समाज पनि यस्तै जन्जाल बाट जेलिएको छ। जातको नाममा शोषित छन् , धर्मको नाममा शोषित छन्, लिङ्ग वर्ण को आधारमा, भूगोलको आधारमा, सुगमता को आधारमा यस्ता कयौं विभेदका आधारहरू तयार छन्। यो सामाजिक विभेदको अन्त्य गरी सामाजिक रूपान्तरण गर्न हरेक नागरिक आर्थिक रुपमा सक्षम हुनै पर्छ। आर्थिक रूपमा मजबूत नागरिकलाई जात, धर्म, रुढीवादी जस्ता कुराले जीवन यापनमा तात्विक फरक पारेको हुँदैन, जो विपन्न छ उनीहरु नै हुन्छन् पीडित, कतिपय पीडक पनि उनीहरुनै हुने गर्दछन्।

अहिलेको परिपेक्षमा सामाजिक रुपान्तरणका निम्ति निम्न बुँदाहरू विश्लेषण गरिएको छ।

१. आर्थिक विपन्नताले थलिएपछि मानिसमा धर्म, भूत प्रेत मा जातमा, पूर्वजन्मको कर्म, आशीर्वाद, सराप जस्ता अन्धविश्वासको सहरा लिन थाल्छन् र सामाजका टाठाबाठाले उहीहरुबाट अनुचित फाइदा लिने र समजमा अत्याचार फैलाउने काम गरिरहेका हुन्छन्। यदि समाजलाई आर्थिक रूपमा मजबूत राख्ने हो भने सबै असमानता आफैं अन्त्य भएर जान्छन्। कथित दलित समुदायको एउटा आर्थिकरुपमा सम्पन्न मानिसले समाजको अपहेलना सहनु पर्दैन जहाँ विपन्न हरुले सहनु पर्छ।

२. प्राविधिक शीप भएका हरु जस्तै सिलाई, बुलाई र निर्माणको काम गर्न जान्ने दक्ष जनशक्तिलाई दलित भनिएको छ, यदि राज्यले शीप विकास र व्यवसायिकरण नीति आलम्बन् गर्ने हो भने सबै भन्दा पहिले आर्थिक प्रगति गर्ने ती नै तथाकथित दलित हरु को बर्षौ देखि पिछडिएका छन् उनीहरू नै चाँडै आर्थिक रूपमा सक्षम भई समाजका अगुवा बन्न सक्छन्, मात्र राज्यले उनीहरूको योग्यतालाई व्यवस्थापन गरिदिए पुग्छ।

३. शिक्षा र स्वास्थ्यको अवसर पाए काम गरेर खाने वर्ग मेहेनत हुने हुनाले समृद्ध हुन समय लाग्दैन, शिक्षा दिक्षा बाट वञ्चित हुन नपरेपछि चेतना विकास भई सामाजिक अत्याचारको अन्त्य गर्न सक्षम हुन्छन्, यसै पनि शिक्षा दिक्षा सम्पन्न भए पछि कुनै समुदायले सजिलै अत्याचार गर्दैन।

४. सामाजिक रुपान्तरणको निमित्त दलित र पिछडिएका वर्गको महिला तथा बालबालिका लाई आत्मनिर्भर र आत्मविश्वास विकास गरिनु पर्दछ ताकि उहीहरुले आफूलाई कमजोर रूपमा स्वीकार नगरुन्। आर्थिक विकासको लागि सामूहिक लगानी, विज्ञ र प्रविधिको अधिकतम प्रयोग गरी हरेक नागरिकलाई रोजगार तथा औद्योगिक मालिक बनाउन जरुरी छ। यसको लगानीको सानो सानो इकाई बनाई पर्यटन, जलविद्युत, कृषि तथा उत्पादनमा सम्पूर्ण नागरिकलाई समाहित गराउन जरुरी छ।

५. सामूहिक लगानी र आम्दानीको हिस्सामा समान हक हुने वातावरण मिलाउनु पर्दछ जसले गर्दा सबै नागरिकको समान हैसियत विकास भई सामाजिक विभेदको अन्त्य हुन्छ। हरेक नागरिकलाई आफ्नो परिवार मात्र होइन आफ्नो समाज, आफ्नो इतिहास आफ्नो अस्तित्व माथि गौरव गर्ने वातावरण बनाउनु पर्दछ, जस्तै सामूहिक यात्रा, भ्रमण, अन्तर्राषट्रिय परिवेश अध्ययन जस्ता विषयमा हरेक नागरिक लाई समान अवसर दिनुपर्छ।

६. हरेक वर्गले पुर्खा देखि गरिआएको पेशालाई आधुनिकीकरण गरी अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय बजारसम्म पहुंच बनाउन राज्यले पहल गर्नु पर्दछ। स्वदेशी कच्चा पदार्थको उत्पादनमा सामजिक पहल गर्नु गराउनु पर्दछ।

८. खाद्य इन्स्योरेन्स, विपत इन्स्योरेन्स स्वास्थ इन्स्योरेन्स जस्ता सामाजिक सुरक्षा कार्यक्रममा सबै नागरिकलाई सहभागी गराउनु, प्रशिक्षण दिनु को साथै परेको बेलामा ती सुरक्षा संयन्त्र कसरी प्रयोग गर्ने भनेर प्रशिक्षित गर्नु पर्दछ।

९. आर्थिक रूपमा सम्पन्न भएपछि समाज आफैं समानताको बाटोमा जाने हुनाले राज्यले सबै नागरिकलाई आर्थिक सवलीकरण गर्नु अहिलेको आवश्यकता हो। नेपालको जनसंख्या धेरै ठूलो पनि छैन, तर प्राकृतिक रूपमा संसारले हेर्ने नेपाललाई विश्वको पहिलो पर्यटन गन्तब्य बनाउनु पर्छ। पर्यटन विकास मात्र गर्ने हो भने पनि ३ करोड जनसंख्या आर्थिक रूपमा आत्म निर्भर हुनेछन्। हाम्रो अध्ययनले पहिलो चरणमा विश्व स्तरीय पर्यन विकास परियोजना सञ्चालन गर्न ३ खर्ब लाग्ने प्रक्षेपण गरेका छौं। यो बजेटलाई रु.१०००/ प्रति इकाइको दरले हरेक नागरिकलाई लगानी गर्न लगाउने हो भने सजिलै लगानी व्यवस्थापन हुन्छ र पहिलो चरणमा करिब १० हजार रोजगारी सिर्जना हुनेछन्। यसको विस्तार योजना अनुसार १० वर्षमा १ लाख रोजगारी सिर्जना हुनेछन् र पर्यटन बजारको आकार वाषिर्क २४ खर्बको हुनेछ। यस्तै हामी कृषि, स्वास्थ र इन्जिनियरिङ क्षेत्रमा पनि सम्भावना भएका छौं। इन्जिनियरिङ, चिकित्सा र saoftware अध्ययनको हब बनाउने धेरै सम्भावना छ। यसरी सम्भाव्यता अध्ययन गरी आयमुलक क्षेत्रमा नागरिकलाई लगानी गराई प्रतिफल दिने व्यवस्था राज्यले मिलाउन सके १० वर्षमा प्रतिव्यक्ति आय उच्च भएको राष्ट्रमा नेपाल पर्छ नै।

११. शहरको विकेन्द्रीकरण गर्नु अहिलेको महत्वपूर्ण कदम हुनेछ। हरेक सहरलाई विशेष शहरको रूपमा जस्तै कुनै मेडिकल सहर, कुनै इन्जिनियरिङ सहर, कुनै प्रविधि सहर, कुनै कमर्स सिटी, कुनै आर्टिस्ट सिटी, कुनै औद्योगिक सहर जस्तै हरेक सहरलाई एक विशेषता सहित स्मार्ट सिटी बनाउने र हरेक नागरिकलाई आर्थिक योद्धा बनाई राष्ट्रनिर्माणको अग्रमोर्चामा समाहित गराई आर्थिक विभेदको अन्त्य गर्न सकिन्छ। आर्थिक विभेद अन्त्य हुने बितिकै अन्य विभेद अन्त्य भएर जान्छ। आज समाजमा जुन पिडा, पीडित, दलित निमुखा देखिएका छन् आर्थिक पहुंच नभएर हो। यहाँ जात, धर्म, समुदायको र वर्गको कुरा गरिन्छ यिनलाई असमानताको कारण मान्ने गरिन्छ, यो गलत छ, असमानताको कारक भनेको आर्थिक विपन्नता र राज्यको श्रोतमा व्यक्ति हावी हुनु हो, सामाजिक रुपान्तरणको लागि आर्थिक क्रान्ति अपरिहार्य छ।

Show more
0
534
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__669069_05_08_2020

भरत रिमाल


राज्यले लिएका आर्थिक नीति उदार पुँजीवादी सिद्धान्त र खुल्ला अर्थतन्त्र अन्तर्गतको अति नै अव्यवस्थित र गैरजिममेवारपूर्ण छन्। कम्युनिजम ले परिकल्पना गरेको जस्तो श्रोत र साधनमा पूर्णरुपमा राज्यले नियन्त्रण गरेर जनतालाई समान उपभोगको अवसर दिने भन्ने सैद्धान्तिक विचार पनि अहिलेको दुनियामा सम्भव छैन र डेमोक्र्याट हरुले भने जस्तो राज्य नियन्त्रण रहित खुल्ला अर्थतन्त्रमा निजीक्षेत्रले सवल बनेर पर्याप्त रोजगारी सिर्जना भई देशले आर्थिक गति लिएको अवस्था पनि छैन। राज्यले कम्यूनिष्ट र डेमोक्राटिक दुवै सरकारहरूको अनुभव गरिसकेको छ। ब्यबहारिक रुपमा जुन शासन व्यवस्था भए पनि राज्यको कार्यगत भिन्नता देखिएन। दुवै व्यवस्थामा व्यक्तिवादी सोच तथा व्यक्तिवादी शक्ति बाँफाँडमा राज्यको स्रोत र साधनको चरम दुरुपयोग भईरहेको छ। सैदान्तिक रूपमा संसदीय व्यवस्थाका घोर विरोधी कम्न्युष्टहरु संसदीय प्रणाली बाटै राज्य सत्तामा हालीमुहाली रहनु, डेमोक्रेट हरुमा डेमोक्रेसीको गलत अभ्यास हुनुले राज्य व्यवस्था कुनै राजनीतिक सिद्धान्त भन्दा पनि व्यक्तिको बहुलठठी लहडमा चलिरहेको छ।


यी यावत परिस्थिति बाट बाहिर निस्किन युवाहरुले एउटा प्रयोगात्मक शासन प्रणाली र राज्य व्यवस्थाको विचार सहित जनसरोकारका राजनीतिक र आर्थिक रुपान्तरण गर्नु अपरिहार्य छ। गौरवपूर्ण इतिहास बोकेको नेपाल संसारमा हेपिएको दमित राष्ट्र बनेको छ, विश्व मञ्चमा नेपालको मतलाई गहकिलो मतको रूपमा लिइनु पर्ने हो तर कमजोर अर्थतन्त्रको कारण नेपालको कुनै मतको कदर छैन। विश्व श्रम बजारमा नेपालीहरुले सबभन्दा कम पारिश्रमिक पाउने गर्छन्। नेपालीहरुले विश्व श्रम बजारमा सबैभन्दा जोखिम युक्क्त कामहरू गर्ने गर्दछन्। यी सबै समस्याको जड भनेको नेपाल आर्थिकरुपमा पछाडि पर्नु, परनिर्भरता बढ्नु, प्रणालीगत कार्यव्यवस्था नहुनु, श्रोत र साधनको गलत प्रयोग हुनु, व्यक्तिवादी आचरण विकास हुनु र भ्रष्ट्राचार मौलाउनु हुन्।


यी सबै समस्याको हल गर्नको निमित्त नेपाल आर्थिक रूपमा सबल हुनै पर्छ, जनताको आर्थिक अवस्था मजबुत हुनै पर्छ। नेपालमा कामन्युष्ट हरुले लुटेर खान सिकाए, डेमोक्रेट हरुले ठगेर खान सिकाए तर काम गरेर खान सिकाएन, अबको युवाहरुले शासन सत्ता आफ्नो हातमा लिएर जनतालाई काम गरी खान सिकाउनु पर्छ तब मात्र देशको उन्नति सम्भव छ। देशलाई आर्थिक गति दिन, समाधानको बाटोमा लैजान कमन्युष्ट वा डेमोक्राटिक विचार वा सिद्धान्त होइन नेपालको मौलिक सिद्धान्त विकास गरिएको छ जस अनुसार कार्यगत व्यवस्था हुनु अपरिहार्य छ।


नेपाल विश्वका मजबूत अर्थतन्त्र भएका दुई ठूला राष्ट्रका वीच सानो विपन्न मुलुक बनेर बसेको छ, त्यसै पनि विपन्न मुलुकमा वैदेशिक हस्तक्षेप हुन्छ नै जसले अहिलेको जस्तो राज्य व्यवस्थाले गर्दा छिमेकी लगायत अन्य वैदेशिक हस्तक्षेप भयावह छ कि नेपालको अर्थतन्त्र नेपालीको हातमा छैन, बनेका उद्योग धन्दा बन्द गरेर विदेशी उत्पादन आयात गर्नु पर्ने विडम्बना बाट गुज्रिएको छ देश। नेपालको मौलिक आर्थिक व्यवस्था बुँदागत रूपमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ।


१. सम्पूर्ण नेपाली नागरिकलाई नागरिक परिचय नम्बर व्यवस्था गरी काम आफ्नो शीप अनुसारको काम गर्ने इजाजत पत्र अनिवार्य रूपमा लिनु पर्ने व्यवस्था गर्नु पर्छ। विना इजाजत कुनै काम गर्न गराउन नपाइने व्यवस्था हुनु पर्छ। यसले गर्दा इजाजत पत्र बनाउँदा राष्ट्रिय परिचय पत्र वा श्रम इजाजत प्राप्त पासपोर्ट अनिवार्य हुनु पर्ने हुन्छ।


२. यसरी इजाजत पत्र को व्यवस्था भएपछि विदेशी हरु अवैधरुपमा आएर स्थानिय रोजगारी हडप्ने र नेपाली जोखिमयुक्त वैदेशिक रोजगारीमा जानुपर्ने वातावरण अन्त्य हुन्छ भने सम्पूर्ण श्रमिकहरू राज्यको अभिलेखमा आउँछन्।


३. कुनै नयाँ काम वा नयाँ क्षेत्रमा लगानी भन्दा पनि जसले जे गरिरहेको छ त्यसलाई आधुनिकीकरण गर्ने, प्रविधिमैत्री बनाउने र त्यसैलाई औद्योगिकरण गर्ने नीति लिनु पर्छ। जसले गर्दा सम्बन्धित क्षेत्रमा लिएको ज्ञान र सीपको पनि सदुपयोग हुनुको साथै भइसकेको लगानी, श्रोत र साधनको उपयोग हुने हुँदा ठूलो लगानी आवश्यक हुँदैन।


४. हरेक उत्पादनको बीमा को साथै बजार व्यवस्थापन राज्यले गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। आधुनिक तालिम, प्रविधि साथै ब्यवसाय सुदृढीकणका सेवाहरु सरकारले निशुल्क र कतिपय कार्यस्थलमा नै व्यवस्था गरिनु पर्दछ।


५. अहिले नेपाली समाजमा अव्यवस्थित तरिकाले गर्दै आएका निर्वाह मुखी मिश्रत श्रमलाई व्यवसायिकरण गरिनु पर्छ, जस्तै एउटै व्यक्ति वा परिवारले एउटा गाई, एउटा भैंसी गोरु बाख्रा कुखुरा परेवा पाल्ने, सबै खाले मिश्रित बाली पनि लगाउने श्रम अत्याधिक गर्ने तर परिणाम शुन्य हुने प्रवृत्ति छ, यसमा किसानलाई सबल बनाई कुनै एउटा उत्पादनलाई व्यवसायिक बनाउन प्रेरित गरि साथ र सहयोग गर्नु पर्छ।


६. कामलाई कर्तव्यको रूपमा ग्रहण गरी कुनै कामको महत्व अर्को कामको तुलनामा कम हुँदैन भन्ने कुरा हरेक नागरिकलाई बुझाउनु पर्छ। नेतृत्व वा राज्य सञ्चालकहरुले जनता सँगै काम गरेर हौसला दिनु पर्छ।


७. कृषी एम्बुलेन्सको व्यवस्था गरी कुनै कृषि उत्पादनमा समस्या देखिए विषेशज्ञ सहितको उपचार तथा निराकरण उत्पादन क्षेत्रमै गएर दिने व्यवस्था गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ।


८. कुनै पनि उद्योग खोल्दा स्वदेशी कच्चा पदार्थ प्रयोग हुने उद्योगलाई प्राथमिकता दिनु पर्दछ।


९. कुनै खास महत्व भएका स्थान वा वस्तुको व्यवसायिक प्रवर्धन गरिनु पर्दछ जस्तै लुम्बिनीको माटो गमलामा राखेर बोधिचित्तको बिरुवा लगाई लाखौंमा बिक्री गर्न सकिन्छ, सगरमाथाका ढुङ्गा राखी साना कृतिम झरना बनाई बिक्री गर्न सकिन्छ।


१०. विभिन्न ठाउँमा तालिम केन्द्रहरु स्थापना गरि स्थलगत तालिमको व्यवस्था गरिनु पर्दछ र त्यस्ता तालिम केन्द्रबाट राजनीतिक प्रशिक्षण दिएर अहिलेको राज्य व्यवस्था परिवर्तन परिवर्तन गरी युवा नेतृत्वको प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख सहितको शासन व्यवस्था स्थापना गर्न सकिन्छ।


माथि उल्लेखित कामहरू संगठित भएर अभियान मार्फत स्थानीय सरकार, संघ संस्था तथा स्थानिय प्रतिष्ठित र जुझारु युवाहरु प्रयोग गरी गैर राजनीतिक तरिकाले संगठनलाई मजबूत बनाउने र जब संगठनले देशव्यापी रूप लिन्छ, तालिम व्यवसायिक तालिम केन्द्र हरु खोल्ने र व्यवसायिक तालिमको साथै राजनीतिक प्रशिक्षण पनि दिने गर्नु पर्छ किन कि हामीले व्यवसायीक अभियानले लाभान्वित भएका जनता हाम्रो राजनीतिक प्रशिक्षण पश्चात राज्य व्यवस्था परिवर्तन गर्न सजिलै सहमत हुन्छन् र यो कसैले रोक्न पनि सक्दैन किन की हामीले जरै देखि मजबूत बनाएका हुन्छौ, कुरा होइन व्यवहारमै जीवन स्तर उकास्न अहोरात्र खटिएका हुन्छौं, हाम्रो अभियानले आर्थिक रूपमा सक्षम बनेकाहरु हरहालतमा हाम्रो साथ रहन्छ।


सांगठनिक रूपमा मजबूत हुँदै गएपछि कर्मचारी, शिक्षक प्रशासक हरुलाई परिचालन गरी भ्रष्ट हरुको सूचना संकलन गरी सार्वजनिक गर्ने, जनस्तर बाट कारबाहीको माग गराउने, मिडियामा उनीहरूको कर्तुत भण्डाफोर गर्ने र जनस्तर बाट जनसमर्थन बटुल्दै जाने नीति लिनु पर्दछ।


अहिले सम्मका आन्दोलन, जनयुद्ध वा विद्रोह हरुले जनतालाई गफ र आश्वासन बाहेक केही कहिल्यै दिएको छैन त्यसैले हामीले ब्यबहारिक र आर्थिक लडाइँ वैचारिक र वस्तुपरक ढंगबाट लड्नु पर्छ, राज्य सत्ता प्राप्त गर्न १५ वर्ष लाग्छ, अवश्य सफलता हाँसिल गरिन्छ नै।

Show more
0
246
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__608131_17_07_2020

भरत रिमाल


प्रभावकारी कार्यपालिकाको संरचना


आर्थिक, सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनलाई संस्थागत गर्न राजनीतिक पहलकद्मी हुनुपर्छ र राज्यको संविधान, ऐन कानुनले सम्बोधन गरिनु पर्छ नत्र केहि सकारात्मक परिवर्तन भईहाले पनि अस्थायी हुन्छन र कुनै पनि बेला यथास्थितिमा फर्किने सम्भवना हुन्छ। अहिले देखिएका समस्या वा हाल सम्म गरिएका राजनीतिक संघर्षहरु सफल नहुनुको मुख्यकारण जनस्तर बाट उठेका सवाल हरुमा गम्भीर बहस नहुनु र धेरै बहस गरिएका बिषय गम्भीर नहुनु हो। राज्यको शक्ति र ठूलो श्रोत प्रयोग गरि निकलिएका निष्कर्षहरु संबिधान र ऐन हरुमा निहित स्वार्थको कारण समावेश गरिएन। यस्ता धेरै अध्ययन आयोगहरु बनेका छन जसले राज्यको ठुलो धनराशी खर्च गरेर अध्ययन रिपोर्ट त बनाए तर न संविधान मा समेटिए न ऐन मा। यसो हुनुको मुख्य कारण भनेको शासकहरुको ब्यक्तिगत वा गुटगत स्वार्थ नै हो। यस्तो दुर्दशा बाट देशलाइ मुक्ति दिन शिक्षित युवा हरुले पहलकदमी लिनै पर्ने हुन्छ।

अहिले जून ब्यबस्था आए पनि शासकीय प्रबृत्ति परिवर्तन नहुनुको पछाडि जननिर्देशित प्रणाली बिकास नहुनु नै हो। अहिले प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा उत्तरदायित्व खोजिनु, प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा आकांक्षा राखिनु, प्रणालीको लागि भन्दा ब्यक्तिको पछाडि राजनीति दौड़ीनु अहिलेको दुर्गतिको कारणहरु हुन। शासन प्रणाली वा हाम्रो प्रणाली के भन्छ भन्दा पनि प्रधानमन्त्री के भन्छन/भन्छिन, राष्ट्रपति के भन्छन/भन्छिन भन्ने कुरा को पछाडि राजनीति दौडीएको छ यो नै हाम्रो राज्य व्यबस्थाको कमजोरी हो। राजनीतिको यो बिकराल अवस्थाको निकास भनेको प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निर्वाचन प्रणाली नै हो। अर्को कार्यपालिका र ब्यबस्थापिका बीचको सम्बन्धलाई उत्तरदायी तरिकाले नयाँ बाट परिभाषित गरिनु पर्छ र सैद्धान्तिक सम्बन्ध बलियो बनाउने तर राजनीतिक सम्बन्धलाई अंकुश लगाउनु जरूरी छ। एउटै पद्दति बाट आएका उहि ब्यक्तिहरु ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिकामा आसीन हुँदा नीति नियमहरु जनमुखी भन्दा शासकलाई शक्ति ब्यबस्थापन गर्न दुरुपयोग हुने गर्छ। प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निवार्चन प्रणाली, त्यसलाई ब्यबस्थापन गर्ने आधार र त्यसका फाइदा बेफाइदाको बूँदागत विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरेको छु।


हालको संसदीय प्रणाली बाट कार्यकारी प्रमुख निर्वाचित हुने र संसद सदस्य बाट मन्त्रिपरिषद गठन हुने प्रणाली नै देशको ठूलो जड शत्रु भ्रष्ट्राचारको मूल जरो हो। जननिर्वाचित संसद सदस्य जनताका समस्या प्रणालीगत रुपमा संबोधन गरि संबैधानिक र कानूनी रूमा स्थापित गराउने ब्यबस्थापिका संचालन गर्न आएका हुन्छन तर उनीहरुलाई नै कार्यपालिका को जिम्मा लगाउँदा संबिधान, ऐन र नियम कानून बनाउँदा जनमुखी भन्दा शासकमुखी बनाउने गर्छन, किनकि शासन पनि उनीहरु कै हात हातमा हुन्छ। अबको आवश्यकता भनेकै ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिका लाई अलग गर्नु हो। जननिवार्चित सदस्यहरु बाट ब्यबस्थापिका बन्नु पर्छ र प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखको नेतृत्वमा समाजमा स्थापित र प्रमाणित भइसकेका विज्ञ र दक्ष ब्यक्तिहरु सम्मिलित ११ सदस्यीय क्याबिनेट बन्नु पर्छ, ब्यबस्थापिकाको निम्ति निर्वाचित सदस्य हरुलाई क्याबिनेट मा तान्नु हुँदै हुँदैन। ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिका अलग रहनु पर्ने कारण र त्यसका फाइदा र प्रभावको बारेमा बूँदागत रुपमा तल उल्लेख गरेको छु।


१. संविधान, ऐन र नियम कानून बनाउन ब्यबस्थापिका का सदस्यहरु प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणाली ४०% अल्पसंख्यक सीमानकृत वर्गको लागि समानुपातिक प्रणालीबाट ४०% र विज्ञ हरुबाट २०% गरेर ७५ जनाको ब्यबस्थापिका निर्माण गर्नु पर्दछ। संख्या अवस्यकताको आधारमा थपघट गर्न सकिन्छ तर ब्यबस्थापिका सदस्य संख्या ठुलो हुनुहुँदैन।

२. यसरी बनेको ब्यबस्थापिकाको काम नीति नियम, संविधान र ऐन कानून निर्माण मात्र हुनुपर्छ, यी सदस्य मन्त्री हुन पाउने छैनन। किनकि नीति नियम बनाउने र कार्यान्वन गराउने एउटै पद्दति र उहि सदस्य हुँदा नीति नियम जनमुखी नभई शासकमुखी हुन पुग्छ र अस्थिरता उत्पन्न भई ब्यापक भ्रष्ट्राचार हुने गर्छ। नीति बनाउने र कार्यान्वन गर्ने एउटै हुँदा आर्थिक मात्र नभई नीतिगत र प्रशासनिक भ्रष्ट्राचार मौलाउने र राज्यको स्रोत साधनको ब्यापक दुरुपयोग हुने हुँदा राज्यमा विभेद र असमानताले विकराल रूप लिन्छ र द्वन्द्व, बिद्रोह र गृहयुद्ध सम्म को खतरा रहन्छ जसले जसले गर्दा राज्यमा अशान्ति फैलिने र मानव विकास सुचाङ्क बाट तल झर्दै जाने हुन्छ।

३. ब्यबस्थापिकामा निर्वाचित सदस्य नै कार्यपालिकामा (क्याबिनेट) मा जाने ब्यबस्था हुँदा अनुचित प्रतिस्प्रधा बढ़न जान्छ र आर्थिक चलखेल शुरू हुन्छ, फलस्वरूप भ्रष्ट्राचारले जरा गाडने हुन्छ। ४. ब्यबस्थापिका सदस्य नै मन्त्री हुने व्यबस्था हुँदा आफु निर्वाचित हुन ठूलो धनराशि खर्च गर्ने, मन्त्री बन्न पनि धनराशि खर्च गर्ने र मन्त्री भए पछि अफ्नो खर्च भएको धनराशी को प्रतिफल खोज्ने हुँदा निर्विकल्प भ्रष्ट्राचार बढ़ने गर्छ।

५. यदि क्याबिनेट बाट मन्त्री नियुक्त नहुने हो भने ब्यबस्थापिक सदस्यको सेवा सुबिधाको लागि मात्र ठुलो धनराशिको चलखेल नहुने र खराब नियतको मानिस उमेद्वार पनि नबन्ने हुँदा भ्रष्ट्राचार नियन्त्रण उच्च हुन्छ।

६. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखले क्याबिनेट सदस्य समाजमा प्रमाणित र स्थापित भइसकेका ब्यक्तिहरुबाट नियुक्त गर्ने हुँदा सक्षम र अनुभवी ब्यक्तित्व नेतृत्वमा पुग्ने हुँदा कार्यसम्पदान गुणस्तरीय हुनुको साथै त्यस्ता ब्यक्तिहरु विगतको अफ्नो साख जोगाउनु पर्ने नैतिक धरातलमा हुने हुँदा अनुचित कार्यसम्पादन गर्ने संभावना न्यून हुन्छ।

७. समाजमा स्थापित व्यक्तित्वहरु अफ्नो ब्यबसयिक जीवनमा अर्थिकरूपमा सबल भइसकेका हुन्छन, राज्यले दिने सेवा सुविधा बाहेक अन्य आर्थिक प्रलोभनमा पर्नुपर्ने बाध्यता हुँदैन, जसले गर्दा भ्रष्ट्राचार नियन्त्रणमा ठूलो सफलता मिल्छ।

८. संसदीय प्रणालिमा जीवनभर आन्दोलन र नाराजुलुस मात्र गरेका र ब्यबसायिक धरातल नभएका मानिस हुने हुँदा उनीहरुको जीविकोपार्जन नै भ्रष्ट्राचार हुने गरेको छ, यसरी प्रत्यक्ष निवार्चित कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने ब्यबस्थामा भ्रष्ट्राचार संभव नहुने वा गाह्रो हुने हुँदा भ्रष्ट्र नियतका ब्यक्तिहरु शक्तिमा पुग्ने संभावना न्यून हुन्छ।

९. संसदीय ब्यबस्थामा सत्ता र शक्ति संसद सदस्यको संख्यामा भर पर्ने हुँदा ससाना समूहहरु पनि राजनीतिक दल दर्ता गरि एक दुइ सदस्य लिई सत्तामा शक्तिको दाउपेच लगाई रहेका हुन्छन तर प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन पद्दतिमा त्यस्ता स्वार्थ समुहको स्थान नहुने हुँदा राजनीतिक अस्थिरता पैदा गर्ने ससाना समूह हरु आफै हराएर जान्छन र राजनीतिक स्थिरता कायम हुन्छ।

९. संसदीय प्रणालिमा संसदमा अफ्नो संसद सदस्यहरुको समर्थन जोगाउन ठुलो संघर्ष गरीरहनु पर्ने हुँदा जनताको काममा भन्दा सत्ता जोगाई राख्न धेरै समय खर्च हुने हुन्छ भने प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणाली बाट निर्वाचित कार्यकारीले आफ्नो कार्यकाल को सम्पूर्ण समय प्रशासनिक कामको लागि दिन सक्छ।

१०. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित प्रणालिमा दलहरुको भूमिका नीति नियम बनाउन ब्यबस्थापिका लाई सुझाब दिने मात्र हुने हुँदा गुट उप गुट हुने र राजनीतिक अराजकता फैलिने संभावना हुँदैन।


प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख तानाशाही बन्ने र स्वच्छाचारी तरिकाले निरंकुश बन्ने तर्कहरू गरिएको पाईन्छ यो तर्क केहि हद सम्म स्वीकार्न सकिन्छ तर विश्वले धेरै गति लिई सकेको छ तानाशाह हरु जन्मिने संभावना धेरै कम हुन्छ। त्यस्तो अवस्थाको नियमनको लागि शासकिय प्रणालीलाई सुदृढ बनाउन पर्ने हुन्छ। तल उल्लेखित बुॅंदागत प्रणाली विकास गरेर तानाशाही प्रवृति नियन्त्रण गररिन्छ।

१. प्रमुख कार्यकारी उमेद्वार चुनाव भन्दा कम्तिमा ५ बर्ष अगाडिने तय हुनु पर्छ ता कि ५ बर्ष सम्म कार्यरत कार्यकारीको कार्य सम्पादन बिश्लेषण गर्न पावस र अध्ययन पनि गर्ने मौका पावस जसले गर्दा पद सम्हाले पछि तुरुन्त कुशल कार्यसम्पादन गर्न सकोस।

२. यदि कुनै उमेद्वार राजनीतिक बिचारधारामा आधारित पार्टीबाट चयन हुन्छ भने उक्त पार्टीले ५ बर्ष अगाडि नै आगामी चुनामा प्रतिष्प्रधा गर्ने उमेद्वार सहि अरु ३ जना वैकल्पिक उमेद्वार पनि प्रस्तुत गर्नु पर्दछ जसबाट जनताले हुनेवाला कार्यकारी प्रमुखको कार्यक्षमता वैचारिक क्षमता र जनता प्रतिको उत्तरदायीत्व बहन गर्ने क्षमता बुझ्ने मौका पाउन। आगामी चुनावमा प्रतिष्प्रधा गर्ने उमेद्वारले राष्ट्रिय स्तरका संचार माध्यम हरुबाट आफ्ना विचार, कार्ययोजना र राजनीतिक कार्य सम्पादन क्यालेण्डर प्रस्तुत गर्ने छ र जनताले कुन प्रतिष्प्रधी उचित हुन्छ उसको प्रस्तुति हेरेर निर्णय गर्नेछन्।

३. निर्वाचन पूर्ण प्रविधि आधारित ईन्टरनेटको सहायता बाट आफ्नै स्मार्ट फोनबाट विश्वको कुनै पनि ठाउॅं बाट आफ्नो मत राख्न पाईनेछ त्यसको लागि व्यक्तिगत परिचय नम्बर हुनेछ त्यो नम्बर र सरकारले उपलब्ध गरेको बिशेष पासवर्ड प्रयोग गरी आफ्नो मत दिन पाईनेछ। यसो गर्नाले मतदान प्रकृयामा सबै मताधिकार भएका नेपालीले विश्वको कुनै कुना बाट आफ्नो मत दिन पाउने छन्। यस प्रकारको मतदान प्रकृया आर्थिक रुपले पनि कम खर्चमा चुनाव गराउन सकिन्छ र कुनै विषय माथि जनमत लिनु परे कम खर्चमा केहि समयमा नै जनमत लिन सकिन्छ जसले गर्दा कुनै राष्ट्रिय महत्वको बिसयले विबादित भई बन्दक हुनु पर्दैन।

४. संविधानमा कुनै पनि निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखले आफू निर्वाचित भएको एक बर्ष सम्म आफ्नो घोणनापत्रमा समावेस गरेको राजनीतिक क्यालेण्डर अनुसार काम गरेको छ कि छैन भनि जनमत लिने व्यबस्था गर्नु पर्छ, यदि जनताबाट निर्वाचित भएमा ५ बर्षको लागि शक्तिशाली कार्यकारीको भुमिका निभाउनेछ जसलाई कुनै आन्तरिक या बाह्य कुनै शक्तिले पनि हटाउने सक्ने छैन। नैतिक पतन हुने कार्य वा कानुनले परिभाषित गरेका आपराधिक गतिविधि गरेमा मात्र पद बाट हट्नेछ अन्यथा आफ्नो कार्यकालमा कसैले अवरोध गर्ने छैनन्।

५. यो व्यबस्थामा व्यक्ति भन्दा प्रणाली शक्तिशाली हुने हुदाॅं प्रभावकारी कार्यसम्पादन हुन्छ किनकि यो प्रणालीमा कार्यसम्पादन शोली संरचनामा हुने गर्छ जहाॅं राम्रो काम गर्नेलाई बाटो खुल्ला हुॅंदै जान्छ भने राज्य हित विपरित काम गर्न बाटो साॅंगुरो हुन्छ, कठिन हुन्छ।

समग्रमा यो व्यबस्था प्रणालीमा आधारित शासन व्यबस्था हो, व्यक्तिमा आधारित होईन त्यसैले तानाशाह उत्पन्न हुने कुनै संभावना छैन।


Show more
0
186
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__597503_14_07_2020

भरत रिमाल


नेपालमा राजनीतिक अस्थिरता किन ?


नेपालको राजनीतिमा मानव सभ्यताको विकास देखि आजका मिति सम्म व्यक्ति केन्द्रित राजनीति हुँदै आएको छ र अहिलेको राजनीतिक अस्थिरता को जड पनि यहिं अड्किएको छ I शासन प्रणालीको विकासमा भन्दा सत्ता व्यावस्थाको परिवर्तनलाई क्रान्तिकारी एजेण्डा बनाईए।राजतन्त्र अस्तित्वमा रहॅंदा सम्म भाइ भारदारहरुले राजा ( एक व्यक्ति) लाई नै पद्दति मानिदिए, राणा हरुको उदय पछि त झन प्रधानमन्त्रीको व्यक्तिगत विवेकमा शासन चल्यो, त्यहाँ कुनै शासन प्रणालीको कुरै भएन, कुनै मापदण्ड नै भएन I शासकले न्युनतम मान्यताको ख्याल नगर्ने र दैनिक शासन प्रणालीमा शासक हाबी हुने, शासकको मनोविज्ञानको आधारमा कार्य सम्पादन हुने गर्दा मानिस हरुले परिवर्तनको खोजि गरिरहे, आन्दोलनहरु भए, युद्ध जनयुद्ध भए सत्ता व्याबस्था र शासक फेरिंदै रहे तर शासन गर्ने तरिकामा परिवर्तन भएन I हिजो राजा महाराजा जनताको पसिनामा राज गर्थे आज राष्ट्रपति र प्रधानमन्त्रि, मन्त्रीले गर्छन, जनजीवन जस्ताको तस्तै छI

राणाकाल देखि यताको समयलाई आधुनिक काल भनिने हुँदा त्यसभन्दा अघि नजाउँ, राणाहरुले औपचारिकताको लागि केहि ऐन बनाएका भए पनि सबै शासन प्रशासन मौखिक हुकुमतले नै चल्ने गर्थ्यो, देशको शासन व्यवस्था पूर्ण रुपले व्यक्तिको बहुलठ निर्देशनमा कुनै मार्ग वा सिद्धान्त विना नै चल्यो। फलत: आजको दिन सम्म पनि त्यहि अनुगति चलिरहेको छ। कानून बनेको छ कति अपूर्ण छ कति अस्थायी छ, कति आसमान छन अनि कति अवैज्ञानिक छन त्यसमा पनि पहुँचवालाको हकमा कानूनको प्रभावकारिता एकदमै फितलो छ। शासक वर्गमा कुनै राजनीतिक शक्ति आर्जन गरेको कुनै एक ब्यक्तिको सहुलियत लागि दीर्घकालीन असर पर्ने कानून बनेका छन्। समानताको बिषय उठ्ने गरेको छ तर समानताका आधारभूत मान्यता र सिद्धान्त सॅंग हालको राज्य राज्य व्यबस्था कहिं पनि कहिल्यै नमिल्ने गरि समानान्तर लाईनमा छन।

आजका युवा पुस्ताले पनि हाम्रा सहिद हरूको सयौं बर्ष पुरानो सपनालाई अहिलेको सपना बनाउनु परेको छ मतलब सयौं बर्ष देखि समाज परिवर्तन खोजिरहेको छ। लाखौं संख्यामा जनता सहिद भैसके सत्ताहरु परिवर्तन पनि भए तर शासन शैली परिवर्तन भएन । हजारौं बर्ष पहिले देखि श्रोत र साधनमा कब्जा जमाउने हरु आरामको जीवन जीउने र श्रोत र साधन निर्माण गर्ने, परिश्रम गर्नेहरु किनारामा पर्ने संस्कार अहिले पनि उस्तै छ। शासन प्रणालीको व्यबस्थापन नहुॅंदा सत्तामा रहनेहरुले सम्पूर्ण राज्यको श्रोत र साधनलाई आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत स्वार्थको लागि दुरूपयोग भईरह्यो र भइरहेको छ। यी यावत समस्याको हल गर्न सक्ने प्रणालीको विकास कसरी गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने बिषयमा गहिरो अध्ययन गरी तथ्यगत समाधानका पद्धतिहरुको प्रस्तुत गरेको छु।


राजनीतिक व्यबस्था


आर्थिक, सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनलाई संस्थागत गर्न राजनीतिक पहलकद्मी हुनुपर्छ र राज्यको संविधान, ऐन कानुनले सम्बोधन गरिनु पर्छ नत्र केहि सकारात्मक परिवर्तन भईहाले पनि अस्थायी हुन्छन र कुनै पनि बेला यथास्थितिमा फर्किने सम्भवना हुन्छ। अहिले देखिएका समस्या वा हाल सम्म गरिएका राजनीतिक संघर्ष हरु सफल नहुनुको मुख्यकारण जनस्तर बाट उठेका सवाल हरुमा गम्भीर बहस नहुनु र धेरै बहस गरिएका बिषय गम्भीर नहुनु हो। राज्यको शक्ति र ठूलो श्रोत प्रयोग गरि निकलिएका निष्कर्ष हरु संबिधान र ऐन हरुमा निहित स्वार्थको कारण समावेश गरिएन। यस्ता धेरै अध्ययन आयोग हरु बनेका छन जसले राज्यको ठुलो धनराशी खर्च गरेर अध्ययन रिपोर्ट त बनाए तर न संविधान मा समेटिए न ऐन मा। यसो हुनुको मुख्य कारण भनेको शासकहरुको ब्यक्तिगत वा गुटगत स्वार्थ नै हो। यस्तो दुर्दशा बाट देशलाइ मुक्ति दिन शिक्षित युवा हरुले पहलकदमी लिनै पर्ने हुन्छ।

अहिले जुन ब्यबस्था आए पनि शासकीय प्रबृत्ति परिवर्तन नहुनुको पछाडि जननिर्देशित प्रणाली बिकास नहुनु नै हो। अहिले प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा उत्तरदायित्व खोजिनु, प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा आकांक्षा राखिनु, प्रणालीको लागि भन्दा ब्यक्तिको पछाडि राजनीति दौड़ीनु अहिलेको दुर्गतिको कारणहरु हुन। शासन प्रणाली वा हाम्रो प्रणाली के भन्छ भन्दा पनि प्रधानमन्त्री के भन्छन/भन्छिन, राष्ट्रपति के भन्छन/भन्छिन भन्ने कुरा को पछाडि राजनीति दौडीएको छ यो नै हाम्रो राज्य व्यबस्थाको कमजोरी हो। राजनीतिको यो बिकराल अवस्थाको निकास भनेको प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निर्वाचन प्रणाली नै हो। अर्को कार्यपालिका र ब्यबस्थापिका बीचको सम्बन्धलाई उत्तरदायी तरिकाले नयाँ बाट परिभाषित गरिनु पर्छ र सैद्धान्तिक सम्बन्ध बलियो बनाउने तर राजनीतिक सम्बन्धलाई अंकुश लगाउनु जरूरी छ। एउटै पद्दति बाट आएका उहि ब्यक्तिहरु ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिकामा आसीन हुँदा नीति नियमहरु जनमुखी भन्दा शासकलाई शक्ति ब्यबस्थापन गर्न दुरुपयोग हुने गर्छ। प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निवार्चन प्रणाली, त्यसलाई ब्यबस्थापन गर्ने आधार र त्यसका फाइदा बेफाइदाको बूँदागत विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरेको छु।

१. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख सबै जनताबाट निर्वाचित हुने हुँदा सबै जनताले अपनत्व महशुश गर्न सक्छन। अहिलेको ब्यबस्थामा एउटा अमुक क्षेत्रबाट निर्वाचित ब्यक्ति कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने हुँदा सबै जनताले अपनत्व महशुस गरेका हुँदैनन। फलतः शासकको कामको मूल्यांकन भन्दा पनि गुट, पार्टी र विभिन्न स्वार्थ समुहको प्रभावमा शासक र शासन प्रणालीको बारेमा धारणा बन्ने गर्दछ जुन जहिले पनि गलत हुन्छ।

२. एउटा निवार्चन क्षेत्रमा सजिलै आर्थिक चलखेल, दवाब र गैर राजनीतिक क्रियाकलाप अपनाई निर्वाचित भएको ब्यक्ति कार्यकारी प्रमुख बन्ने गरेको र अब पनि बन्ने संभावना हुन्छ, भने प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणालीमा सम्पूर्ण देशका जनतालाई गलत प्रभाव पार्न वा आर्थिक चलखेल गर्न धेरै गाह्रो हुन्छ, त्यसैले गलत ब्यक्ति निर्वाचित हुने संभवाना न्यून हुन्छ।

३. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन मा कुनै पनि ब्यक्ति निर्वाचित हुन राष्ट्रीय स्तरमा सक्षम प्रमाणित भै सकेको व्यक्ति लाई नै जनताले विश्वाश गर्ने हुँदा तुलनात्मक रुपमा सक्षम व्यक्ति नै निर्वाचित हुने गर्छ जसले सुशासन प्रत्याभूत गर्छ।

४. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुन लामो कसरत र अधययन गर्नु पर्ने हुँदा उमेद्वारले राज्य ब्यबस्थापनमा राम्रो अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गरेको हुन्छ, उसले कार्य कुशलता प्रदर्शन गर्छ।

५. संसदीय पद्दति बाट निर्वाचित हुने कार्यकारी प्रमुख जहिले पनि जनता सँग भन्दा संसद सदस्य सँग उत्तरदायी हुने गर्छ, उसलाई कामको भन्दा पनि बहुमत बचाई राख्ने कसरत गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ जसको कारण राज्यका काम ओझेल पर्ने र राजनीतिक खीचातानी बढ्ने हुन्छ।

६. राज्यका संबैधानिक र कूटनीतिक अंग हरुमा कार्यकारी प्रमुखको पक्षमा बहुमत जुटाई दिने हरुले सिफारिस गरेका आफन्त, नातेदार र आर्थिक प्रलोभन दिने हरुलाई नियुक्त दिन बाध्य हुन्छ, सक्षम हरु पाखा लाग्दै जाने र राज्यका अंगहरू पारिवारिक अड्डा भन्दै जान्छन र जनतामा निराश बढ्दै जान्छ।

७. अहिल भ्रष्ट्राचारले विकराल रूप लिएको छ, भ्रष्ट्राचारले देश विक्षिप्त बनेको छ, युवाहरुमा नैराश्यता पैदा गरेको छ अनि हरेक क्षेत्रलाइ उठ्न नसक्ने गरि थला पारेको छ। प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने ब्यवस्थामामा संसदीय प्रणालीबाट एउटा सानो क्षेत्रमा आर्थिक चलखेल गरेर सत्तामा आउने र शक्तिको दुरुपयोग गरि राज्यकोषबाट निर्वाचनमा गरेको लगानीलाई व्यपारिक ढंगबाट मुनाफा सहित भ्रष्ट्राचार गरि असुल्ने जस्तो प्रबृत्तिमा अंकुश लाग्छ। एउटा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रका सीमित जनता लाई आर्थिक प्रलोभनमा पारे जस्तो देशका सम्पूर्ण जनतालाई एक साथ प्रभाव पार्न सम्भब हुँदैन।

८. संसदीय पद्दतिबाट चयन हुने कार्यपालिकले बजेट बिनियोजनमा मा पनि संसद सदस्यको व्यक्तिगत प्रभाव र शक्तिको आधारमा आसमानता ब्याप्त हुने हुन्छ तर प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणालिमा शासक संसद प्रति नभई जनता प्रति उत्तरदायी हुने हुँदा स्रोत साधनको वितरण आसमान हुँदैन।

९. संसदीय पद्दतिमा कार्यकारी प्रमुख आम निर्वाचन पछि निर्वाचित पार्टीबाट फेरि निर्वाचित हुनुपर्ने र त्यसपछि संसद सदस्यबाट निर्वाचित हुनु पर्ने हुँदा धेरै को कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुँदैछ भन्ने निश्चित नहुँदा उमेद्वारले निर्वाचित हुनु भन्दा अगाडि कुनै अध्ययन वा राज्यका राजनीतिक सूचक एवम राज्यका आधारभूत बिषय बस्तुको अध्ययन गर्न पाएको हुँदैन फलतः उसको कार्यसम्पदन जन अपेक्षित र प्रभावकारी हुँदैन।

१०. संसदीय ब्यबस्थामा संसद सदस्यको बहुमत संख्या जसको पक्षमा हुन्छ उसले सरकारको नेतृत्व गर्ने हुँदा आन्तरिक र बाह्य चलखेल धेरै हुने र शासन व्यबस्था अस्थिर भई राज्यका कामहरु अवरुद्ध भैरहने हुन्छ, बाह्य स्वार्थ शक्तिहरु दुताबास मार्फत संसद सदस्यको संख्यात्मक हेराफेरी गर्ने र अनुचित लाभ लिने गरिरहेका छन। प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी व्यबस्थामा बाह्य चलखेल पूर्णरूपमा निस्तेज हुन्छ।

Show more
0
248
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__595219_13_07_2020

भरत रिमाल


शासन पद्दतिमा सुधार अपरिहार्य छ।

नेपालमा राजनीतिक अस्थिरता किन ?


नेपालको राजनीतिमा मानव सभ्यताको विकास देखि आजका मिति सम्म व्यक्ति केन्द्रित राजनीति हुँदै आएको छ र अहिलेको राजनीतिक अस्थिरता को जड पनि यहिं अड्किएको छ I शासन प्रणालीको विकासमा भन्दा राजतन्त्रमा भाइ भारदारहरुले राजा ( एक व्यक्ति) लाई नै पद्दति मानिदिए, राणा हरुको उदय पछि त झन प्रधानमन्त्रीको व्यक्तिगत विवेकमा शासन चल्यो, त्यहाँ कुनै शासन प्रणालीको कुरै भएन, कुनै मापदण्ड नै भएन I शासकले न्युनतम मान्यताको ख्याल नगर्ने र दैनिक शासन प्रणालीमा शासक हाबी हुने, शासकको मनोविज्ञानको आधारमा कार्य सम्पादन हुने गर्दा मानिस हरुले परिवर्तनको खोजि गरिरहे, आन्दोलनहरु भए, युद्ध जनयुद्ध भए शासक फेरिंदै रहे तर शासन गर्ने तरिकामा परिवर्तन भएन I हिजो राजा महाराजा जनताको पसिनामा राज गर्थे आज राष्ट्रपति र प्रधानमन्त्रि, मन्त्रीले गर्छन, जनजीवन जस्ताको तस्तै छI

राणाकाल देखि यताको समयलाई आधुनिक काल भनिने हुँदा त्यसभन्दा अघि नजाउँ, राणाहरुले औपचारिकताको लागि केहि ऐन बनाएका भए पनि सबै शासन प्रशासन मौखिक हुकुमतले नै चल्ने गर्थ्यो, देशको शासन व्यवस्था पूर्ण रुपले व्यक्तिको बहुलठ निर्देशनमा कुनै मार्ग वा सिद्धान्त विना नै चल्यो। फलत: आजको दिन सम्म पनि त्यहि अनुगति चलिरहेको छ। कानून बनेको छ कति अपूर्ण छ कति अस्थायी छ, कति आसमान छन अनि कति अवैज्ञानिक छन त्यसमा पनि पहुँचवालाको हकमा कानूनको प्रभावकारिता एकदमै फितलो छ। शासक वर्गको कुनै राजनीतिक शक्ति अर्जन गरेको कुनै एक ब्यक्तिको सहुलियातको लागि दीर्घकालीन असर पर्ने कानून बनेका छन। समानताको बिषय उठ्ने गरेको छ तर समानताका आधारभूत मान्यता र सिद्धान्त सॅंग हालको राज्य राज्य व्यबस्था कहिं पनि नमिल्ने गरी समानान्तर लाईनमा छन।

आजका युवाले पनि हाम्रा सहिद हरूको सयौं बर्ष पुरानो सपना लाई अहिलेको सपना बनाउनु परेको छ मतलब सयौं बर्ष देखि समाज परिवर्तन खोजि रहेको छ लाखौं संख्यामा जनता सहिद भैसके सत्ताहरु परिवर्तन पनि भए तर शासन शैली परिवर्तन भएन । हजारौं बर्ष पहिले देखि श्रोत र साधनमा कब्जा जमाउने हरु आरामको जीवन जीउने र श्रोत र साधन निर्माण गर्ने, परिश्रम गर्नेहरु किनारामा पर्ने संस्कार अहिले पनि उस्तै छ। शासन प्रणालीको व्यबस्थापन नहुॅंदा सत्तामा रहनेहरुले सम्पूर्ण राज्यको श्रोत र साधनलाई आफ्नो व्यक्तिगत स्वार्थको लागि दुरूपयोग भईरह्यो र भइरहेको छ। यी यावत समस्याको हल गर्न सक्ने प्रणालीको विकास कसरी गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने बिषयमा गहिरो अध्ययन गरी तथ्यगत समाधानका पद्धतिहरुको प्रस्तुत गरेको छु।


राजनीतिक व्यबस्था


आर्थिक, सामाजिक र सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनलाई संस्थागत गर्न राजनीतिक पहलकद्मी हुनुपर्छ र राज्यको संविधान, ऐन कानुनले सम्बोधन गरिनु पर्छ नत्र केहि सकारात्मक परिवर्तन भईहाले पनि अस्थायी हुन्छन र कुनै पनि बेला यथास्थितिमा फर्किने सम्भवना हुन्छ। अहिले देखिएका समस्या वा हाल सम्म गरिएका राजनीतिक संघर्ष हरु सफल नहुनुको मुख्यकारण जनस्तर बाट उठेका सवाल हरुमा गम्भीर बहस नहुनु र धेरै बहस गरिएका बिषय गम्भीर नहुनु हो। राज्यको शक्ति र ठूलो श्रोत प्रयोग गरि निकलिएका निष्कर्ष हरु संबिधान र ऐन हरुमा निहित स्वार्थको कारण समावेश गरिएन। यस्ता धेरै अध्ययन आयोग हरु बनेका छन जसले राज्यको ठुलो धनराशी खर्च गरेर अध्ययन रिपोर्ट त बनाए तर न संविधान मा समेटिए न ऐन मा। यसो हुनुको मुख्य कारण भनेको शासकहरुको ब्यक्तिगत वा गुटगत स्वार्थ नै हो। यस्तो दुर्दशा बाट देशलाइ मुक्ति दिन शिक्षित युवा हरुले पहलकदमी लिनै पर्ने हुन्छ।

अहिले जून ब्यबस्था आए पनि शासकीय प्रबृत्ति परिवर्तन नहुनुको पछाडि जननिर्देशित प्रणाली बिकास नहुनु नै हो। अहिले प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा उत्तरदायित्व खोजिनु, प्रणालिमा भन्दा ब्यक्तिमा आकांक्षा राखिनु, प्रणालीको लागि भन्दा ब्यक्तिको पछाडि राजनीति दौड़ीनु अहिलेको दुर्गतिको कारणहरु हुन। शासन प्रणाली वा हाम्रो प्रणाली के भन्छ भन्दा पनि प्रधानमन्त्री के भन्छन/भन्छिन, राष्ट्रपति के भन्छन/भन्छिन भन्ने कुरा को पछाडि राजनीति दौडीएको छ यो नै हाम्रो राज्य व्यबस्थाको कमजोरी हो। राजनीतिको यो बिकराल अवस्थाको निकास भनेको प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निर्वाचन प्रणाली नै हो। अर्को कार्यपालिका र ब्यबस्थापिका बीचको सम्बन्धलाई उत्तरदायी तरिकाले नयाँ बाट परिभाषित गरिनु पर्छ र सैद्धान्तिक सम्बन्ध बलियो बनाउने तर राजनीतिक सम्बन्धलाई अंकुश लगाउनु जरूरी छ। एउटै पद्दति बाट आएका उहि ब्यक्तिहरु ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिकामा आसीन हुँदा नीति नियमहरु जनमुखी भन्दा शासकलाई शक्ति ब्यबस्थापन गर्न दुरुपयोग हुने गर्छ। प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी प्रमुख निवार्चन प्रणाली, त्यसलाई ब्यबस्थापन गर्ने आधार र त्यसका फाइदा बेफाइदाको बूँदागत विश्लेषण प्रस्तुत गरेको छु।

१. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख सबै जनताबाट निर्वाचित हुने हुँदा सबै जनताले अपनत्व महशुश गर्न सक्छन। अहिलेको ब्यबस्थामा एउटा अमुक क्षेत्रबाट निर्वाचित ब्यक्ति कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने हुँदा सबै जनताले अपनत्व महशुस गरेका हुँदैनन। फलतः शासकको कामको मूल्यांकन भन्दा पनि गुट, पार्टी र विभिन्न स्वार्थ समुहको प्रभावमा शासक र शासन प्रणालीको बारेमा धारणा गर्छ जून जहिले पनि गलत हुन्छ।

२. एउटा निवार्चन क्षेत्रमा सजिलै आर्थिक चलखेल, दवाब र गैर राजनीतिक क्रियाकलाप अपनाई निर्वाचित भएको ब्यक्ति कार्यकारी प्रमुख बन्ने गरेको र अब पनि बन्ने संभावना हुन्छ, भने प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणालीमा सम्पूर्ण देशका जनतालाई गलत प्रभाव पार्न वा आर्थिक चलखेल गर्न धेरै गाह्रो हुन्छ, त्यसैले गलत ब्यक्ति निर्वाचित हुने संभवाना न्यून हुन्छ।

३. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन मा कुनै पनि ब्यक्ति निर्वाचित हुन राष्ट्रीय स्तरमा सक्षम प्रमाणित भै सकेको व्यक्ति लाई नै जनताले विश्वाश गर्ने हुँदा तुलनात्मक रुपमा सक्षम व्यक्ति नै निर्वाचित हुने गर्छ जसले सुशासन प्रत्याभूत गर्छ।

४. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुन लामो कसरत र अधययन गर्नु पर्ने हुँदा उमेद्वारले राज्य ब्यबस्थापनमा राम्रो अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गरेको हुन्छ, उसले कार्य कुशलता प्रदर्शन गर्छ।

५. संसदीय पद्दति बाट निर्वाचित हुने कार्यकारी प्रमुख जहिले पनि जनता सँग भन्दा संसद सदस्य सँग उत्तरदायी हुने गर्छ, उसलाई कामको भन्दा पनि बहुमत बचाई राख्ने कसरत गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ जसको कारण राज्यका काम ओझेल पर्ने र राजनीतिक खीचातानी बढ्ने हुन्छ।

६. राज्यका संबैधानिक र कूटनीतिक अंग हरुमा कार्यकारी प्रमुखको पक्षमा बहुमत जुटाई दिने हरुले सिफारिस गरेका आफन्त, नातेदार र आर्थिक प्रलोभन दिने हरुलाई नियुक्त दिन बाध्य हुन्छ, सक्षम हरु पाखा लाग्दै जाने र राज्यका अंगहरू पारिवारिक अड्डा भन्दै जान्छन र जनता मा निराश बढ्दै जान्छ।

७. अहिल भ्रष्ट्राचारले विकराल रूप लिएको छ, भ्रष्ट्राचारले देश विछिप्त बनेको छ, युवाहरुमा नैराश्यता पैदा गरेको छ अनि हरेक क्षेत्रलाइ उठ्न नसक्ने गरि थला पारेको छ। प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने ब्यवस्थामामा संसदीय प्रणालीबाट एउटा सानो क्षेत्रमा आर्थिक चलखेल गरेर सत्तामा आउने र शक्तिको दुरुपयोग गरि राज्यकोषबाट निर्वाचनमा गरेको लगानीलाई व्यपारिक ढंगबाट मुनाफा सहित भ्रष्ट्राचार गरि असुल्ने जस्तो प्रबृत्तिमा अंकुश लाग्छ। एउटा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रका सीमित जनता लाई आर्थिक प्रलोभनमा पारे जस्तो देशका सम्पूर्ण जनतालाई एक साथ प्रभाव पार्न सम्भब हुँदैन।

८. संसदीय पद्दतिबाट चयन हुने कार्यपालिकले बजेट बिनियोजनमा मा पनि संसद सदस्यको व्यक्तिगत प्रभाव र शक्तिको आधारमा आसमानता ब्याप्त हुने हुन्छ तर प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणालिमा शासक संसद प्रति नभई जनता प्रति उत्तरदायी हुने हुँदा स्रोत साधनको वितरण आसमान हुँदैन।

९. संसदीय पद्दतिमा कार्यकारी प्रमुख आम निर्वाचन पछि निर्वाचित पार्टीबाट फेरि निर्वाचित हुनुपर्ने र त्यसपछि संसद सदस्यबाट निर्वाचित हुनु पर्ने हुँदा धेरै को कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुँदैछ भन्ने निश्चित नहुँदा उमेद्वारले निर्वाचित हुनु भन्दा अगाडि कुनै अध्ययन वा राज्यका राजनीतिक सूचक एवम राज्यका आधारभूत बिषय बस्तुको अध्ययन गर्न पाएको हुँदैन फलतः उसको कार्यसम्पदन जन अपेक्षित र प्रभावकारी हुँदैन।

१०. संसदीय ब्यबस्थामा संसद सदस्यको बहुमत संख्या जसको पक्षमा हुन्छ उसले सरकारको नेतृत्व गर्ने हुँदा आन्तरिक र बाह्य चलखेल धेरै हुने र शासन व्यबस्था अस्थिर भई राज्यका कामहरु अवरुद्ध भैरहने हुन्छ, बाह्य स्वार्थ शक्तिहरु दुताबास मार्फत संसद सदस्यको संख्यात्मक हेराफेरी गर्ने र अनुचित लाभ लिने गरिरहेका छन। प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी व्यबस्थामा बाह्य चलखेल पूर्णरूपमा निस्तेज हुन्छ।


क्याबिनेट निर्माण सम्बन्धमा


हालको संसदीय प्रणाली बाट कार्यकारी प्रमुख निर्वाचित हुने र संसद सदस्य बाट मन्त्रिपरिषद गठन हुने प्रणाली नै देशको ठूलो जड शत्रु भ्रष्ट्राचारको मूल जरो हो। जननिर्वाचित संसद सदस्य जनताका समस्या प्रणालीगत रुपमा संबोधन गरि संबैधानिक र कानूनी रूमा स्थापित गराउने ब्यबस्थापिका संचालन गर्न आएका हुन्छन तर उनीहरुलाई नै कार्यपालिका को जिम्मा लगाउँदा संबिधान, ऐन र नियम कानून बनाउँदा जनमुखी भन्दा शासक मुखी बनाउने गर्छन किनकि शासन पनि उनीहरु कै हात हातमा हुन्छ। अबको आवश्यकता भनेकै ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिका लाई अलग गर्नु हो। जननिवार्चित सदस्यहरु बाट ब्यबस्थापिका बन्नु पर्छ र प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखको नेतृत्वमा समाजमा स्थापित र प्रमाणित भइसकेका विज्ञ र दक्ष ब्यक्तिहरु सम्मिलित ११ सदस्यीय क्याबिनेट बन्नु पर्छ, ब्यबस्थापिकाको निम्ति निर्वाचित सदस्य हरुलाई क्याबिनेट मा तान्नु हुँदै हुँदैन। ब्यबस्थापिका र कार्यपालिका अलग रहनु पर्ने कारण र त्यसका फाइदा र प्रभावको बारेमा बूँदागत रुपमा तल उल्लेख गरेको छु।


१. संविधान, ऐन र नियम कानून बनाउन ब्यबस्थापिका का सदस्यहरु प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणाली ४०% अल्पसंख्यक सीमानकृत वर्गको लागि समानुपातिक प्रणालीबाट ४०% र विज्ञ हरुबाट २०% गरेर ७५ जनाको ब्यबस्थापिका निर्माण गर्नु पर्दछ। संख्या अवस्यकताको आधारमा थपघट गर्न सकिन्छ तर ब्यबस्थापिका सदस्य संख्या ठुलो हुनुहुँदैन।

२. यसरी बनेको ब्यबस्थापिकाको काम नीति नियम, संविधान र ऐन कानून निर्माण मात्र हुनुपर्छ, यी सदस्य मन्त्री हुन पाउने छैनन। किनकि नीति नियम बनाउने र कार्यान्वन गराउने एउटै पद्दति र उहि सदस्य हुँदा नीति नियम जनमुखी नभई शासकमुखी हुन पुग्छ र अस्थिरता उत्पन्न भई ब्यापक भ्रष्ट्राचार हुने गर्छ। नीति बनाउने र कार्यान्वन गर्ने एउटै हुँदा आर्थिक मात्र नभई नीतिगत र प्रशासनिक भ्रष्ट्राचार मौलाउने र राज्यको स्रोत साधनको ब्यापक दुरुपयोग हुने हुँदा राज्यमा विभेद र असमानताले विकराल रूप लिन्छ र द्वन्द्व, बिद्रोह र गृहयुद्ध सम्म को खतरा रहन्छ जसले जसले गर्दा राज्यमा अशान्ति फैलिने र मानव विकास सुचाङ्क बाट तल झर्दै जाने हुन्छ।

३. ब्यबस्थापिकामा निर्वाचित सदस्य नै कार्यपालिकामा (क्याबिनेट) मा जाने ब्यबस्था हुँदा अनुचित प्रतिस्प्रधा बढ़न जान्छ र आर्थिक चलखेल शुरू हुन्छ, फलस्वरूप भ्रष्ट्राचारले जरा गाडने हुन्छ। ४. ब्यबस्थापिका सदस्य नै मन्त्री हुने व्यबस्था हुँदा आफु निर्वाचित हुन ठूलो धनराशि खर्च गर्ने, मन्त्री बन्न पनि धनराशि खर्च गर्ने र मन्त्री भए पछि अफ्नो खर्च भएको धनराशी को प्रतिफल खोज्ने हुँदा निर्विकल्प भ्रष्ट्राचार बढ़ने गर्छ।

५. यदि क्याबिनेट बाट मन्त्री नियुक्त नहुने हो भने ब्यबस्थापिक सदस्यको सेवा सुबिधाको लागि मात्र ठुलो धनराशिको चलखेल नहुने र खराब नियतको मानिस उमेद्वार पनि नबन्ने हुँदा भ्रष्ट्राचार नियन्त्रण उच्च हुन्छ।

६. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखले क्याबिनेट सदस्य समाजमा प्रमाणित र स्थापित भइसकेका ब्यक्तिहरुबाट नियुक्त गर्ने हुँदा सक्षम र अनुभवी ब्यक्तित्व नेतृत्वमा पुग्ने हुँदा कार्यसम्पदान गुणस्तरीय हुनुको साथै त्यस्ता ब्यक्तिहरु विगतको अफ्नो साख जोगाउनु पर्ने नैतिक धरातलमा हुने हुँदा अनुचित कार्यसम्पादन गर्ने संभावना न्यून हुन्छ।

७. समाजमा स्थापित व्यक्तित्वहरु अफ्नो ब्यबसयिक जीवनमा अर्थिकरूपमा सबल भइसकेका हुन्छन, राज्यले दिने सेवा सुविधा बाहेक अन्य आर्थिक प्रलोभनमा पर्नुपर्ने बाध्यता हुँदैन, जसले गर्दा भ्रष्ट्राचार नियन्त्रणमा ठूलो सफलता मिल्छ।

८. संसदीय प्रणालिमा जीवनभर आन्दोलन र नाराजुलुस मात्र गरेका र ब्यबसायिक धरातल नभएका मानिस हुने हुँदा उनीहरुको जीविकोपार्जन नै भ्रष्ट्राचार हुने गरेको छ, यसरी प्रत्यक्ष निवार्चित कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने ब्यबस्थामा भ्रष्ट्राचार संभव नहुने वा गाह्रो हुने हुँदा भ्रष्ट्र नियतका ब्यक्तिहरु शक्तिमा पुग्ने संभावना न्यून हुन्छ।

९. संसदीय ब्यबस्थामा सत्ता र शक्ति संसद सदस्यको संख्यामा भर पर्ने हुँदा ससाना समूहहरु पनि राजनीतिक दल दर्ता गरि एक दुइ सदस्य लिई सत्तामा शक्तिको दाउपेच लगाई रहेका हुन्छन तर प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन पद्दतिमा त्यस्ता स्वार्थ समुहको स्थान नहुने हुँदा राजनीतिक अस्थिरता पैदा गर्ने ससाना समूह हरु आफै हराएर जान्छन र राजनीतिक स्थिरता कायम हुन्छ।

९. संसदीय प्रणालिमा संसदमा अफ्नो संसद सदस्यहरुको समर्थन जोगाउन ठुलो संघर्ष गरीरहनु पर्ने हुँदा जनताको काममा भन्दा सत्ता जोगाई राख्न धेरै समय खर्च हुने हुन्छ भने प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणाली बाट निर्वाचित कार्यकारीले आफ्नो कार्यकाल को सम्पूर्ण समय प्रशासनिक कामको लागि दिन सक्छ।

१०. प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित प्रणालिमा दलहरुको भूमिका नीति नियम बनाउन ब्यबस्थापिका लाई सुझाब दिने मात्र हुने हुँदा गुट उप गुट हुने र राजनीतिक अराजकता फैलिने संभावना हुँदैन।


प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख तानाशाही बन्ने र स्वच्छाचारी तरिकाले निरंकुश बन्ने तर्कहरू गरिएको पाईन्छ यो तर्क केहि हद सम्म स्वीकार्न सकिन्छ तर विश्वले धेरै गति लिई सकेको छ तानाशाह हरु जन्मिने संभावना धेरै कम हुन्छ। त्यस्तो अवस्थाको नियमनको लागि शासकिय प्रणालीलाई सुदृढ बनाउन पर्ने हुन्छ। तल उल्लेखित बुॅंदागत प्रणाली विकास गरेर तानाशाही प्रवृति नियन्त्रण गररिन्छ।

१. प्रमुख कार्यकारी उमेद्वार चुनाव भन्दा कम्तिमा ५ बर्ष अगाडिने तय हुनु पर्छ ता कि ५ बर्ष सम्म कार्यरत कार्यकारीको कार्य सम्पादन बिश्लेषण गर्न पावस र अध्ययन पनि गर्ने मौका पावस जसले गर्दा पद सम्हाले पछि तुरुन्त कुशल कार्यसम्पादन गर्न सकोस।

२. यदि कुनै उमेद्वार राजनीतिक बिचारधारामा आधारित पार्टीबाट चयन हुन्छ भने उक्त पार्टीले ५ बर्ष अगाडि नै आगामी चुनामा प्रतिष्प्रधा गर्ने उमेद्वार सहि अरु ३ जना वैकल्पिक उमेद्वार पनि प्रस्तुत गर्नु पर्दछ जसबाट जनताले हुनेवाला कार्यकारी प्रमुखको कार्यक्षमता वैचारिक क्षमता र जनता प्रतिको उत्तरदायीत्व बहन गर्ने क्षमता बुझ्ने मौका पाउन। आगामी चुनावमा प्रतिष्प्रधा गर्ने उमेद्वारले राष्ट्रिय स्तरका संचार माध्यम हरुबाट आफ्ना विचार, कार्ययोजना र राजनीतिक कार्य सम्पादन क्यालेण्डर प्रस्तुत गर्ने छ र जनताले कुन प्रतिष्प्रधी उचित हुन्छ उसको प्रस्तुति हेरेर निर्णय गर्नेछन्।

३. निर्वाचन पूर्ण प्रविधि आधारित ईन्टरनेटको सहायता बाट आफ्नै स्मार्ट फोनबाट विश्वको कुनै पनि ठाउॅं बाट आफ्नो मत राख्न पाईनेछ त्यसको लागि व्यक्तिगत परिचय नम्बर हुनेछ त्यो नम्बर र सरकारले उपलब्ध गरेको बिशेष पासवर्ड प्रयोग गरी आफ्नो मत दिन पाईनेछ। यसो गर्नाले मतदान प्रकृयामा सबै मताधिकार भएका नेपालीले विश्वको कुनै कुना बाट आफ्नो मत दिन पाउने छन्। यस प्रकारको मतदान प्रकृया आर्थिक रुपले पनि कम खर्चमा चुनाव गराउन सकिन्छ र कुनै विषय माथि जनमत लिनु परे कम खर्चमा केहि समयमा नै जनमत लिन सकिन्छ जसले गर्दा कुनै राष्ट्रिय महत्वको बिसयले विबादित भई बन्दक हुनु पर्दैन।

४. संविधानमा कुनै पनि निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुखले आफू निर्वाचित भएको एक बर्ष सम्म आफ्नो घोणनापत्रमा समावेस गरेको राजनीतिक क्यालेण्डर अनुसार काम गरेको छ कि छैन भनि जनमत लिने व्यबस्था गर्नु पर्छ, यदि जनताबाट निर्वाचित भएमा ५ बर्षको लागि शक्तिशाली कार्यकारीको भुमिका निभाउनेछ जसलाई कुनै आन्तरिक या बाह्य कुनै शक्तिले पनि हटाउने सक्ने छैन। नैतिक पतन हुने कार्य वा कानुनले परिभाषित गरेका आपराधिक गतिविधि गरेमा मात्र पद बाट हट्नेछ अन्यथा आफ्नो कार्यकालमा कसैले अवरोध गर्ने छैनन्।

५. यो व्यबस्थामा व्यक्ति भन्दा प्रणाली शक्तिशाली हुने हुदाॅं प्रभावकारी कार्यसम्पादन हुन्छ किनकि यो प्रणालीमा कार्यसम्पादन शोली संरचनामा हुने गर्छ जहाॅं राम्रो काम गर्नेलाई बाटो खुल्ला हुॅंदै जान्छ भने राज्य हित विपरित काम गर्न बाटो साॅंगुरो हुन्छ, कठिन हुन्छ।

समग्रमा यो व्यबस्था प्रणालीमा आधारित शासन व्यबस्था हो, व्यक्तिमा आधारित होईन त्यसैले तानाशाह उत्पन्न हुने कुनै संभावना छैन।


प्रमुख कार्यकारी प्रधानमन्त्री हुने कि राष्ट्रपति?


प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचन प्रणालीमा सबै भन्दा उत्तम प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित राष्ट्रपति नै कार्यकारी प्रमुख हुने व्यबस्था ठीक हुन्छ। प्रधानमन्त्री निर्वाचित कार्यकारी प्रमुख बनाउॅंदा आलंकारिक भएपनि राष्ट्रपति कार्यलय पनि खर्चिलो हुने हुॅंदा प्रधानमन्त्री र राष्ट्रपति दुईवटा सॅंस्था संचालन गर्दा ठूलो श्रोत र साधन खर्च हुने हुॅंदा प्रत्यक्ष कार्यकारी राष्ट्रपति नै उपयुक्त हुन्छ। प्रत्यक्ष निर्वाचित राष्टपति भए क्याबिनेट राष्ट्रपतिको नेतृत्वमा बन्ने हुॅंदा व्यबस्थापन छरितो हुने र प्रभावकारिता बढ्ने हुन्छ।

निर्वाचित ७५ सदस्यीय विधान सभाले नीति नियम तर्जुमा गर्ने, स्थानिय सरकारका प्रतिनीधि सम्मिलित राष्ट्रिय सभाले पुनरावलोकन गर्ने र राष्ट्रपतिले नेतृत्व गर्ने क्याबिनेटले कार्यान्वयन गर्ने हुन्छ। यो प्रकृया बाट कार्य सम्पादन गर्दा नियामक र लाभग्राही एउटै व्यक्ति वा संस्था बाट नहुने हुॅंदा संतुलन कायम भई अनियमितता हुने सम्भवना कम हुन्छ।


राज्यको प्राथमिकता


मानव समाजमा पहिलो संघर्ष मानिसले बाॅंच्नको लागि गर्ने गर्दछ। राज्यले पहिलो प्राथमिकतामा आफ्नो भुभागमा रहेका जीवनको रक्षा गर्नु नै हुनु पर्दछ। जीवितलाई बचाउनु राज्यको पहिलो कर्तव्य हुनुपर्छ। बाॅंच्न चाहिने आधारभूत कुराहरुमा खाना, धर, लत्ता कपडा, स्वास्थ उपचार, शिक्षा र रोजगारी यी ६ बिषयलाई राखिने छ र सबै जनतालाई यी आधारभुत कुराको उपलब्ध गराउनु सरकारको आघारभूत कर्तव्य हुनुपर्छ। बालक, बृद्ध, अशक्त र गर्भिणी बाहेक हरेक नागरिकले कम्तिमा ८ घण्टा काम गर्नु नागरिकको आधारभुत कर्तव्य हुनुपर्छ।१६ बर्ष माथिका विद्यार्थी हरुले पनि आफ्नो अध्ययन बिषय सम्बन्धित काम गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। त्यस्तो काम स्वईच्छित नभई बध्यकारी एवं अध्ययनको हिस्सा हुनुपर्छ। विद्यार्थीको हकमा न्यूनतम काम गर्ने समय २ घण्टा हुनुपर्छ साथै पारिश्रमिक अनिवार्य दिनु पर्ने हुन्छ।जसले गर्दा परिश्रमी र लगनशील नागरिक बन्न अभिप्रेरित गर्नुको साथै परनिर्भरता पनि हट्ने हुन्छ। आधारभूत आवस्यकता परिपूर्ति गर्न खाद्य भण्डारण, कपडा उद्योग, आवास, अस्पतालको पहुॅंच, विद्यालय व्याबस्थापन र रोजगारी उपलब्ध गराउनु सरकारको कर्तव्य हो भने नागरिकको अधिकार हो।


खाद्य व्याबस्थापन


जीवन सजीव रहन अत्यावश्यक खाद्यान्नको अभावमा कति मानिसहरु मरिरहेका छन, कतिपय खाद्यान्न जुटाउने उपायको खोजीमा आफ्नो सबै जीवन तथा सम्भावनाहरु निश्काम गुजारिरहेका छन अनि कति मानिसहरु आफ्नो र परिवारको खाद्य जुटाउने क्रममा उर्जाशील समय खेर गईरहेको छ। सरकारले खाद्यान्न सहजताको निम्ति खाद्य भण्डारणको व्यबस्था गरी उत्पादन हुने स्थानबाट उत्पादन नहुने स्थान सम्म पुर्याउने संयन्त्र बनाउनु पर्छ। अहिले उत्पादन हुने ठाॅंउमा खेर जाने र अन्यठाउॅंमा अभाव हुने वा कालाबजारी हुने अवस्था छ यसको उचित व्यबस्थापन गर्ने सरकारको मुख्य जिम्मेवारी हो। उत्पादनशील जमिन खाली राख्न नदिने, उत्पादनशील जमिनलाई खण्डिकरण गरी बस्ती बसाउने काम बन्द गराउने, कृषिलाई औधोगिकरण गर्ने, सानो सानो टुक्रा बनाई एकल खेती गर्दै आएका किसानलाई त्यहाॅंको मौसम अनुसारको नगदे बाली वा जीवीकोपार्जन गर्न सजिलो हुने बालीनाली छनौट गरी कम्तिमा १०० जनाको जमिन एकिकृत गरी आधुनिक औधोगिक तरिकाले सामुहिक खेती गराउने। हरेक १०० जनाको सामुहिक खेती गर्ने किसानलाई सरकारले एउटा पिक अप गाडी , सिंचाई उपकरण र प्रविधि निशुल्क उपलब्ध गराउने। यसरी जुन कृषि उत्पादन बाहिरी देशबाट आयत हुन्छ पहिचान गरी देशको कुन भुभागमा उक्त उत्पादन सम्भब छ अध्ययन गरी किसानलाई सिफारिस गर्ने। सैनिक फोर्स पुलिस फोर्स जस्तै प्रविधि, सीप र विशेषज्ञता सहितको कृषि फोर्स गठन गरी कुनै कृषि विपत्ति आई परे तत्काल उद्दार गर्ने, स्थलगत तालिमको व्यबस्था गर्ने, यसरी उत्पादित कृषि उत्पादनलाई लामो समय सम्म प्रयोग गर्न सकिने प्रविधि प्रयोग गरी प्याकेजिगं गरी बजारीकरण गर्ने। सामुहिक खेती प्रणालीमा लगानी व्यबस्थापनको लागि सरकारी बैंकहरुले अग्रणी भुमिका निभाउने।

नेपाल विश्वको प्राय सबै प्रकारका हावापानी पाईने मुलुक भएकोले स्थान अनुसार विश्वमा पाईने हरेक कृषि उपज उत्पादन गर्न सम्भव छ जसको अध्ययन गरि किसानलाई खेति गरि जीवनस्तर उकास्न प्रेरित गर्ने।


आवास व्यावस्थापन


सरकारले जनता आवास विकास र व्यावस्थपन डिभिजन निकाय स्थापना गरि आधारभूत सेवा सुविधा जस्तै बिजुली पानी यातायात स्वास्थ्य संस्था विद्यालय, पार्क तथा खेल मैदान सहितको आवास निर्माण गरि लागत मूल्यमा जनतालाई वितरण गर्ने र जसले मूल्य तिर्न सक्दैन उसलाई उसको मासिक आयबाट किस्ता काटिने गरी आवास तत्काल उपलबध गराउने। यसो गर्नाले खेती योग्य जमिन प्लटिगं हुने समस्या समाधान हुनुको साथै कालो धन घरजग्गामा लगानी गरी अनुचित आर्थिक चलखेल रोकिने छ। यसरी जनता घरविहिन हुनबाट जोगिने छन , उनिहरुमा आत्मबल विकास हुनेछ देश समृद्धि तिर लाग्नेछ।

यसरी सामुहिक बसोबास गर्न सुहाउॅंदो, खेतीको लागि खासै उपयुक्त नभएको, बाढी पहिरो जस्तो प्राकृतिक विपत्तिको सम्भावना न्यून भएको स्थान छनौट गररिनु पर्छ जसले गर्दा बन विनास र पशुपंक्षी वन्यजन्तु सुरक्षित रहुन। यसरी निर्माणका कामहरु संचालन हुॅंदा, सामुहि कृषी उद्योग संचालन हुॅंदा ठूलो संख्यामा रोजगारी सिर्जना हुने हुॅंदा बेरोजगारी समस्या बिस्तारै कम हॅंदै जानेछ।


लत्ता कपडा ब्याबस्थापन


लत्ता कपडा मानिसको सभ्यता र संस्कृति संग जोडिएको बिषय हो। अझै पनि देशका कतिपय भुभागमा बसोबास गर्ने मानिसहरु जीउ ढाक्ने कपडा जुटाउन मुस्किल भईरहेको अवस्था छ। सुख्खा पाखा पखेरामा बर्षाको समयमा कपास खेति गरी स्थानिय स्तरमा कपडा उत्पादन गर्ने र सिलाई बुनाई सीपको बिकास गरी स्वदेशी कपडा लगाउने परिपाटीको बिकास गर्ने जस बाट रोजगारीको साथै बिदेशी महंगो कपडा किन्नु पर्ने अवस्थाको विकल्प सिर्जना हुन्छ।

स्थानिय स्तरमा जुन कार्यक्रम हरु तयार हुन्छन प्रविधि र ऋण सरकारले उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्छ। कार्यक्रमहरू बनाउदा परिणाममुखी बनाउनु पर्छ। कुनै कार्यक्रम वा योजनाले अपेक्षित उपलब्धी हासिल गरेन भने त्यो योजना सॅंग सम्मिलित दोषीलाई सख्त कारबाहि गरिनु पर्छ नत्र अहिलेको व्यबस्थामा जस्तै योजना आउने तर अलपत्र पर्ने आर्थिक अपचलन हुने जस्ता समस्या देखिन्छन।

अहिले हामीले कुनै चाड बिशेष लगाउने कपडा समेत चीन र भारत बाट आउने गर्छन। यहाॅं सम्म कि ब्राम्हणले लगाउने जनै समेत चीन बाट आएको तथ्यहरु छन्। सबै खाले आधारभूत र सांस्कृतिक भेषभुषा हरु स्थानिय कच्चा पदार्थ प्रयोग गरी स्थानिय रुप नै उत्पादन गर्ने संयन्त्र बिकास हुनु पर्छ। यसको लागि सरकारले प्रविधि, तालीम र ऋण लगानी गर्नुपर्छ। सरकारले सरकारी कार्यलय, सेना प्रहरी तथा विद्यालयमा मा स्वदेसी कपडाको प्रयोगलाई प्रोतसाहन स्वरुप अनिवार्य गरिनु पर्छ।


अस्पताल ब्यास्थापन


राज्यका सबै नागरिकले निशुल्क स्वास्थ्य सेवा पाउनु पर्छ र यो आधारभुत आवश्यकता हुनुपर्छ। स्वास्थमा व्यापार तत्कालै रोकिनु पर्छ। स्वास्थ्य बीमा हरुलाई बीमा शुल्क बुझाई सके पछि जुनसुकै रोगको उपचार निशुल्क हुनै पर्दछ। सरकारी अस्पतालहरुलाई सुदृढ बनाउनु पर्छ भने निजी अस्पतालहरुलाई करको दायरामा ल्याउनु पर्छ। सरकारी अस्पतालको सेवालाई विश्वसनिय बनाउनु पर्छ। स्वास्थ्य बीमा अनिवार्य गरि सबै जनताको पारिश्रमिकबाट बीमा शुल्क काटिने व्यबस्था गरिनु पर्छ। बालक, बृद्ध र अपागंको बीमा शुल्क सरकारले बेहोर्नु पर्छ। कसैले निजी अस्पतालमा उपचार गराउॅंछ भने उ आफैं खर्च गर्न सक्षम छ भन्ने हुन्छ त्यसैले उसका स्वास्थ्यसॅंग सम्बन्धित राज्यले दिएका सुविधा हटाई दिनुपर्छ। सरकारी अस्पताललाई समुदाय मैत्री बनाउने र व्यबस्थापनको जिम्मा पनि समुदायलाई नै दिनुपर्छ जसमा व्यबस्थापक शैक्षिक एवं क्षेत्रगत ज्ञान भएको हुनुपर्छ साथै उचित पारिश्रमिक दिनुपर्छ।


शिक्षा ब्याबस्थापन


शिक्षा जनताको आधारभूत आवश्यकता हो। आफना नागरिकलाई शिक्षित बनाउनु राज्यको दायीत्व हो। १८ बर्ष मूनिको शिक्षा वा १२ कक्षा सम्मको शिक्षा सम्पूर्ण नागरिकलाई अनिवार्य साथै निशुल्क व्याबस्था गरिनु पर्दछ। प्राथमिक स्तरमा पढाई लेखाई र भाषा सिकाई वा साक्षर बनाउने हुनुपर्दछ। माधयामिक स्तरमा समाज, संस्कृति एवं नैतिक शिक्षा दिईनु पर्दछ। उच्च माघ्यमिक स्तरमा निर्वाहमुखी शिक्षा व्यवस्था हुनुपर्दछ। त्यस पछिको शिक्षा विशेषज्ञता हासिलको लागि हुनु पर्दछ। १२ कक्षा सम्मको शिक्षा अनिवार्य गरिनु पर्छ। अहिलेको शिक्षण पद्दति हटाई परिणाममुखी र व्याबहारिक शिक्षण पद्दति लागू गरिनु पर्छ। कुनै उच्च माध्यमिक तहको शिक्षा लिएको नागरिकले आत्मनिर्भर हुने ज्ञान भएको हुनुपर्दछ।


रोजगारी व्यास्थापन


हरेक सक्षम नागरिक रोजगोार हुनुपर्दछ। रोजगारी आधारभूत आवश्यकता हुनुपर्छ र रोजगारी दिनु राज्यको कर्तव्य हो। कुनै नागरिकलाई बेरोजगार राख्न पाईने छैन। त्यसको लागि रोजदारी व्याबस्थापनको लागि छुट्टै नियोग बनाई रोजगारी व्यबस्थापन गरिनु पर्दछ। हरेक नागरिकलाई सामाजिक सुरक्षा पहिचान नम्बर प्रदान गरिनु पर्दछ जसमा निज व्यक्तिका सबै रेकर्डहरु सुरक्षित हुनुपर्दछ। शिक्षा, योगदान, राज्य प्रतिको उत्तरदायित्वको आधारमा नागरिकको क्रेडिट स्कोर स्वचालित रुमा रेकर्ड गर्ने प्रणालीको विकास गर्नु पर्छ र नागरिकको हरेक नागरिको क्षमतामा राज्य जानकार हुनुपर्छ।

रोजगारी व्याबस्थापन नियोगले हरेक रोजगार दाता र हरेक नागरिकको रेकर्ड राख्ने स्वचालित प्रणाली व्यबस्था गर्नु पर्दछ। हरेक बेरोजगार नागरिकलाई उसको क्षमता अनुसारको रोजगारीको अवसर कहाॅं कहाॅं छ उसलाई प्रविधिको माध्यमबाट थाह हुने र उसले चाहे अनलाईन नियुक्ति लिएर तुरुन्तै काममा जान सक्ने प्रणालीको बिकास गर्ने। हरेक रोजगार दाता र कामदारले अनिवार्य रोजगार व्याबस्थापन नियोगबाटै रोजगारी दिने लिने व्याबस्था हुनु पर्छ ता कि कति र कुन नागरिक रोजगार या बेरोजगार छन राज्यलाई थाह होस। यसरी प्रणाली बिकास गरेपछि रोजगारीको अबसर हुॅंदा हुॅंदै काम नगर्ने नागरिकलाई राज्यका सेवाबाट बन्चित गर्न र बेरोजगार हरुलाई भत्ता दिन सजिलो हुन्छ। यो प्रणाली विकास भए पछि कर छल्न पनि सम्भव हुॅंदैन। कोहि बेरोजगार पनि बस्न पर्दैन। कामको सम्मान गर्ने प्रचलनको विकास हुन्छ।


समाजिक सुरक्षा


हरेक नागरिकलाई सामाजिक सुरक्षा नम्बर उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्दछ। उक्त नम्बर प्रयोग गरी कोहि पनि व्यक्तिको सबै कृयाकलाप र समाजिक जिम्मेदारी बहनको बिषयमा जानकारी लिन सकिन्छ। उक्त नम्बरमा नागरिकको क्रेडिट स्कोर गणना गर्ने प्रणाली बिकास गरिएको हुन्छ जसमा कुनै राम्रो कामको धनात्मक स्कोर र कुनै नराम्रो कामको ऋणात्मक स्कोर हुन्छ। जस्तै कसैले कुनै सडकमा बेसहारा लडिरहेको मानिसलाई सहयोग गर्छ भने उसको क्रेडिट स्कोर बढ्ने र कोहि रक्सीले मातेर हल्ला गर्दै हिड्ने छ भने क्रेडिट स्कोर घट्ने हुन्छ।कोहि काम गरि कर तिरे स्कोर बढ्ने हुन्छ भने बेरोजगार भई बसे स्कोर घट्ने हुन्छ। कुनै व्यक्तिको नागरिक हैसियत यहि स्कोरबाट मापन हुने हुन्छ।यसरी प्रणाली विकास गरे पछि आम मानिसहरु नराम्रो कार्य छोडि राम्रो कार्य तिर आकर्षित हुनेछन।

यस्तो सामाजिक सुरक्षा नम्बर प्रयोग गरि आवश्यक नागरिकको जिम्मेवारी राज्यले लिने भए पछि कोहि पनि नागरिक आधारभूत आवश्यकता आपूर्ति बाट बन्चित हुनु पर्दैन। राज्यले विभिन्न समुहका नागरिकलाई कसरी र कस्तो सेवा भन्ने तल उल्लेख गरिएको छ।


शिशु


नेपाली बाबु आमा बाट जन्मिएका र नेपालमा ५ बर्षसम्म निरन्तर बसोबास गरि कुनै रोजगारी वा ब्यबसाय गर्दै गरेका जुनसुकै देशका नागरिक बाट जन्मिएका शिशु हरुले नेपालको शिशु अधिकार उपभयोग गर्न पाउनु पर्छ। जन्मदर न्यून हुँदै गई रहेको विश्व परिवेशमा मा शिशु सुरक्षण अहिलेको चुनौती बनेको छ। शिशु भविष्यको सबल नागरिक बन्न स्वास्स्थ र शैशिक रुपमा तन्दुरुस्त हुनु जरूरी छ। शिशु विकासको लागि गर्भवती महिला को आर्थिक अवस्था हेरि गर्भवती महिला लाई पौष्टिक आहार तथा शिशुलाई पाँच बर्ष सम्म राज्यले शिशु हेरचाह देखि शिशु आहार सरकारको कर्तव्य हुनुपर्छ। यदि शिशुको आमा काम गर्छिन भने राज्यले शिशु हेरचाह खर्च उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्छ तर यदि शिशुकी आमा अन्य आय आर्जनको को काम गर्दिनन् भने भने शिशु हेरचाह खर्च राज्यले दिने छैन। शिशु विकासको लागि आधुनिक शिशु शिक्षा सहितको शिशु हेरचाह केन्द्र हरु बन्नुपर्छ जहाँ तालीम प्राप्त शिशु परिचारिकाहरु बाट शिशुको हेरचाह गरि शिशुको आमा हरुलाई काम या ब्यबसायमा फर्किने वातावरण मिलाउनु पर्दछ।


बालक/बालिका


५ बर्ष उमेर पुगेका १६ उमेर उमेर ननाघेका नेपाली बाबु आमा बाट जन्मिएका वा नेपालमा शिशु अधिकार उपभोग गरेका हरुलाई बालक/बालिका मानिनु पर्छ। बालक/बालिका हरुलाई सरकारले सम्पूर्ण शिक्षा निशुल्क गर्नुको साथै बिशेष क्षमता भएका बालबालिका हरुलाई सरकार ले बिशेष सुविधा र छात्रव्रीति को ब्यबस्था गरिनु पर्छ।


युवा


१६ बर्ष उमेर पुगेर ४० बर्ष उमेर ननाघेका महिला/पुरुषलाई युवा भनिने छ। १६ देखि २० बर्षको युवा विद्यार्थी भए अनिवार्य कम्तिमा २ घण्टा काम गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। २० बर्ष भन्दा माथिका युवाले अनिवार्य ८ घण्टा काम गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। विद्यार्थी वा शोधकर्ता भए कम्तिमा ४ घण्टा काम गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। युवाहरुलाई रोजगारी दिन नसके सरकारले बेरोजगारी भत्ता अनिवार्य दिनु पर्नेछ। सरकारले दिएको काम नगरी बेरोजगार बसेमा कारवाही हुने र सामाजिक स्कोर पनि घटने व्यबस्था हुनुपर्छ। हरेक युवा युवाहरुले उद्योग व ब्यबसाय गर्ने भए सामूहिक ऋण लगानी सरकारले ले नै ब्यबस्थापक नियुक्ति गरि नियम गरिनु पर्छ।


प्रौढ

४० बर्ष उमेर पुगी ६० बर्ष नकटेका नागरिकलाई प्रौढ वर्गिकरण गरी यो जनशक्तिलाई अनुभवी तथा भ्यालुड मानव श्रमसाधनमा राखी उत्कृष्ठ काम को लागि वा विशेषज्ञ कामको लागि प्रयोग गर्नु पर्छ। प्रति धण्टा भुक्तानी पनि उच्च राखिनु पर्छ साथै यो वर्गका नागरिक युवाहरुका मार्गदर्शक पनि हुनुपर्छ। हरेक प्रौढ हरुलाई प्रविधि मैत्री बनाउनु पर्ने छ।


बृद्ध


६० बर्ष उमेर भन्दा माथिका सबै नागरिकलाई बृद्धको वर्गमा राखी पेन्सनको व्यवस्था गरिनु पर्छ। युवा बा प्रौढ अवस्थामा लिएको आम्दानी करको १०% रकम राज्यले स्थापना गरेको लगानी बोर्ड मार्फत लगानी दरी हरेक नागरिकलाई ६० बर्षको उमेर पछि पेन्सनको व्यवस्था गरिनु पर्छ। ७० बर्ष देखि माथिका कुनै पेन्सन वा जीवन गुजाराको बाटो नभएका नागरिकलाई अहिलेको जस्तो सिमित भत्ता होईन पालन पोषण तथा रेखदेख समेत राज्यले गर्नु पर्नेछ। आफ्नो युवा र प्रौढ उमेरमा रोगजारी वा व्यावसाय गरी राज्यलाई सेवा गर्ने नागरिकलाई वृद्ध अवस्थामा हेरचाह गर्नु राज्यको दायीत्व हुनेछ। तर यो सुविधा युवा अवस्था देखि देश भित्र रहेर रोजगारी या व्यबसाय गर्ने हरुलाई मात्र उपलब्ध हुने व्यबस्था हुनु पर्ने हुन्छ।


रोगी


सामाजिक सुरक्षा नम्बर लिएका सम्पूर्ण नागरिकलाई मानव अंग प्रत्यारोण बाहेकका संम्भव हुने सबै रोगको उपचार निशुल्क हुने व्यबस्था हुनु पर्छ। दिर्ध रोगी तथा गम्भिर प्रकारका अपांगता भएका नागरिकको पालनपोषन र हेरचाह राज्यले गर्ने व्यबस्था गरिनु पर्छ।


अपांग


अपांगता भएका नागरिकलाई शिक्षाको व्याबस्था र अपागंताको प्रकृति हेरी रोजगारीको व्यबस्था राज्यले गर्नु पर्दछ। सीपमूलक शिक्षाको विकास गरी अपांग मैत्रि रोजगारी सिर्जना गरी आत्मनिर्भर बनाउने र आत्मबल बढाउने अन्य नागरिकसॅंग समानताको प्रत्याभूत गराउनु राज्यको कर्तव्य हुनु पर्छ।


एकल


विबाह गरी पछि कुनै भवितव्य परि एकल जीवन विताई रहेका नागरिकलाई अनिवार्य रोजगारी उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्ने छ साथै ईतिहास देखि पूरुष प्रधान देश रहदैं आएकोले अझै पनि व्यबहारत: महिला र पूरूष बीच समानता नभईसकेको ले एकल महिलालाई राज्यले बिशेष सुविधा उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्छ। एकल महिलाका नाबालक छोरा छोरी भए तिनको भरण पोषणको सुनिश्चितता गर्नु पर्छ।


विपन्न


राज्य भर कुनै पनि ठाउॅंमा आफ्नो स्थायी बसोबास गर्ने घर नभएका र जीवीकोपार्जन गर्ने रोजगारी वा ईलम नभएका नागरिकलाई विपन्न वर्गमा राखी त्यसता नागरिक विपन्न हुनुको कारण पहिल्याई राज्यले स्थायी बसोबास र रोजगारीको ब्यवस्था अनिवार्य रुपमा मिलाउनु पर्ने हुन्छ।


शिक्षा

प्राथमिक


कक्षा ५ सम्मको शिक्षालाई प्राथमिक शिक्षा अन्तर्गत राखी प्राथमिक शिक्षा साक्षरमुखी बनाउनु पर्दछ। साक्षर भन्नाले आफ्नो मातृ भाषा, नेपाली भषा र अन्तराष्ट्रिय अंग्रेजी भाषा मा लेख पढ को साथै संवाद र संचार गर्न सक्ने हुनु पर्छ। हरेक बालबालिकालाई प्राथमिक शिक्षा अनिवार्य हुनेछ साथै पहिले अध्ययन गर्न नपाएको युवा तथा प्रौढलाई पनि यो शिक्षा अनिवार्य गरिनु पर्छ। प्राथमिक शिक्षा राज्य भित्र बस्ने सबै मानिस ( नागरिक वा विदेशी) लाई निशुल्क हुनु पर्छ।


माध्यामिक


कक्षा ६ देखि १० कक्षा सम्मको शिक्षा माध्यामिक शिक्षा हुनेछ। माध्यामिक शिक्षा अन्तर्गत सामाजिक शिक्षा, नैतिक शिक्षा, आधारभूत कानून, संस्कृति र संस्कार तथा देशको परिचयात्मक शिक्षा दिईने छ, जसले गर्दा सु-संस्कृत र सुझबुझ पूर्ण नागरिक बन्न अभिप्रेरित गरोस। माध्यामिक शिक्षा निशुल्क उपलब्ध हुनु पर्दछ।


उच्च शिक्षा


११ र १२ कक्षाबाट उच्च शिक्षा प्रदान गरिनेछ। उच्च शिक्षा अन्तर्गत जीवीकोपार्जन मुखी प्राविधिक र व्याबहारिक शिक्षा दिईनेछ जसको मद्दतले हरेक नागरिकले कुनै रोजगारी वा ईलम गरेर आफ्नो जीवन स्तर व्याबस्थापन गर्न सकोस। यो शिक्षा हरेक राज्यका हरेक नागरिकलाई निशुल्क दिनुपर्ने छ तर विदेशी नागरिकको हकमा राज्यले तोकेको शुल्क तिर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ।


प्राविधिक शिक्षा


उच्च शिक्षा पछि १८ महिने बिषय गत प्रयोगात्मक शिक्षा दिईने छ, यो शिक्षा लिए पछि दक्ष मानव श्रम साधन अन्तरगत रोजगारी वा ईलम गर्न उत्त बिषयको लाईसेन्स प्रदान गरिनु पर्छ।


विशेषज्ञ शिक्षा


विशेषज्ञ शिक्षा अन्तर्गत स्नातकोत्तर र त्यस भन्दा पछि विद्यावारीधि सम्मको शिक्षालाई समेटिन्छ। विशेषज्ञ शिक्षा हासिल गरेको जनशक्तिले प्राज्ञिक क्षेत्र, कुट्नितिक क्षेत्र, अध्यापन जस्ता क्षेत्रमा काम गर्ने हुन्छ। योजना आयोग, अनुसन्धान र आर्थिक संस्था हरुमा साथै मन्त्रालय सम्हाल्ने मन्त्री हरुले पनि विशेषज्ञ शिक्षा हासिल गरेको हुनु पर्ने हुन्छ।


बिशेष शिक्षा


विशेष शिक्षा अन्तर्गत खानी उत्खनन्, आणविक भट्टी संचालन,सुरुगं मार्ग अध्ययन, पेट्रोलियम उत्खनन्, रेलवे अध्ययन जस्तो राष्ट्रीय महत्वका परियोजना अनुसन्धान र संचालनको निम्ति विकसित देशमा विकास भएका प्रविधि अध्ययन अध्यपन गराउने विश्व विद्यालय स्थापना गरी जनशक्ति निर्माण गरिनु पर्छ।


स्वास्थ


साधारण स्वास्थ्य


कुनै पनि राष्ट्रको सम्मृद्धि सॅंग नागरिकको स्वास्थ प्रत्यक्ष जोडिएको हुन्छ। नागरिकको स्वास्थ्य मजबुत राख्न स्वास्थ्य बीमा अनिवार्य गरिनु पर्छ। बीमा शुल्क नागरिकको खाताबाट आफैं काटिने गरी व्यबस्था मिलाउनु पर्छ।बीमा शुल्क तिरे पछि अंग प्रत्यारोपण बाहेक अन्य जुनसुकै रोगको संभव हुने सम्मको उपचार निशुल्क हुनु पर्छ।


बिशेष स्वास्थ्य


रोग प्रतिरोधात्मक सबै खाले खोपहरु, प्रजनन् स्वास्थ, परिवार नियोजन, महामारी तथा दुर्घटना पछि हुने स्वास्थ उपचार, मृत्यू पछि पोष्टमार्टम जस्ता सेवा हरु पूर्ण निशुल्क उपलब्ध हुनेछ तर विदेशी नागरिकको हकमा राज्यले तोकेको शुल्क लाग्ने हुनु पर्छ।


प्रशासन


प्रशासन भनेको राज्यका दैनिक कामकाज चलाउन विकास गरिएको संयन्त्र हो। राज्यको श्रोत साधन प्रयोग गरी राज्य संचालन गर्न राज्यले विभिन्न क्षेत्रमा परिचालन गरिने कर्मचारीको व्यावस्थापन कसरी गर्ने भन्ने बिषय राज्यको जिम्मेबारी हो।


दैनिक काम


वर्तमान राज्य संचालन संयन्त्रले प्रभावकारी काम गर्न नसकी दिन प्रतिदिन जनगुनासो बढ्दो छ। दैनिक प्रशासनिक काम कारबाहिको अध्ययन गर्दा प्रति कर्मचारी कार्य क्षमता र कार्यसम्पादन बीच धेरै ठूलो अन्तर छ। जसको कारण प्रशासनिक व्यावस्थापन नै हो।


प्रविधि


राज्यका सबै नागरिकको सुचना व्यावस्थापन गर्ने प्रविधिको विकास गरी शैक्षिक स्कोर, बिषयगत अध्ययन, लाईसेन्स र ज्ञानको आधारमा प्रणालीबाटै मुल्यांकन गरी स्वचालित छनौट पद्दति (Automatic Seclection System) बाट कर्मचारीको छनौट गरी कार्यकुशलताको आधारमा पारिश्रमिक देखि पदोन्नति सम्म व्यबस्थित गरिनु पर्छ। जसबाट नातागोता, भनसुन र शक्तिकेन्द्रको दुरुपयोग गरी नियुक्ति लिने प्रचलन समाप्त हुन्छ र सक्षमले अवसर प्राप्त गर्दछन।


नियुक्ति


सबै नागरिकलाई आफ्नो बिषयगत अध्ययन पछि व्यबसायीक अनुमति पत्र लिने प्रणाली बिकास गरिनु पर्छ। योग्यता र अनुमति पत्र भएका नागरिकले राज्यले विकास गरेको प्रणालीमा आफ्नो विवरण भर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। प्रणालीमा जोडिएका नागरिकहरुबाट स्वचालित मुल्यांकन पद्दतिमा सबै भन्दा राम्रो अंक भएकालाई करारमा नियुक्ति हुने व्यबस्था लागू हुनु पर्छ। हरेक पटक नियुक्त गर्दा ५० % कार्यरतबाट उच्च कार्यसम्पादन मुल्यांकन भएका र ५० % नयालाई मौका दिईनु पर्छ। यसो हुॅंदा कार्यसम्पादन मुल्यांकनमा उत्कृष्ठ रहनु पर्ने बाध्यता हुन्छ र समग्र प्रशासनिक कामको गुणस्तर बृद्धि हुने हुन्छ।


नियमन

राज्यका संयन्त्र नियमन गर्ने स्वतन्त्र संयन्त्र बिकास गरिनु पर्छ। क्याबिनेट, व्याबस्थापिका, नागरिक समाज, विद्यार्थी, विशेषज्ञ तथा व्यावसायीका प्रतिनिधि सम्मिलित नियमन निरिक्षण निकाय हुनु पर्छ साथै गुप्तचर विभागले भुमिगत निरिक्षण गर्ने संयन्त्र विकास गर्नु पर्छ।


श्रोत व्यावस्थापन


राज्यको प्राथमिकताको आधारमा मानव श्रम साधनको उचित व्याबस्थापन गरिनु पर्छ। कर्मचारीलाई व्यबसायिक बनाउन अफिसियल बाहेक भेटघाट एवं बार्तालाप पूर्णरुपमा निस्तेज पारिनेछ जसबाट अनुचित योजना बनाई राज्यको श्रोत र साधनको दुरुपयोग नहोस।कर्मचारीको सबै कारोबार डिजिटल बनाई अनुचित लाभ लिनबाट पूर्णरुपले निस्तेज पारिनु पर्छ।


मेरिट लाईसेन्स


हरेक नागरिकलाई उसले हासिल गरेको दक्षता अनुसारको मुल्यांकन सहितको मेरिट लाईसेन्स दिईनु पर्छ जसबाट नागरिकले आफ्नो दक्षता प्रस्तुत गर्ने अवसर पावस साथै कुनै क्षेत्रमा पाएको ज्ञानले जुनसुकै ठाउॅंमा आफुलाई सक्षम राख्न सकोस।


स्वचालित नियुक्ति


रज्यका संयन्त्रमा मात्र नभएर सबै नागरिकको दक्षता, क्षमता र कार्यसम्पादन मुल्यांकनको आधारमा स्वचालित प्रणालीमा प्रवेश गरेपछि आफ्नो योग्यता र कार्यक्षेत्र सॅंग मिल्ने कामको जानकारी दिने र उक्त काम मा नियुक्त हुने भए तत्कालै अनलाईन नियुत्ति लिने व्यबस्था मिलाउनु पर्छ।


निजामति सेवा


नियुक्ति


सबै निजामति नियुक्ति करारमा नियुक्त हुने व्यवस्था हुनुपर्छ। निजामति नियुक्त हुनलाई नागरिकले औपचारिक शिक्षा, विषयगत तालीम र पेशागत अनुमति पत्र तथा सामाजिक मूल्यांकन सहित राज्यले बिकास प्रणालिमा अध्यवदि गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ, त्यस बाट अंकको आधारमा उच्च अंक हुने हरुलाई नियुक्ति को अवसर अनलाइन बाटै हुने व्यबस्था हुनु पर्छ जसले गर्दा अनुचित लाभ लिई शक्ति र पहुँचको आधारमा हुने नियुक्ति नियन्त्रण भई मेरिट का आधारमा नियुक्त हुने प्रणाली विकास हुन्छ जस बाट भ्रष्ट्राचार जस्तो जघन्य अपराध नियन्त्रण मा ठुलो योगदान पुग्ने हुन्छ।

नियमन

निजामति कर्मचारी नियमन को लागि "Pay for Work, not for Post" वा कामको शुल्क तिर, पदको होइन भन्ने सिद्धान्तमा कार्य सम्पादन को आधारमा तलब सुविधा निर्धारण गरिने प्रणाली विकास गरिनु पर्छ। कर्मचारीले जति राम्रो कार्य सम्पादन गर्यो उतिनै राम्रो तलब सुबिधा पाउने भए पछि अफ्नो सम्पूर्ण सामर्थ्य लगाएर राम्रो काम गर्न प्रयास गर्छन र कर्मचारीको Average Output राम्रो हुनुको साथै कर्मचारी बीच काम गर्न प्रतिस्प्रधा हुने हुँदा संख्यात्मक रुपमा थोरै कर्मचारी राखेर राम्रो काम लिन सकिन्छ। अहिलेको प्रणालीमा स्थायी नियुक्ति हुने र मासिक तलब भत्ता लिने प्रणाली हुँदा काम प्रति भन्दा पनि समय गुजार्ने र तलब लिने साथै कामको जिमेवारी बोध नगर्ने भै रहेको छ।

अहिलेको सबै जसो कर्मचारी र जनप्रतिनिधि हरु आर्थिक भ्रष्ट्राचार मा लिप्त नै छन। यसबाट मुक्त हुन कर्मचारी मात्र नभएर हरेक नागरिकको Economical Status Tracking System हुनै पर्छ, जस अनुसार कसैले आर्जनको गरेको सम्पति राज्यको प्रणाली बाट छल्न अरु कसैको नाममा राखेमा उक्त सम्पति जफत एवम सम्पति अफ्नो नाम मा राख्ने र राख्न लगाउने दुबैलाई जन्म कैद वा सो सरहको सजाय हुने ब्यबस्था गरिनु पर्छ। हरेक कर्मचारी, जनप्रतिनिधि र नागरिकको Status Audit हरेक ३/३ बर्षमा गरिनु पर्दछ। Status Audit अन्तर्गत तोकिएको समय सीमामा कुनै ब्यक्तिले गरेका आर्थिक र सामाजिक गतिविधि को परीक्षण हो, जस अनुसार उक्त समय मा आर्थिक उपार्जन राज्यको राज्यको कानूनी दायरा मा पर्छ की पर्दैन, आर्थिक उपार्जन अनुसारको राज्यलाई कर बुझाएको छ की छैन, गैरकानूनी काम कारबहिमा परेको छ की छैन जस्ता बिषयमा निरीक्षण गरी सोहि अनुसारको प्रमाण पत्र जारी गरिन्छ र यदि गैरकानूनी काम गरेको पाइए कारवाही गर्ने ब्यबस्था गर्नु पर्छ।


व्याव्थापन

करारमा लिएका कर्मचारी ५ बर्ष पछि कार्य सम्पादन मुल्यांकनको आधारमा उच्च अंक हुनेको लिष्ट बाट ५०% प्रतिशत र खुल्ला बाट ५०% हुने गरि पून: नियुक्ति गर्दै जाने ब्यबस्था गरिनु पर्छ जसले गर्दा उचित ढँगले कार्यसम्पादन गर्न नसक्ने कर्मचारी हटने र नयाँ पुस्ताका युवाले पनि अवसर पाउने हुन्छ। साथै विशिष्ठ क्षमता भएका हरु छीटै नेतृत्वमा पुग्ने र समग्र देशको प्रशासनिक क्षेत्र स्वच्छ एवं प्रभावकारी बन्ने छ।


निवृति


करारमा नियुत्त भएका कर्मचारी उत्कृष्ठ कार्यसम्पादन गर्दै ३० बर्ष सम्म अनवरत सेवा दिए भने सरकारले बाँकी जीवन यापन गर्न आवास, खाद्य कार्ड, सवारी कार्ड र मासिक आधारभूत खर्च गर्न पाउने क्रेडिट कॉर्ड को ब्यबस्था सरकारले गरीदिनु पर्छ। निजको मृत्यू पछि उक्त सेवा सुबिधा स्वत: खारेज हुने हुन्छ।


न्यायपालिका


संरचना

नेपालमा स्थानिय निकायमा न्याय क्षेत्र अध्ययन गरेको अधिकृत स्तरको अधिकारीको नेतृत्वमा स्यानिय प्रतिनिधी सदस्य हुने एक न्यायीक निकाय हुनु पर्छ, जसले स्थानिय स्तरका झैझगडा न्यायीक आचरण पालना गर्दै मिलाउने छन्। यसले गर्दा न्यायलयमा न्याय सम्बन्धित मुद्दा मामिलाको चाप धट्न गई न्याय सेवा छरितो हुनेछ।

स्थानिय निकायबाट समाधान हुन नसकेको मुद्दा जिल्ला अदालत ले हेर्ने र त्यस भन्दा माथि उच्च अदालत र सर्वोच्च अदालत हुनु पर्छ।

तत्कालै न्याय निरुपण गरिनुपर्ने राजनितिक मुद्दा, भ्रष्ट्राचार सम्बन्धी मुद्दा र राष्ट्रीय स्तरका सार्वजनिक मुद्दा हेर्ने बिशेष अदालत हुनु पर्छ।

न्यायप्रणाली मा राजनीतिक प्रभाव पूर्णरूमा बन्द गरिनु पर्छ। आधारभूत कानूनका सिद्धान्तमा आधारित स्वचालित कानूनी उपचार पद्दति विकास गरि हरेक विषयलाई स्वतन्त्र कानूनी ब्याख्या गरिनु पर्दछ।


स्वतन्त्रता


न्यापालिकालाई स्वतन्त्र राख्न न्यायपालिका, ब्यबस्थापिक र कार्यपालिका बीच अफिसियल बाहेक का भेटघाट तथा संचार माध्यम प्रयोग गरि सम्पर्क संबाद लाई गैरकानूनी घोषणा गरि कसूर गर्नेलाई गम्भीर अपराध ठहराई कारबाही हुने ब्यबस्था गर्नु पर्छ


निष्पक्षता


न्यायपालिका को निष्पक्षताको लागि नियुक्ति प्रक्रिया कार्यसम्पदान मूल्यांकन को आधारमा स्वचालित र राजनीतिक हस्तक्षेप रहित हुनुपर्छ। जसका लागि राज्यले विकास गर्ने मानव श्रम साधन व्यावस्थापन प्रणालीबाट न्यायलयमा जनशक्ति परिचालन गरिने हुदाॅं पहुॅंचमा निश्पक्षता सुनिश्चित हुन्छ भने कार्यसम्पादन मुल्यांकनको आधारमा जिमेवारी दिईने हुॅंदा कार्य पद्दतिमा निष्पक्षताको शुनिश्चित हुन्छ।


मृत्यूदण्डको व्याबस्था


विश्वको सबै भन्दा ठुला लोकतान्त्रिक मुलुकहरुमा समेत मृत्यू दण्डको प्रावधान रहेको छ। नेपालमा अहिलको आवश्यकता अनुसार निम्न चार प्रकारका कसुर गर्ने अपराधीलाई मृत्यूदण्ड दिने व्यबस्था गरिनु पर्दछ।

१. गम्भिर प्रकारको राज्यद्रोहको कसूर गर्नेलाई

२. नियतवस क्रुर तरिकाले मानव हत्या गर्ने र सामुहिक हत्या गर्नेलाई

३. बलात्कार गरी हत्या गर्ने र सामुहिक बलात्कार गर्नेलाई

३. भ्रष्ट्रचार गर्नेलाई


राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा


भूमिका


राज्यको सीमा सुरक्षा, पूरातात्विक तथा ऐतिहासिक संरचना सुरक्षा, प्राकृतिक सम्पदा हरु, विमानस्थल सुरक्षा, नदी नाला, वन्यजन्तु, ताल कुण्ड पोखरी, हिमाल तथा हिमनदी हरुको सुरक्षा, दुर्लभ बन्यजन्तु तथा बन्सपति र वातावरण सुरक्षा, राष्ट्रीय विपत्ति व्याबस्थापन, राज्यद्रोह नियन्त्रण, संगठित आतंक नियन्त्रण तथा राज्यका अतिबिशिष्ठ व्यक्तित्वहरुको सुरक्षा, औपचारिक भ्रमणमा रहेका बिशिष्ठ विदेशी पाहुनाहरुको सुरक्षा, जस्ता राज्य अस्तित्व सॅंग प्रत्यक्ष सरोकार रहने बिषयहरु राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षामा अन्तर्गत पर्दछन्। राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षाका विभिन्न पक्षहरुको अध्ययन गरी व्यबस्थापनको संरचना बनाउनु पर्दछ।


सैनिक


सबै प्रकारका आधुनिक उपकरण र सुरक्षा व्याबस्थापनमा प्रयोग हुने हातहतियार सहिको सैनिक संगठन हुनुपर्छ। नेपाल भुपरिबेष्ठित देश भएकोले संधै जसो जमिन प्रयोग गरि हुने आंतक र असुरक्षाको खतरा उच्च हुन्छ त्यसैले हरेक नागरिकलाई आधारभूत सैनिक तालिम दिएर परि आएको खण्डमा राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षाको निम्ति जस्तोसुकै योगदान गर्न सक्ने स्थितिमा राख्नु पर्दछ। सैनिक संगठनलाई राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षाको जिम्मा दिईनु पर्दछ।

प्रहरी


नागरिकको जीवन सुरक्षा, व्यक्तिगत तथा सार्वजनिक सम्पत्तिको सुरक्षा, मानव अधिकार तथा महिला बलबालिका अधिकारको सुरक्षा, सडक तथा यातायात सुरक्षा, संस्कार तथा संस्कृतिको सुरक्षा, बौदिक सम्पत्तिको सुरक्षा, सुचना तथा साईबर सुरक्षा, बैंक तथा आर्थिक सुरक्षा र सामुदायीक सद्भाव सुरक्षा जस्ता जनजीवन सॅंग प्रत्यक्ष सरोकार भएका सुरक्षा सरोकार सामाजिक सुरक्षा अन्तर्गत पर्दछन्। सामाजिक सुरक्षाको जिम्मा प्रहरीलाई दिईनु पर्दछ। प्रहरीको कर्तव्य सामाजिक सुरक्षा कायम गर्ने र जनचेतना अभिबृद्धि गर्ने हुनेछ।


सीमा


सीमा सुरक्षा राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा अन्तर्गतको अति संवेदनशील बिषय हो। दुई बिशाल सैन्यशक्ति भएका छिमेकी सॅंग सीमा विवाद रहेको हुॅंदा सीमा सुरक्षा अति नै कौशलता पूर्वक व्यावस्थापन हुनु आजको मुख्य चुनौति हो। अहिलेको युग भनेको प्रविधिको युग भएकोले सीमा सुरक्षामा उच्चतम प्रविधिको प्रयोग गरि प्रभावकारी बनाउनु पर्छ। सीमा हरुमा क्यामेरा र विद्युतिय कन्ट्रोल लाईन तथा जीपिएस प्रणाली जडान गरी सीमाको चौबिसै घण्टा सीमाको निरीक्षण गरिनेछ।Sensor Syren and Automatic Firing System , जुन नेपालकै वैज्ञानिकहरुले विकास गरेका छन, जडान गरी सीमामा हुने अनुचित गतिविधि नियन्त्रण गर्नु पर्छ।


औद्योगिक क्षेत्र


नेपालले तत्कालै सुधार गर्नु पर्ने क्षेत्र भनेको औद्योगिक क्षेत्र हो। नेपालमा प्राय सबै प्रकारका कच्चा पदार्थको अपार स्रोत हुॅंदा हुॅंदै पनि हरेक प्रकारका तयारी सामानहरु विदेशबाट आयत गरी ठूलो धनराशी विदेशिन गई देशले फराकिलो व्यापार घाटा व्यहोरिरहेको छ। व्यापार घाटा बढ्दै जानु भनेको देशको सम्पत्ति क्षयीकरण हुदॅं देश आर्थिक खण्डहर हुनु हो। कृषि उद्योगको निम्ति विश्वलाई नेतृत्व गर्न सक्ने प्राकृतिक स्रोत साधन भएको देश दैनिक उपभोग्य सामान समेत आयत गरि गुजारा गरिरहोको अत्यन्त दयनिय अवस्था छ। त्यसैले आधुनि स्रोत र साधन सम्पन्न औद्योगिक फोर्स गठन गरि यसमा विशेषज्ञ देखि प्राविधिक जनशक्ति सामेल गरि उद्योग स्थापना, संचालन र विस्तार गरिने छ साथै यसको लागि आवश्यक पर्ने आर्थिक संकलन नागरिकलाई शेयर बिक्री गरि हाॅंसिल गरिनेछ जसबाट आयआर्जनको हिस्सा नागरिक स्तर सम्म पुग्ने छ।


अर्थ व्यबस्था


मोनिटरी


अहिलेको प्रविधिको युगमा करीब ५००० बर्ष पहिले विकास भएको मुद्रा प्रणाली अपनाउदा, कालाबाजारी, कालाधन थुपार्ने अनि टाठा बाठाले भौतिक मुद्रा संचय गरि ठुलो धनराशीलाई बन्दक बनाएर राख्ने र चलायमान हुनु पर्ने चल सम्पत्ति बन्दक बनि समग्र देश विकासमा बाधा पुगिरहेको छ एकातिर भने राज्यले अवैध मुद्रा परिचालन बाट ठूलो धाटा व्यहोरनु परेको अवस्था छ। अबको युगमा भौतिक मुद्राको अन्त्य गरि डिजिटलाईज्ड मुद्राको थालनी गरिने छ जसबाट मुद्राको अपचलन सजिलै नियन्त्रण गर्न सकिनेछ। अनुचित कारोबार, कालाबजारी, अबैधानिक आयआर्जन, कर छली जस्ता आर्थिक विकृति सजिलै नियन्रण हुनेछ। विश्वमा कतिपय धनाढ्यहरुको संबन्ध आतंककारी तथा अण्डर वर्ल्ड सॅंग भएको अबस्थामा भौतिक मुद्रा अन्त्य गर्ने हो भने मुद्रको फ्लो पत्ता लगाई अपराधी सम्म सजिलै पुगिनेछ। आयकर छली देशको ठूलो समस्या भईरगेको अवस्थामा भौतिक मुद्रा अन्त्य हुने हो भने कोहि पनि व्यक्ति नियमअनुसारको आयकर बाट भाग्ने पाउने छैन। यसरी राज्यको सबै आर्थिक गतिविधि कानुनी दायरा आईसके पछि आर्थिक विकासले गति लिन समय लाग्ने छैन।


आर्थिक नीति


नेपालमा अहिले अपनाईएको खुल्ला आर्थिक नीति प्राय असफल भईसकेको छ। आजको समयमा राज्य नियन्त्रित अर्थ व्यवस्था पनि सम्भव छैन। त्यसैले मिश्रित आर्थिक नीति अपनाई अर्थतन्त्र मजबुत पारिनु पर्छ। मिश्रित अर्थव्यबस्था अन्तर्गत नीजि लगानीकर्ता लाई लगानीको लागि आकर्षित गर्नु पर्छ तर राज्यको प्रबर्धनात्मक भुमिका सशक्तरुपमा स्थापित गरिने छ जसले गर्दा लगानी गरिएको आयोजना असफल नहोस र बाह्य लगानीकर्ता पनि निश्चिन्त भई लगानी गर्नसक्ने वातावरण बनोस। हरेक ठूला आयोजनामामा कम्तिमा सरकारको १०% प्रतिशत लगानी हुनुपर्ने छ जसले गर्दा सरकारले लगानी सुरक्षणको नैतिक तथा आर्थिक जिमेदारी बहन गरोस्।

राज्यले केन्दिय व्याबस्थापन बोर्ड गठन गरि राष्ट्रीय रुपमा सफल ब्याबस्थापकहरुलाई संगठित गराई आयोजनाहरुको व्याबस्थापन र लगानीको सुरक्षण प्रत्याभूत गरिनु पर्छ। बाह्य लगानी कर्ताहरुलाई मुनाफा लैजाने भन्दा पनि व्यासाय बिस्तार गरी अर्थतन्त्र अझ चलायमान बनाउन प्रेरित गरिनु पर्छ।

लगानी

साना लगानीकर्ता हरुको लगानी एकिकृत गरी विज्ञहरुको व्यबस्थापनमा प्रभावकारी ढंगबाट श्रोत र साधनको उपयोग गरि लगानीकर्ता हरुलाई उच्च प्रतिफल दिने व्यबस्था मिलाईने छ। अहिले देखिएको अव्यबस्थित लगानी र व्यक्तिगत टुक्रे लगानी विशेषज्ञ र बस्तुगत ज्ञानको अभावमा ८०% भन्दा माथि डुब्ने गरेको छ, बाॅंकी २०% मा १० प्रतिशत सामान्य प्रतिफलमा चल्ने र १० % मात्र व्याबसायिक सफलता मिल्ने गरेको छ। प्रभावकारी व्याबस्थापन भएमा यस्ता साना लगानी वयबस्थित भई ठुलो संख्यामा रोजगारी सिर्जना भई अर्थतन्त्र मजबुत हुनेछ।

ठूला आयोजनाहरुमा सरकारको पनि साझेदारी रहने गरी ठुला व्यावसाहिक प्रतिष्ठान र वैदेशिक लगानीकर्ता हरूलाई आकर्षित गरिने छ। सरकार पनि साझेदारी हुने भएपछि लदानीकर्तागरुको आत्मबल बढ्ने र सरकारको पनि जिमेवारी हुने हुॅंदा राज्य पनि संवेदनशील हुने हुॅंदा हरेक आयोजना सफल हुनेछन।

हरेको नागरिकलाई पेन्सनको व्यावस्था हुने हुॅंदा पेन्सनकोष पनि लगानीको ठुलो श्रोत हुनेछ। पेन्सनकोषमा जम्मा हुने श्रोत लगानी गरि ठुला आयोजना सम्पन्न गरी प्रतिफलबाट पेन्सन दिने व्यबस्था हुनेछ।


उत्पादन

राज्यको समृद्धि उत्पादनसॅंग अनुन्याश्रित हुन्छ। उत्पादन नीति अन्तर्गत हाल भई रहेका उत्पादनलाई व्यबस्थित गर्ने, गुणस्तर तथा क्षमता अभिबृद्धि गर्ने र आवश्यकता अनुसार विस्तार गरिनेछ। यसले गर्दा अस्तित्वमा रहेका उद्योग व्याबसाय प्रबर्द्धन गर्न कम लगानी हुने र लगानीकर्ताको मनोबल बृद्धि भई उत्पादन बृद्धि गर्न प्रोत्साहित हुन्छन्। नयाॅं उत्पादन मुलक उद्योगहरु स्थापना गर्दा उस्तै आसयका धेरै लगानीकर्ता लाई एकिकृत गरि उक्त उत्पादनमा राज्य आत्मनिर्भर हुने र निर्यात समेत प्रवर्द्धन हुने गरि अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गरि उद्योग स्थापना गरिनु पर्दछ।


प्रविधि


अर्थ व्यबस्था, मौद्रिक नीति, लगानी, उत्पान जस्ता आर्थिक कृयाकलापमा सुरक्षित तथा उच्च प्रविधिको प्रयोग गरी प्रभावकारी नतिजा निकाल्नु पर्छ।


व्यापार व्यासाय


औद्योगिकरण


औधोगिकरण राज्यको आर्थिक मानक भएकोले हरेक नागरिकलाई सीप विकास तथा उत्पादन अभिबृद्धि गरि जवनस्तर उकास्न प्रेरित गरिनु पर्दछ। प्रविधि तथा स्थान राज्यले उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्नेछ। लगानी व्याबस्थापन निकायले लगानीकर्ताहरुलाई प्रेरित गर्नुको साथै प्रभावकारी व्याबस्थापन गरिदिनु पर्नेछ।

१. उद्योग विकास गर्दा Common Product First प्रणाली अपनाउनु पर्नेछ। जस्तै विद्युत मोटर प्रयोग हुने उपकोरण बनाउनु छ भने सम्भव भए सम्म धेरै भन्दा धेरै उपकारणमा एउटै मोडलको मोटर लाग्ने बनायो भने मोटर उत्पादन खर्च कम हुन जान्छ।

२. अत्याधिक मात्रामा आयत हुने र स्वदेशमै उत्पादन सम्भव भएका उत्पादनलाई पहिलो प्राधमिकता दिनु पर्छ।

३. राज्यस्तर बाट र जनस्तर बाट स्वदेशी उत्पादन प्रयोग गर्ने जनचेतना विकास गर्नुपर्छ।

४. जुन उत्पादन सम्भव छ त्यो स्वदेशी नै प्रयोग गर्ने प्ररणाली विकास गरी औद्योगिकरणलाई विस्तार गर्नु पर्नेछ।

५. कृषिमा आश्रित जनशक्तिलाई कृषि औद्योगिकरण गरि जीवनस्तर उकास्ने व्याबस्था एवं प्रेरित गरिनु पर्नेछ।

६. राज्यको प्राथमिकतामा परेका उद्योगलाई विद्युत बैंक स्थापना गरि सहुलियत दरमा विद्युत उपलब्ध गराउनु राज्यको दायीत्व हुनुपर्छ।

८. औद्योगिक उत्पादनको निर्यातमा राज्यले नेतृत्वदायी भूमिका निभाउनु पर्छ,

९. औद्योगिक क्षेत्रमा बाह्य लगानी भित्र्याउन कर नीति खुकुलो तथा लगानी मैत्रि पारिनु पर्छ।

१०. बैंकिगं सुविधा लगानी मैत्रि बनाउनु पर्छ साथै सहज र सरल औद्योगिक संस्था दर्ता, नियमन एवं खारेजी सुविधा विकास गरिनु पर्छ।


आयात/निर्यात


नेपाल विश्व व्यापार संगठनको सदस्य देश भएकोले विदेशी उत्पादनहरुमा रोक लगाउन मिल्दैन तर जनचेतनाका कार्यक्रम मार्फत नागरिकलाई स्वदेशी उत्पादनलाई प्राथमिकता दिनुपर्छ। अत्याबस्यक बाहेका सामान आयातमा कडाई गर्नुको साथै स्वदेशी उत्पादनलाई गुणस्तरीय बनाउनु पर्छ। कुट्नीतिक र व्याबसायीक पहल गरि हाम्रो देशका उत्पादनहरुलाई विश्व बजारमा उपस्थित तथा स्थापित गराउनु पर्छ। नेपालले अंगिकार गरेको असंलग्न परराष्ट्र नीति ले नेपालको कोहि पनि दुश्मन राष्ट्र नभएकोले नेपालले राम्रो कुट्नीतिक पहल गरेमा निर्यातको धेरै ठुलो सम्भावना छ। नेपाल कृषि उपजको स्वर्ग भएकोले कृषि उपजलाई कच्चा पदार्थ प्रयोग गरि गरिने उत्पादनको निर्यात गर्न सके नेपालले चाॅंडै विश्व बजारमा स्थापित हुनेछ।

यसरी राज्यले प्रविधि, आधुनिक उपकरण र विशेषज्ञ आयत गर्ने र उत्पादित वस्तु निर्यात गर्ने नीति लिनु पर्नेछ।


अवसर


नेपाल विश्वको ठूलो जनसंख्या भएका दुई मुलुकबीच अवस्थित भएकोले चुनौतिको साथै ठुलो अवसर पनि छ। हामीले गुणस्तरीय उत्पादन विश्व बजारमा पस्किने हो भने विश्वको आधा जनसंख्या भएका दुई मुलुक बीच रहेको हाम्रो देशले अथाह व्यावसायिक सफलता पाउने अवसर छ। यहाॅंको हावा पनीको हिसाबले कृषि उपज तथा कृषि पर्यटन नेपालको लागि ठूलो अवसर हो।


पर्यटन


नेपालको कुनै पनि ठाॅंउ र प्राकृतिक अवस्थिति मेहनेत गरेर बानाएको पार्क भन्दा कम छैनन्। विश्वका मानिस जीवनकालमा एक पटक सगरमाथाको देश नेपाल घुम्ने सपना बोकेका हुन्छन। त्यसको उपयोग गर्दै पर्यटन व्याबसायलाई गुणस्तरीय बनाउने हो भने लाखौं रोजगारी सृजना हुनुको साधै आर्थिक श्रोतको पहिलो स्थानमा पर्यटन उद्योग पर्नेछ। नेपालका हरेक डाॅंडा भ्यू प्वाईन्ट, हरेक पहरा क्लाईम्बिगं रुट, हरेक खोला नदि राफ्टिगं रुट र हरेक हेमाल ट्रेकिगं रुट हुनेछन। नेपालसे पर्यटन उद्योगलाई व्यबस्थित र गुणस्तरीय बनाउने हो भने बार्षिक १० करोड भन्दा बढी पर्यटक नेपाल भित्रिने छन।

पर्यटन फोर्स निर्माण गरि उच्च प्रविधि र गुणस्तरीय सेवा विस्तार गरी प्रयाप्त मात्रामा विदेशी पर्यटक भित्र्याईने छ। बार्षिक ५ करोड पर्यटक भित्र्याउने रोड म्याप बनाई ५ बर्ष भित्र बार्षिक ५ करोड पर्यटक भित्र्याईने छ।


यातायात


सार्वजनिक यातायात


सार्बजनिक यतायतको जिम्मा पूर्णरूपले प्रदेश सरकारले लिनेछ, सरकारी स्वामित्वका बाहेक अन्य कुनै पनि सवारी साधनले यात्रु हरु ओसार पसार गर्न पाउने छैन। जसले गर्दा मास ट्रांस्पोर्टेशन को लागि सरकार रेलवे र मेट्रो ट्रेन विकास गर्न वाध्य हुनेछ। टेक्सी सेवाको हकमा सेवा कम्पनी मार्फत मात्रै सेवा दिन पाईनेछ जस बाट ग्राहक ग्राहक ठगिने र ब्यबसायी मारमा पर्ने जस्ता समस्या हटने छन साथै कारोबार करको दायरा मा आई कालाबाजारी हुन बाट बच्छ।


निजी सवारी साधन

निजी सवारी साधन को हकमा आटोमेटिक ट्रैकिंग प्रणाली जडान अनिवार्य गरि अत्याधुनिक क्यामेराको प्रयोग गरि कम्प्यूटर प्रणाली बाट नियमन गर्ने र ट्राफिक नियम उल्लंघन गरेमा स्वचालित रुपमा जरिवना बैंक खाताबाट कटिने प्रणाली विकास गरिने छ जसले गर्दा हाल ट्राफिक प्रहरीलाई छलेर सडक नियम उल्लंघन गर्ने प्रबृत्ति नियन्त्रण भई सडक दुर्घटना न्यून हुनेछ।

ईन्धन


विद्युतीय सवारी साधन प्रोत्साहन गरि पेट्रोलियम इन्धन बाट चल्ने साधन हरु कम गर्दै १५ बर्ष भित्रमा पेट्रोलियम इन्धन बाट चल्ने साधन प्रतिबन्ध लगाउने तह मा पुर्याउनु पर्छ। विद्युत रेलवे, मेट्रो रेल तथा विद्युतीय विद्युतिय कारहरु प्रोत्साहन गरी पेट्रोलियम पदार्थमा बाहिरिने धनराशी जलविद्युत विकासमा उपयोग गरिनु पर्छ।


धर्म संस्कृति


नेपाल बहु धार्मिक बहु सांस्कृतिक सामुदायको मिश्रित देश भएकोले सबै धर्म संस्कृतिको विकास र प्रबर्धन गर्न स्थानिय सरकारलाई जिमेवारी दिईनु पर्छ किनकि कुन भौगोलिक अवस्थितिमा कुन धर्म र संस्कृति को बहुल्यता छ स्थानिय सरकारलाई जानकारी हुन्छ।


संस्कृति


बहुसांस्कृतिक राज्य भएकोले सांस्कृतिक र सामुदायिक विकासको योजना तर्जुमा र प्रबर्धन गर्ने जिम्मा स्थानीय सरकारलाई दिनु पर्छ साथै स्थानीय सरकारको सांस्कृतिक निर्णय मा संघीय सरकार या प्रदेश सरकारको कुनै हस्तक्षेप हुनु हुदैंन। गणतन्त्र दिवस, संबिधान दिवस र कुनै अतिविशिष्ठ पदमा आसीन ब्यक्तिको मृत्यु भएमा वा कुनै राष्ट्रीय बिपत्ति आई परेमा मात्र संघीय सरकारले राष्ट्रीय विदा घोषणा गर्न हो अन्यथा कुनै पनि चाड पर्व वा ऐतिहासिक महत्वका दिनको संझनामा दिइने विदा हरु स्थानीय सरकारले नै दिनुपर्छ। जसले गर्दा सामुदायिक विदाहरुमा लक्षित वर्गले विदा पाउन तर अन्य ठाउँमा काम कारबाही नरोकियोस।


चाडपर्व


हरेक समुदायले मान्ने चाड पर्वको महत्व समान हुन्छ। सामुदायिक चाड पर्व मा विदा दिने साथै उक्त समुदायमा आर्थिक विपन्नताको कारणले चाड पर्व मनाउन नसक्ने मानिस भए स्थानीय सरकारले सो को निशुल्क ब्यबस्था गरीदिनु पर्छ।


धर्म


राज्यका नागरिकले आस्था राख्ने सबै धर्महरु समान हुनुपर्छ, कसैले पनि कसैलाई इच्छा विपरीत घर्म परिवर्तन परिवर्तन गर्न पाइने छैन, यदि कसैलाई धर्म परिवर्तन गर्ने इच्छा भए कारण सहित स्थानीय सरकारको आधिकारिक कार्यालयमा निवेदन दिई धर्म परिवर्तनको प्रमाण पत्र लिनु पर्छ। जसको कारण धार्मिक अस्थमा को आधारमा जनसंख्या र त्यसका प्रभाव अध्ययन गर्न सकियोस।


विकास निर्माण


निर्माण फोर्स


सैनिक, प्रहरी जस्तै ५० हजार को संख्यामा निर्माण फोर्स गठन गरिने छ जसमा सबै प्राविधिक देखि श्रमिक हरु सामबेश हुनुपर्छ। राष्ट्रीय महत्वका आयोजनाहरु निर्धारित समय सीमा भित्र निर्माण सम्पन्न गर्नु निर्माण फोर्सको दायित्व हुनुपर्छ। निर्माण फोर्सलाई सबै किसिमका आधुनिक र अत्याधुनिक निर्माण उपकरणहरु उपलब्ध गराउनु पर्छ। राष्ट्रीय महत्वका सड़क, रेलवे , विमानस्थल, पैट्रोलियम उत्खनन तथा जलविद्युत आयोजना निर्माण गर्नु निर्माण फोर्सको कार्यक्षेत्र हुनु पर्छ।


प्रविधि


निर्माण प्रविधि र खानी अनुसन्धान एवम उत्खनन प्रविधि अध्ययनको लागि छुटै प्रविधि विश्वविद्यालय स्थापना गरि गुणस्तरीय जनशक्ति विकास गरिनु पर्छ। प्राकृतिक श्रोत र साधनले भरिपूर्ण देशको प्राकृतिक सम्पत्तिको सदुपयोग गर्न स्वदेशी जनशक्ति विकास गरिनु पर्छ, जस बाट नेपालले हाल भोग्दै आएको प्राकृतिक श्रोत माथि विदेशी हस्तक्षेप को नियन्त्रण हुनेछ। देशको आफ्नै शक्तिशाली स्याटेलाइट प्रक्षेपण गरि सूचना चुहावट नियन्त्रण गरिने छ। हाल इन्टरनेट र टेली कम्युनिकेशन को लागि विदेशी स्याटेलाइटको भर पर्नु पर्ने अवस्था छ जसको कारण राज्य र नागरिकका महत्वपूर्ण सूचना बाहिरिएर सुरक्षा चुनौती भयाबह छ।

कृषि प्रविधि, औद्योगिक प्रविधि देखि ब्यबसयिक प्रबिधि र प्याटेन्ट अधिकार बोर्ड स्थापना गरि बृहत प्राविधिक अध्ययन र अनुसन्धान गरिनु पर्छ।

Show more
0
246
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu_dont_mind_to_study_mcc_agreement_before_making_arguments414978_13_06_2020


Bharat Rimal

Don’t Mind to Study MCC Agreement before making Arguments.


MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE COMPACT BETWEEN

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ACTING THROUGH

THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION

AND

THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF NEPAL ACTING THROUGH

THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE


MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE COMPACT TABLE OF CONTENTS

ARTICLE 1. GOAL AND OBJECTIVES.................................................................................. 1

Section 1.1 Compact Goal ....................................................................................... 1 Section 1.2 Project Objectives ................................................................................. 1

ARTICLE 2. FUNDING AND RESOURCES ........................................................................... 2

Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 Section 2.4 Section 2.5 Section 2.6 Section 2.7 Section 2.8

Program Funding .................................................................................. 2 Compact CDF ....................................................................................... 2 MCC Funding ....................................................................................... 3 Disbursement ........................................................................................ 3 Interest................................................................................................... 3 Government Resources; Budget ........................................................... 3 Limitations on the Use of MCC Funding ............................................. 3 Taxes ..................................................................................................... 4

ARTICLE 3. IMPLEMENTATION ........................................................................................... 5

Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Section 3.3 Section 3.4 Section 3.5 Section 3.6 Section 3.7 Section 3.8

Program Implementation Agreement .................................................... 5 Government Responsibilities ................................................................ 5 Policy Performance ............................................................................... 6 Accuracy of Information ....................................................................... 6 Implementation Letters ......................................................................... 6 Procurement and Grants........................................................................ 6 Records; Accounting; Covered Providers; Access ............................... 7 Audits; Reviews .................................................................................... 7

ARTICLE 4. COMMUNICATIONS.......................................................................................... 8

Section 4.1 Section 4.2 Section 4.3

Communications ................................................................................... 8 Representatives ..................................................................................... 9 Signatures.............................................................................................. 9

ARTICLE 5. TERMINATION; SUSPENSION; EXPIRATION............................................. 10

Section 5.1 Section 5.2 Section 5.3

Termination; Suspension .................................................................... 10 Consequences of Termination, Suspension, or Expiration ................. 10 Refunds; Violation .............................................................................. 11

Page


ARTICLE

Section 5.4 Late Payment Interest ......................................................................... 11 Section 5.5 Survival ............................................................................................... 11

6. COMPACT ANNEXES; AMENDMENTS; GOVERNING LAW.................... 11

ARTICLE

ARTICLE

Annex I: Annex II: Annex III: Annex IV: Annex V: Annex VI: Annex VII:

Section 6.1 Section 6.2 Section 6.3 Section 6.4 Section 6.5 Section 6.6 Section 6.7

Annexes............................................................................................... 11 Amendments and Modifications ......................................................... 12 Inconsistencies .................................................................................... 12 Governing Law ................................................................................... 12 Additional Instruments........................................................................ 12 References to MCC Website............................................................... 12 References to Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Guidelines,

References to Compact Expiration and Termination.......................... 13 MCC Status......................................................................................... 13

Section 6.8

7. ENTRY INTO FORCE ....................................................................................... 13

Section 7.1 Section 7.2 Section 7.3 Section 7.4 Section 7.5

Domestic Requirements ...................................................................... 13 Conditions Precedent to Entry into Force ........................................... 13 Date of Entry into Force ..................................................................... 14 Compact Term .................................................................................... 14 Provisional Application ...................................................................... 14

8. ADDITIONAL GOVERNMENT COVENANTS.............................................. 14 Section 8.1 Covenant for the Electricity Transmission Project ............................. 14

Program Description

Multi-Year Financial Plan Summary

Compact Monitoring & Evaluation Summary Conditions to Disbursement of Compact CDF Additional Conditions Precedent to Entry Into Force Definitions

Tax Schedules

ii


MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE COMPACT PREAMBLE

This MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE COMPACT (this “Compact”) is between the United States of America, acting through the Millennium Challenge Corporation, a United States government corporation (“MCC”), and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (“Nepal”), acting through its Ministry of Finance (the “Government”) (individually, a “Party” and collectively, the “Parties”). Capitalized terms used in this Compact will have the meanings provided in Annex VI.

Recognizing that the Parties are committed to the shared goals of promoting economic growth and the elimination of poverty in Nepal and that MCC assistance under this Compact supports Nepal’s demonstrated commitment to strengthening good governance, economic freedom and investments in people;

Recalling that the Government consulted with the private sector and civil society of Nepal to determine the priorities for the use of MCC assistance and developed and submitted to MCC a proposal for such assistance to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction; and

Recognizing that MCC wishes to help Nepal implement the program described herein to achieve the goal and objectives described herein (the “Program”);

The Parties hereby agree as follows:

ARTICLE 1.

GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

Section 1.1 Compact Goal. The goal of this Compact is to reduce poverty through economic growth in Nepal (the “Compact Goal”). MCC’s assistance will be provided in a manner that strengthens good governance, economic freedom, and investments in the people of Nepal.

Section 1.2 Project Objectives. The Program consists of the projects described in Annex I (each a “Project” and collectively, the “Projects”). The objective of each of the Projects (each a “Project Objective” and collectively, the “Project Objectives”) is to:

(a) Increase electricity consumption by facilitating power trade and by improving the availability and reliability of electricity supply in Nepal’s electricity grid; and by facilitating power trade, and

(b) Maintain road quality across the strategic road network.


ARTICLE 2. FUNDING AND RESOURCES

Section 2.1 Program Funding. Upon entry into force of this Compact in accordance with Section 7.3, MCC will grant to the Government, under the terms of this Compact, an amount not to exceed Four Hundred Fifty-Nine Million Five Hundred Thousand United States Dollars (US$459,500,000) (“Program Funding”) for use by the Government to implement the Program. The allocation of Program Funding is generally described in Annex II.

Section 2.2 Compact CDF.

(a) Upon the signing of this Compact, MCC will grant to the Government, under the terms of this Compact and in addition to the Program Funding described in Section 2.1, an amount not to exceed Forty Million Five Hundred Thousand United States Dollars (US$40,500,000) (“Compact CDF”) under Section 609(g) of the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003, as amended (the “MCA Act”), for use by the Government to facilitate implementation of this Compact, including for the following purposes:

(i) financial management and procurement activities;

(ii) administrative activities (including start-up costs such as staff salaries) and

administrative support expenses such as rent, computers, and other information technology or capital equipment;

(iii) monitoring and evaluation activities;

(iv) feasibility, design, and other project preparatory studies and activities; and (v) other activities to facilitate Compact implementation as approved by

MCC.

(b) In accordance with Section 7.5, this Section 2.2 and other provisions of this Compact applicable to Compact CDF will be effective, for purposes of Compact CDF only, as of the date this Compact is signed by MCC and the Government.

(c) Each Disbursement of Compact CDF is subject to satisfaction of the conditions precedent to such disbursement as set forth in Annex IV.

(d) If MCC determines that the full amount of Compact CDF available under Section 2.2(a) exceeds the amount that reasonably can be utilized for the purposes set forth in Section 2.2(a), MCC, by written notice to the Government, may withdraw the excess amount, thereby reducing the amount of the Compact CDF available under Section 2.2(a) (such excess, the “Excess Compact CDF Amount”). In such event, the amount of Compact CDF granted to the Government under Section 2.2(a) will be reduced by the Excess Compact CDF Amount, and MCC will have no further obligations with respect to such Excess Compact CDF Amount.

The allocation of Compact CDF is generally described in Annex II.

2


(e) MCC, at its option by written notice to the Government, may elect to grant to the Government an amount equal to all or a portion of such Excess Compact CDF Amount as an increase in the Program Funding, and such additional Program Funding will be subject to the terms and conditions of this Compact applicable to Program Funding.

Section 2.3 MCC Funding. Program Funding and Compact CDF are collectively referred to in this Compact as “MCC Funding,” and includes any refunds or reimbursements of Program Funding or Compact CDF paid by the Government in accordance with this Compact.

Section 2.4 Disbursement. In accordance with this Compact and the Program Implementation Agreement, MCC will disburse MCC Funding for expenditures incurred in furtherance of the Program (each instance, a “Disbursement”). Subject to the satisfaction of all applicable conditions precedent, MCC will make the proceeds of Disbursements available to the Government either by (a) deposit to one or more bank accounts established by the Government and acceptable to MCC (each, a “Permitted Account”) or (b) direct payment to the relevant provider of goods, works or services for the implementation of the Program. MCC Funding may be expended only for Program expenditures.

Section 2.5 Interest. The Government will pay or transfer to MCC, in accordance with the Program Implementation Agreement, any interest or other earnings that accrue on MCC Funding prior to such funding being used for a Program purpose.

Section 2.6 Government Resources; Budget.

(a) The Government will provide all funds and other resources, and will take all actions, that are necessary to carry out the Government’s responsibilities under this Compact. In addition, the Government will make a contribution towards meeting the Project Objectives of this Compact (“Government Contribution”). Annex II describes the Government Contribution in more detail.

(b) The Government will use its best efforts to ensure that all MCC Funding it receives or is projected to receive in each of its fiscal years is fully accounted for in its annual budget for the duration of the Program.

(c) The Government will not reduce the normal and expected resources that it would otherwise receive or budget from sources other than MCC for the activities contemplated under this Compact and the Program.

(d) Unless the Government discloses otherwise to MCC in writing, MCC Funding will be in addition to the resources that the Government would otherwise receive or budget for the activities contemplated under this Compact and the Program.

Section 2.7 Limitations on the Use of MCC Funding. The Government will ensure that MCC Funding is not used for any purpose that would violate United States law or policy, as specified in this Compact or as further notified to the Government in writing, including but not limited to the following purposes:

3


(a) for assistance to, or training of, the military, police, militia, national guard or other quasi-military organization or unit;

(b) for any activity that is likely to cause a substantial loss of United States jobs or a substantial displacement of United States production;

(c) to undertake, fund or otherwise support any activity that is likely to cause a significant environmental, health, or safety hazard, as further described in MCC’s Environmental Guidelines and any guidance documents issued in connection with such guidelines (collectively, the “MCC Environmental Guidelines”); or

(d) to pay for the performance of abortions as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortions, to pay for the performance of involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide any financial incentive to any person to undergo sterilizations or to pay for any biomedical research which relates, in whole or in part, to methods of, or the performance of, abortions or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning.

Section 2.8 Taxes.

(a) Unless the Parties specifically agree otherwise in writing, the Government will ensure that all MCC Funding is free from the payment or imposition of any existing or future taxes, duties, levies, contributions or other similar charges (but not fees or charges for services that are generally applicable in Nepal, reasonable in amount and imposed on a non- discriminatory basis) (“Taxes”) of or in Nepal (including any such Taxes imposed by a national, federal, state, local, or other governmental or taxing authority of or in Nepal). Specifically, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, MCC Funding will be free from the payment of (i) any tariffs, customs duties, import taxes, export taxes, and other similar charges on any goods, works or services introduced into Nepal in connection with the Program; (ii) value added tax, sales tax, excise duty, property transfer tax, and other similar charges on any transactions involving goods, works or services in connection with the Program, (iii) taxes and other similar charges on ownership, possession or use of any property in connection with the Program, and (iv) taxes and other similar charges on income, profits or gross receipts attributable to work performed in connection with the Program and related social security taxes and other similar charges on all natural or legal persons performing work in connection with the Program except (1) natural persons who are citizens or permanent residents of Nepal and (2) legal persons formed under the laws of Nepal (but excluding MCA-Nepal and any other entity formed for the purpose of implementing the Government’s obligations hereunder).

(b) The mechanisms that the Government will use to implement the tax exemption required by Section 2.8(a) for certain principal taxes are set forth in Annex VII. Such mechanisms may include exemptions from the payment of Taxes that have been granted in accordance with applicable law, refund or reimbursement of Taxes by the Government to MCC, MCA-Nepal or to the taxpayer, or payment by the Government to MCA-Nepal or MCC, for the benefit of the Program, of an agreed amount representing any collectible Taxes on the items described in Section 2.8(a).

4


(c) If a Tax has been paid contrary to the requirements of Section 2.8(a) or Annex VII, the Government will refund promptly to MCC (or to another party as designated by MCC) the amount of such Tax in United States dollars or the currency of Nepal within 30 days (or such other period as may be agreed in writing by the Parties) after the Government is notified in writing (whether by MCC or MCA-Nepal) that such Tax has been paid. Failure to refund such amount within the specified time will result in interest accruing on the unpaid amount in accordance with Section 5.4.

(d) No MCC Funding, proceeds thereof or Program Assets may be applied by the Government in satisfaction of its obligations under Section 2.8(c).

ARTICLE 3. IMPLEMENTATION

Section 3.1 Program Implementation Agreement. The Parties will enter into an agreement providing further detail on the implementation arrangements, fiscal accountability and disbursement and use of MCC Funding, among other matters (the “Program Implementation Agreement” or “PIA”); and the Government will implement the Program in accordance with this Compact, the PIA, any other Supplemental Agreement and any Implementation Letter.

Section 3.2 Government Responsibilities.

(a) The Government has principal responsibility for overseeing and managing the implementation of the Program.

(b) With the prior written consent of MCC, the Government will designate an entity to be established through a formation order issued by the Council of Ministers of Nepal, as the accountable entity to implement the Program and to exercise and perform the Government’s right and obligation to oversee, manage and implement the Program, including without limitation, managing the implementation of Projects and their Activities, allocating resources and managing procurements. Such entity will be referred to herein as “MCA-Nepal,” and will have the authority to act on behalf of the Government with regard to all Program activities. The Government hereby also designates MCA-Nepal to exercise and perform the Government’s rights and responsibilities to oversee, manage, and implement the activities defined in the Amended and Restated Initial Engagement Technical Assistance Grant Agreement, dated July 20, 2016. The designation contemplated by this Section 3.2(b) will not relieve the Government of any obligations or responsibilities hereunder or under any related agreement, for which the Government remains fully responsible. MCC hereby acknowledges and consents to the designation in this Section 3.2(b).

(c) The Government will ensure that any Program Assets or services funded in whole or in part (directly or indirectly) by MCC Funding are used solely in furtherance of this Compact and the Program unless MCC agrees otherwise in writing.

(d) The Government will take all necessary or appropriate steps to achieve the Project Objectives during the Compact Term (including, without limiting Section 2.6(a), funding all

5


costs that exceed MCC Funding and are required to carry out the terms hereof and achieve such objectives, unless MCC agrees otherwise in writing).

(e) The Government will ensure that the Program is implemented and that the Government carries out its obligations hereunder with due care, efficiency and diligence in conformity with sound technical, financial, and management practices, and in conformity with this Compact, the Program Implementation Agreement, each other Supplemental Agreement and the Program Guidelines.

(f) The Government grants to MCC a perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide, fully paid, assignable right and license to practice or have practiced on its behalf (including the right to produce, reproduce, publish, repurpose, use, store, modify, or make available) any portion or portions of Intellectual Property as MCC sees fit in any medium, now known or hereafter developed, for any purpose whatsoever.

Section 3.3 Policy Performance. In addition to undertaking the specific policy, legal and regulatory reform commitments identified in Annex I (if any), the Government will seek to maintain and to improve its level of performance under the policy criteria identified in Section 607 of the MCA Act, and the selection criteria and methodology used by MCC.

Section 3.4 Accuracy of Information. The Government assures MCC that, as of the date this Compact is signed by the Government, the information provided to MCC by or on behalf of the Government in the course of reaching agreement with MCC on this Compact is true, correct, and complete in all material respects.

Section 3.5 Implementation Letters. From time to time, MCC may advise the Government in writing on any matters relating to this Compact, MCC Funding, or implementation of the Program (each, an “Implementation Letter”). The Government will use such advice in implementing the Program. The Parties may also issue jointly agreed-upon Implementation Letters to confirm and record their mutual understanding on aspects related to the implementation of this Compact, the PIA, or other related agreements.

Section 3.6 Procurement and Grants.

(a) The Government will ensure that the procurement of all goods, works, and services by the Government or any Provider to implement the Program will be in accordance with MCC’s Program Procurement Guidelines (the “MCC Program Procurement Guidelines”). The MCC Program Procurement Guidelines include the following requirements, among others:

(i) open, fair, and competitive procedures must be used in a transparent manner to solicit, award and administer contracts and to procure goods, works and services;

(ii) solicitations for goods, works, and services must be based upon a clear and accurate description of the goods, works and services to be acquired;

(iii) contracts must be awarded only to qualified contractors that have the capability and willingness to perform the contracts in accordance with their terms on a cost effective and timely basis; and

6


(iv) no more than a commercially reasonable price, as determined, for example, by a comparison of price quotations and market prices, will be paid to procure goods, works, and services.

(b) Unless MCC otherwise consents in writing, the Government will ensure that any grant issued in furtherance of the Program (each, a “Grant”) is awarded, implemented, and managed pursuant to open, fair and competitive procedures administered in a transparent manner acceptable to MCC. In furtherance of this requirement, and prior to the issuance of any Grant, the Government and MCC will agree upon written procedures to govern the identification of potential Grant recipients, including, without limitation, appropriate eligibility and selection criteria, and award procedures. Such agreed procedures will be posted on the MCA-Nepal website.

Section 3.7 Records; Accounting; Covered Providers; Access.

(a) Government Books and Records. The Government will maintain, and will use its best efforts to ensure that all Covered Providers maintain, accounting books, records, documents and other evidence relating to the Program adequate to show, to MCC’s satisfaction, the use of all MCC Funding and the implementation and results of the Program (“Compact Records”). In addition, the Government will furnish or cause to be furnished to MCC, upon its request, originals, or copies of such Compact Records.

(b) Accounting. The Government will maintain and will use its best efforts to ensure that all Covered Providers maintain Compact Records in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles prevailing in the United States, or at the Government’s option and with MCC’s prior written approval, other accounting principles, such as those (i) prescribed by the International Accounting Standards Board, or (ii) then prevailing in Nepal. Compact Records must be maintained for at least five years after the end of the Compact Term or for such longer period, if any, required to resolve any litigation, claims or audit findings, or any applicable legal requirements.

(c) Access. Upon MCC’s request, the Government, at all reasonable times, will permit, or cause to be permitted, authorized representatives of MCC, the Inspector General of MCC (“Inspector General”), the United States Government Accountability Office, any auditor responsible for an audit contemplated herein or otherwise conducted in furtherance of this Compact, and any agents or representatives engaged by MCC or the Government to conduct any assessment, review or evaluation of the Program, the opportunity to audit, review, evaluate or inspect facilities, assets, and activities funded in whole or in part by MCC Funding.

Section 3.8 Audits; Reviews.

(a) Government Audits. Except as the Parties may agree otherwise in writing, the Government will, on at least a semi-annual basis, conduct, or cause to be conducted, financial audits of all disbursements of MCC Funding covering the period from signing of this Compact until the earlier of the following September 30 or March 31 and covering each six-month period thereafter ending September 30 and March 31, through the end of the Compact Term. In addition, upon MCC’s request, the Government will ensure that such audits are conducted by an

7


independent auditor approved by MCC and named on the list of local auditors approved by the Inspector General or a United States–based certified public accounting firm selected in accordance with MCC’s Guidelines for Financial Audits Contracted by the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s Accountable Entities issued and revised from time to time by the Inspector General (the “Audit Guidelines”). Audits will be performed in accordance with the Audit Guidelines and be subject to quality assurance oversight by the Inspector General. Each audit must be completed and the audit report delivered to MCC no later than 90 days after the applicable audit period, or such other period as the Parties may otherwise agree in writing. The requirements of this Section 3.8(a) do not preclude the Office of the Auditor General of Nepal from conducting audits of MCA-Nepal.

(b) Audits of Other Entities. The Government will ensure that MCC financed agreements between the Government or any Provider, on the one hand, and (i) a United States nonprofit organization, on the other hand, state that the United States nonprofit organization is subject to the applicable audit requirements contained in the Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards, issued by the United States Office of Management and Budget; (ii) a United States for-profit Covered Provider, on the other hand, state that the United States for-profit organization is subject to audit by the applicable United States Government agency, unless the Government and MCC agree otherwise in writing; and (iii) a non-US Covered Provider, on the other hand, state that the non-US Covered Provider is subject to audit in accordance with the Audit Guidelines.

(c) Corrective Actions. The Government will use its best efforts to ensure that each Covered Provider (i) takes, where necessary, appropriate and timely corrective actions in response to audits, (ii) considers whether the results of the Covered Provider’s audit necessitates adjustment of the Government’s records, and (iii) permits independent auditors to have access to its records and financial statements as necessary.

(d) Audit by MCC. MCC will have the right to arrange for audits of the Government’s use of MCC Funding.

(e) Cost of Audits, Reviews, or Evaluations. MCC Funding may be used to fund the costs of any audits, reviews, or evaluations required under this Compact.

ARTICLE 4. COMMUNICATIONS

Section 4.1 Communications.

Any document or communication required or submitted by either Party to the other under this Compact must be in writing and, except as otherwise agreed with MCC, in English. All such documents or communication must be submitted to the address of each Party set forth below or to such other address as may be designated by any Party in a written notice to the other Party.

8


To MCC:

Millennium Challenge Corporation

Attention: Vice President, Compact Operations

(with a copy to the Vice President and General Counsel) 1099 Fourteenth Street NW

Washington, DC 20005 United States of America

Facsimile: Telephone: Email:

+1 (202) 521-3700

+1 (202) 521-3600

[email protected] (Vice President, Compact Operations) [email protected] (Vice President and General Counsel)

To the Government: Ministry of Finance

Attention:

Singh Durbar Kathmandu Nepal Facsimile: Telephone: Email:

Finance Secretary

(With a copy to the Joint Secretary, International Economic Cooperation Coordination Division)

+977-1-4211161 +977-1-4211164 [email protected]

Section 4.2 Representatives. For all purposes of this Compact, the Government will be represented by the individual holding the position of, or acting as, the Minister of Finance of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, and MCC will be represented by the individual holding the position of, or acting as, Vice President, Compact Operations (each of the foregoing, a “Principal Representative”). Each Party, by written notice to the other Party, may designate one or more additional representatives (each, an “Additional Representative”) for all purposes of this Compact except Section 6.2(a). The Government hereby designates the future Executive Director of MCA-Nepal as an Additional Representative. MCC hereby designates the Deputy Vice President, Department of Compact Operations, Europe, Asia, Pacific, and Latin America as an Additional Representative. A Party may change its Principal Representative to a new representative that holds a position of equal or higher authority upon written notice to the other Party.

Section 4.3 Signatures. Signatures to this Compact and to any amendment to this Compact will be original signatures appearing on the same page or in an exchange of letters or diplomatic notes.

9


ARTICLE 5. TERMINATION; SUSPENSION; EXPIRATION

Section 5.1 Termination; Suspension.

(a) Either Party may terminate this Compact without cause in its entirety by giving the other Party 30 days’ prior written notice. MCC may also terminate this Compact or MCC Funding without cause in part by giving the Government 30 days’ prior written notice.

(b) MCC may, immediately, upon written notice to the Government, suspend or terminate this Compact or MCC Funding, in whole or in part, and any obligation related thereto, if MCC determines that any circumstance identified by MCC, as a basis for suspension or termination (as notified to the Government in writing) has occurred, which circumstances include but are not limited to the following:

(i) the Government fails to comply with its obligations under this Compact or any other agreement or arrangement entered into by the Government in connection with this Compact or the Program;

(ii) an event or series of events has occurred that makes it probable that any of the Project Objectives will not be achieved during the Compact Term or that the Government will not be able to perform its obligations under this Compact;

(iii) a use of MCC Funding or continued implementation of this Compact or the Program violates applicable law or United States Government policy, whether now or hereafter in effect;

(iv) the Government or any other person or entity receiving MCC Funding or using Program Assets is engaged in activities that are contrary to the national security interests of the United States;

(v) an act has been committed or an omission or an event has occurred that would render Nepal ineligible to receive United States economic assistance under Part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.), by reason of the application of any provision of such act or any other provision of law;

(vi) the Government has engaged in a pattern of actions inconsistent with the criteria used to determine the eligibility of Nepal for assistance under the MCA Act; and

(vii) the Government or another person or entity receiving MCC Funding or using Program Assets is found to have been convicted of a narcotics offense or to have been engaged in drug trafficking.

Section 5.2 Consequences of Termination, Suspension, or Expiration.

(a) The Parties agree that they will endeavor in good faith to consult the other Party in the event of a termination under Section 5.1(a).

10


(b) MCC may reinstate any suspended or terminated MCC Funding under this Compact if MCC determines that the Government or other relevant person or entity has committed to correct each condition for which MCC Funding was suspended or terminated.

(c) Upon the suspension or termination, in whole or in part, of this Compact or any MCC Funding, or upon the expiration of this Compact, the provisions of Section 4.2 of the Program Implementation Agreement will govern the post-suspension, post-termination or post- expiration treatment of MCC Funding, any related Disbursements and Program Assets. Any portion of this Compact, MCC Funding, the Program Implementation Agreement, or any other Supplemental Agreement that is not suspended or terminated will remain in full force and effect.

Section 5.3 Refunds; Violation.

(a) If any MCC Funding, any interest or earnings thereon, or any Program Asset is used for any purpose in violation of the terms of this Compact, then MCC may require the Government to repay to MCC in United States Dollars the value of the misused MCC Funding, interest, earnings, or asset, plus interest within 30 days after the Government’s receipt of MCC’s request for repayment. The Government will not use MCC Funding, proceeds thereof or Program Assets to make such payment.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision in this Compact or any other agreement to the contrary, MCC’s right under Section 5.3(a) to obtain a refund will continue during the Compact Term and for a period of (i) five years thereafter or (ii) one (1) year after MCC receives actual knowledge of such violation, whichever is later.

Section 5.4 Late Payment Interest. If the Government fails to pay any amount under this Compact or the Program Implementation Agreement when due (including amounts under Section 2.8(c) and 5.3(a)), interest will be paid on such unpaid amount. Interest will accrue on such unpaid amount at a rate equal to the then current US Treasury Current Value of Funds Rate, calculated on a daily basis and a 360-day year from the due date of such payment until such amount is paid in full. Any such payment will first be credited against interest due, and once the interest due amount is extinguished, then payments will be credited against outstanding principal.

Section 5.5 Survival. The Government’s responsibilities under this Section and Sections 2.7, 2.8, 3.2(f), 3.7, 3.8, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and 6.4 will survive the expiration, suspension or termination of this Compact, provided that the terms of Section 2.8 will survive for only 120 days following this Compact’s expiration.

ARTICLE 6.

COMPACT ANNEXES; AMENDMENTS; GOVERNING LAW

Section 6.1 Annexes. Each annex to this Compact constitutes an integral part hereof, and references to “Annex” mean an annex to this Compact unless otherwise expressly stated.

11


Section 6.2 Amendments and Modifications.

(a) The Parties may amend this Compact only by a written agreement. Such agreement will specify how it enters into force.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) the Parties agree that the Government and MCC may by written agreement, which will enter into force upon signature, modify any Annex to (i) suspend, terminate or modify any Project or Activity, (ii) change the allocations of funds as set forth in Annex II, (iii) modify the implementation framework described in Annex I, (iv) add, change or delete any indicator, baseline or target or other information set forth in Annex III in accordance with the MCC M&E Policy, (v) add, delete or waive any condition precedent described in Annex IV or (vi) modify the mechanisms for exempting MCC Funding from Taxes as set forth in Annex VII; provided that, in each case, any such modification (1) is consistent in all material respects with the Project Objectives, (2) does not cause the amount of Program Funding to exceed the aggregate amount specified in Section 2.1 (as may be modified by operation of Section 2.2(e)), (3) does not cause the amount of Compact CDF to exceed the aggregate amount specified in Section 2.2(a), (4) does not reduce the Government’s responsibilities or contribution of resources required under Section 2.6(a), and (5) does not extend the Compact Term.

(c) The Parties understand that any modification of any Annex pursuant to Section 6.2(b) may be entered into by the Government without the need for further action by the Government (including any parliamentary action), or satisfaction of any additional domestic requirements of Nepal.

Section 6.3 Inconsistencies. In the event of any conflict or inconsistency between:

(a) any Annex and any of Articles 1 through 8, such Articles 1 through 8, as applicable, will prevail; or

(b) this Compact and any other agreement between the Parties regarding the Program, this Compact will prevail.

Section 6.4 Governing Law. This Compact is an international agreement and as such will be governed by the principles of international law.

Section 6.5 Additional Instruments. Any reference to activities, obligations or rights undertaken or existing under or in furtherance of this Compact or similar language will include activities, obligations and rights undertaken by, or existing under or in furtherance of any agreement, document or instrument related to this Compact and the Program.

Section 6.6 References to MCC Website. Any reference in this Compact, the PIA or any other agreement entered into in connection with this Compact, to a document or information available on, or notified by posting on the MCC Website will be deemed a reference to such document or information as updated or substituted on the MCC Website from time to time.

12


Section 6.7 References to Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Guidelines, References to Compact Expiration and Termination.

(a) Each reference in this Compact, the PIA or any other agreement entered into in connection with this Compact, to a law, regulation, policy, guideline or similar document will be construed as a reference to such law, regulation, policy, guideline or similar document as it may, from time to time, be amended, revised, replaced, or extended and will include any law, regulation, policy, guideline or similar document issued under or otherwise applicable or related to such law, regulation, policy, guideline or similar document.

(b) Each reference in this Compact, the PIA or any other agreement entered into in connection with this Compact, to the Compact’s “expiration” refers to the date on which the Compact Terms ends if the Compact is not terminated earlier, which in accordance with Section 7.4 is five years after its entry into force. Each reference in any of the aforementioned documents to the Compact’s “termination” refers to the Compact ceasing to be in force prior to its expiration in accordance with Section 5.1.

Section 6.8 MCC Status. MCC is a United States government corporation acting on behalf of the United States Government in the implementation of this Compact. MCC and the United States Government assume no liability for any claims or loss arising out of activities or omissions under this Compact. The Government waives any and all claims against MCC or the United States Government or any current or former officer or employee of MCC or the United States Government for all loss, damage, injury, or death arising out of activities or omissions under this Compact, and agrees that it will not bring any claim or legal proceeding of any kind against any of the above entities or persons for any such loss, damage, injury, or death. The Government agrees that MCC and the United States Government or any current or former officer or employee of MCC or the United States Government will be immune from the jurisdiction of all courts and tribunals of Nepal for any claim or loss arising out of activities or omissions under this Compact.

ARTICLE 7. ENTRY INTO FORCE

Section 7.1 Domestic Requirements. The Government will proceed in a timely manner to complete all of its domestic requirements for this Compact to enter into force. The Parties understand that this Compact, upon entry into force, will prevail over the domestic laws of Nepal.

Section 7.2

(a) thereto;

(b)

Conditions Precedent to Entry into Force. Before this Compact enters into force: the Program Implementation Agreement must have been signed by the parties

The Government must have delivered to MCC:

(i) a letter signed and dated by the Principal Representative of the Government, or such other duly authorized representative of the Government acceptable to

13


MCC, confirming that the Government has completed its domestic requirements necessary for this Compact to enter into force and that the other conditions precedent to entry into force in this Section 7.2 have been met;

(ii) a signed legal opinion from the Minister of Law and Justice of Nepal (or such other legal representative of the Government acceptable to MCC), in form and substance satisfactory to MCC;

(iii) complete, certified copies of all decrees, legislation, regulations or other governmental documents relating to the Government’s domestic requirements necessary for this Compact to enter into force, which MCC may post on its website or otherwise make publicly available;

(c) MCC will not have determined, at the time of this Compact’s entry into force, that the Government has engaged in a pattern of actions inconsistent with the eligibility criteria for MCC Funding; and

(d) The conditions set forth in Annex V have been satisfied.

Section 7.3 Date of Entry into Force. This Compact will enter into force on the date of the letter from MCC to the Government in an exchange of letters confirming that MCC and the Government have completed their domestic requirements for entry into force of this Compact and that the conditions precedent to entry into force in Section 7.2 have been met to MCC’s satisfaction.

Section 7.4 Compact Term. This Compact will remain in force for five years after its entry into force, unless terminated earlier under Section 5.1 (the “Compact Term”).

Section 7.5 Provisional Application. Upon signature of this Compact, and until this Compact has entered into force in accordance with Section 7.3, the Parties will provisionally apply the terms of this Compact; provided that, no MCC Funding, other than Compact CDF, will be made available or disbursed before this Compact enters into force.

ARTICLE 8.

ADDITIONAL GOVERNMENT COVENANTS

Section 8.1 Covenant for the Electricity Transmission Project. The Government will ensure the full and expeditious cooperation of all relevant Government entities to ensure that all land acquisition, site access, and forest clearance required to implement the Compact is provided in a timely manner, and consistent with all MCC policies.

SIGNATURE PAGE FOLLOWS ON THE NEXT PAGE

14


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each Party, by its duly authorized representative, has signed this Compact.

Done at Washington, DC, this 14th day of September, 2017, in the English language.

FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, acting through the MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION

FOR THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF NEPAL, acting through the MINISTRY OF FINANCE

/s/

Name: Gyanendra Bahadur Karki Title: Minister of Finance

Name: Title:

/s/

Jonathan G. Nash

Chief Executive Officer (Acting)

SIGNATURE PAGE TO MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE COMPACT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

ACTING THROUGH THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION AND THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF NEPAL ACTING THROUGH THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE


ANNEX I PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This Annex I describes the Program that MCC Funding will support in Nepal during the Compact Term.

A. PROGRAM OVERVIEW

1. Background and Consultative Process.

(a) Background.

Nepal was initially selected by MCC’s Board of Directors to develop a threshold program in December 2011 based on the strength of its performance on MCC’s policy indicators following a period of civil and political unrest in Nepal from 1996-2006. Before a threshold program was finalized, MCC’s Board of Directors selected Nepal in December 2014 to develop a compact. In this selection decision, MCC’s Board of Directors recognized Nepal’s efforts to establish rule of law and democratic institutions and highlighted the importance to the United States and South Asia of a politically stable and economically-growing Nepal. Much of the work prepared for the threshold program, such as the constraints analysis, and certain power and transport policy and institutional analyses, were completed shortly after Nepal was selected to develop a compact and were repurposed for development of the compact.

Since December 2014, MCC and the Government have focused on developing a compact to address the identified constraints to growth in Nepal. Following consultations with the private sector, civil society, and development partners, the Government and MCC ultimately agreed to focus on two of the identified constraints: inadequate supply of electricity and the high cost of transport. Investment in Nepal’s electricity sector is particularly critical due to the impacts of inadequate supply, as Nepal has historically suffered from the worst electricity shortages in South Asia. Demand for electricity has historically exceeded domestic electricity supply, resulting in load-shedding particularly during the dry winter months when hydropower generation is low. The under-supply of electricity is further exacerbated by high losses in transmission and distribution. Low availability of electricity creates significant costs for businesses, which have to run generators on expensive imported fuel.

With regard to the high cost of transport, this constraint has significant economic impacts due to the land-locked and mountainous nature of Nepal, as well as its reliance on cross-border trade. The Program will focus on road maintenance, which suffers from insufficient funding and ineffective technical and management practices.

(b) Consultative Process.

Since being selected to develop a compact, the Government’s efforts in Nepal have focused on development of a compact designed around the identified constraints. Throughout the compact development process, the Government has engaged civil society, trade associations, development


partners, political parties, and other relevant communities and stakeholders to seek their support, guidance, and feedback in project design and risk mitigation.

To ensure the investments proposed for the Nepal Compact have the widest political support and the greatest potential for impact, MCC has worked closely with the United States Agency for International Development (“USAID”) and the United States Department of State, as well as the Government of India and a variety of development partners, to identify and design the investments described further in this Annex I.

2. Description of Program and Beneficiaries.

(a) Program Description.

The Program focuses on two key binding constraints to economic growth – the inadequate supply of electricity and the high cost of transport. The root causes of Nepal’s power sector problems have contributed to low and slow investments in the electricity value chain, leading to a shortage of electricity caused by: slow expansion of domestic generation; low levels of electricity imports due to inadequate domestic and cross-border transmission infrastructure; and high technical losses in the system. The Program intends to alleviate the inadequate supply of electricity by increasing the flow of electricity from existing and future generation plants into the network, while also facilitating electricity trade with India. In combination, these elements are expected to reduce load-shedding and make new sources of domestic generation become financially viable. In addition, proposed technical assistance is intended to strengthen the planning and regulatory environment, thereby promoting enhanced private sector investment in the longer term.

With regard to the high cost of transport, which has significant economic effects due to the land- locked and mountainous nature of Nepal and its reliance on cross-border trade, the root cause analysis identified the potential causes as insufficient funding for the creation and maintenance of roads, inefficient customs and border enforcement, an inefficient trucking industry, and inadequate road coverage. The Program will focus on addressing insufficient funding for road maintenance by improving technical and management practices. Funding for road maintenance as well as technical assistance will be provided to the Department of Roads (the “DOR”) and to the Roads Board Nepal (the “RBN”) – which is the agency responsible for collecting and allocating road maintenance funds – to assist with the prioritization of investments.

(b) Beneficiaries.

The Program is expected to benefit more than five million households (approximately 23 million people) by the end of the Compact Term, as detailed below:

Annex I-2


Project

ERR, Central Estimate

Beneficiaries (‘000s)1

Beneficiary Population2

Households

Individuals

<US$2/ day

US$2- US$4/day

>US$4/day

Electricity Transmission Project

12%

5,035

22,659

7%

31%

62%

Road Maintenance Project

29%

205

925

8%

39%

53%

The beneficiaries of the Electricity Transmission Project are the population of grid-connected households within Nepal who are expected to experience increased availability of electricity for consumption as a result of the Project. The beneficiaries of the Road Maintenance Project are households living in village development committees and municipalities crossed by roads selected for periodic maintenance using MCC Funding.

B. DESCRIPTIONOFPROJECTS

Set forth below is a description of each of the Projects that the Government will implement, or cause to be implemented, using MCC Funding to advance the applicable Project Objective. In addition, specific activities that will be undertaken within each Project (each an “Activity”), including sub-activities, are also described.

1. Electricity Transmission Project

(a) Summary of Project and Activities.

The objective of the Electricity Transmission Project (the “Electricity Transmission Project”) is to increase domestic electricity supply for consumption by improving the availability and reliability of electricity in Nepal’s electricity grid. To achieve the Electricity Transmission Project Objective, MCC Funding will support the following expenditures as further detailed in this section: (i) construction of transmission lines to expand the high voltage transmission backbone inside Nepal and the Nepal side of a second cross-border transmission line with India; (ii) construction of three substations along the MCC-funded transmission lines; (iii) technical assistance activities to improve sustainability of the power sector and MCC investments; and (iv) necessary expenditures for project management, environmental and social impact assessment, and engineering and technical supervision to ensure the Electricity Transmission Project complies with MCC and Government of Nepal policies and standards.

1 There is overlap between the beneficiaries of the Electricity Transmission Project and the Road Maintenance Project, hence total compact beneficiaries cannot be estimated by adding together the beneficiaries of each Project. 2 Income categories based on constant 2005 PPP dollars.

Annex I-3


(i) Transmission Lines Activity.

Through the Transmission Lines Activity, MCC Funding will be used to construct approximately 300 kilometers of a double-circuit 400 kilovolt transmission line inside Nepal that includes the following components: 1) a segment starting from the northeast of Kathmandu at Lapsiphedi to the west of Kathmandu near Ratmate; 2) a segment from Ratmate to the industrial town of Hetauda, which is located south of Kathmandu; 3) another segment from Ratmate to Damauli to the west; 4) a segment from Damauli heading southwest toward Butwal; and 5) a link from Butwal to the Indian border.

(A) BIKAS Sub-Activity. In addition to construction of the transmission lines, the Transmission Lines Activity includes the “Benefit Integration through Knowledge-Sharing and Social Acceptance” sub-Activity or “BIKAS.” The goal of this sub- Activity is to build relationships within affected communities by delivering direct benefits that complement the improvements in electricity supply that will be realized by Nepal as a whole. Historically, transmission lines have crossed communities while contributing little to no direct benefits to their well-being. As a result of not realizing direct benefits and dissatisfaction with land valuation, communities in Nepal have often protested the construction of such infrastructure leading to disruptions, delays, and even damage to infrastructure assets. Recognizing potential challenges like these, the BIKAS sub-Activity seeks to pre-emptively provide services to communities beyond resettlement compensation and the environmental management measures typically found under environmental and social management plans. This approach both ensures that Project-affected communities experience clear gains from the Electricity Transmission Project and responds to lessons learned from other donor-funded projects in Nepal that suggest that this form of community engagement can help reduce opposition to and disruption of implementation of the Electricity Transmission Project. The final scope of this sub-Activity will be determined through a consultative process after Compact-signing, and may include a variety of services to ensure the affected communities are benefiting from the Program with an emphasis on electricity consumption. Possible benefit sharing services may include but shall not be limited to, connecting communities to the electricity grid as well as off-grid solutions using technology such as micro-hydro turbines or solar photovoltaic panels.

(ii) Substations Activity.

This Activity is complementary to the Transmission Lines Activity. MCC Funding will be used to construct three substations to increase or decrease transmitted voltages for further transmission or distribution to consumers. The substations will be located at or close to Ratmate, Damauli, and Butwal. Separately from the Program, the Government has agreed to upgrade two other substations that are connected to electricity pooling hubs along the transmission lines constructed as part of the Transmission Lines Activity, at or near Lapsephedi and Hetauda. The Government’s upgrade of substations at Lapsephedi and Hetauda will not be considered part of the Government’s contribution to the Program.

(iii) Power Sector Technical Assistance Activity.

This Activity aims to support the establishment of an independent electricity sector regulator (the

Electricity Regulatory Commission or “ERC”), as well as capacity-building through technical Annex I-4


assistance to help bring transparency, efficiency, and competition into Nepal’s power sector. MCC Funding will be used to embed experts within ERC to improve ERC’s skills in rule- making, dispute resolution, and economic and technical regulation. Similarly, one or more advisors will be embedded in the Ministry of Energy, and/or the Department of Electricity Development to facilitate coordination of sector regulation. This Activity will also focus on helping the Nepal Electricity Authority (“NEA”) improve its transmission business in the areas of regulatory cost recovery, improved grid operations, and better system planning. Specific efforts may involve: (a) training in system and market operations; (b) financial management system improvements for transmission transactions and assets; and (c) targeted human resource policies and job classifications, so that when the Government is ready to establish an independent transmission company, the NEA has the tools and skills to become an effective operation. This Activity will also support a study to examine and address key social issues such as low income and/or marginalized groups’ ability to pay for electricity or access electricity and the institutionalization of a lifeline tariff into the Government’s policy statement. Finally, the Activity will support NEA’s Environment and Social Studies Department in strengthening institutional capacity in social impact assessment and inclusive stakeholder engagement through the development of guidelines, tools, and training.

(iv) Program Management and Technical Oversight Activity.

The Program Management and Technical Oversight Activity will complement the Transmission Lines and Substations Activities. To successfully implement the proposed Electricity Transmission Project infrastructure investments while complying with MCC’s technical, environmental and social standards, MCC Funding will support necessary expenditures for Project management, environmental and social impact assessment and mitigation, and engineering and technical supervision of the Electricity Transmission Project.

(b) Beneficiaries.

The Electricity Transmission Project will affect all grid-connected consumers in Nepal. The Project will therefore benefit at least the 72 percent of households that are currently believed to be connected to the electricity grid. Given that Nepal’s projected population at the end of the Compact is 31.5 million people, an estimated 23 million beneficiary individuals living in five million beneficiary households are expected to benefit from the Electricity Transmission Project.

(c) Environmental and Social Mitigation Measures.

The Electricity Transmission Project is classified as Category A in accordance with MCC’s Environmental Guidelines. Based on a preliminary evaluation, seven of the eight International Finance Corporation Environment and Social Performance Standards (the “IFC Performance Standards”), which are incorporated by reference into the MCC Environmental Guidelines, will apply.

There are some unavoidable environmental and social impacts of the Electricity Transmission Project, such as tree cutting, land acquisition, and resettlement. However, consistent with MCC policies, all risks will be properly addressed through relevant compensation, mitigation, or management measures. Environmental and social considerations have already been taken into

Annex I-5


account during route selection for the Transmission Lines Activity to avoid or minimize impacts to sensitive environmental and social characteristics of the Project areas. The Electricity Transmission Project will also complete a domestic environmental impact assessment permitting process and a subsequent forest clearance permitting process prior to the start of construction works. The BIKAS sub-Activity will also be implemented in those communities traversed by the Electricity Transmission Project that are not realizing direct benefits from construction of the Transmission Lines Activity. Environmental and social risks, impacts, and opportunities will be managed through an environmental and social management system for all Compact activities. MCC Funding will be used to undertake an environmental and social impact assessment, environmental and social management plan, and any necessary resettlement action plans.

(d) Social Inclusion and Gender Integration.

The Electricity Transmission Project, through the BIKAS sub-Activity, is intended to have significant and positive social benefits. The principal idea of benefit-sharing is to share the benefits resulting from infrastructure projects in order to satisfy the electricity needs of the concerned communities. The BIKAS sub-Activity intends to explore the provision of electricity and associated services to gain acceptance of the affected communities, keeping in mind the demographic and social context of those communities. Section B.1.a.iii of this Annex I further outlines proposed activities to better address social inclusion and gender integration issues related to the power sector.

(e) Donor Coordination.

Throughout the multi-year development of the Compact, MCC and the Government have engaged in an inclusive process that included consultations with the United States Government, Nepali communities and key private sector actors, non-government actors, and other donors as well as multilateral organizations. In particular, MCC worked closely with the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank in reviewing and agreeing on various power sector reforms required in Nepal for future programming by the two banks. MCC also consulted frequently with the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (“DFID”) during its preparation of a political economy analysis of power sector reform.

(f) USAID.

The Electricity Transmission Project benefits from close inter-agency collaboration between MCC and USAID. Specifically, MCC has coordinated closely with USAID on its US$10 million ongoing technical assistance activity, which provides a review of the Government’s regulatory regime and provides ongoing assistance to the Government to achieve financial close on several large hydropower project transactions. USAID’s assistance is complementary to MCC’s efforts in the electricity sector.

(g) Sustainability.

Sustainability of the Electricity Transmission Project will be enhanced by investments in technical assistance that are focused directly on improving the regulatory regime to create greater transparency, accountability, and efficiency of the electricity market. Furthermore, the technical assistance provided under the Compact is intended to improve the Government’s capacity to

Annex I-6


better manage and maintain transmission assets. A sustained increase in the consumption of reliable and affordable electricity supply should promote economic growth, create jobs, increase incomes, and consequently reduce poverty.

(h) Policy, Legal, and Regulatory Reforms.

In addition to Section 8.1 of the Compact, the Parties have identified the following policy, legal, regulatory, and institutional reforms and actions that the Government will pursue in support of the Project. MCC and the Government agree that two key requirements for improvement of the electricity sector are (i) the creation of an independent electricity sector regulator, and (ii) passage of a new law for electricity sector regulation, which will grant the regulator the authority to license sector operators, provide operating certificates, set rates in the public interest, and make rules for transparent sector operations. Technical assistance for the proposed regulator and for the Ministry of Energy will be dependent upon passage of legislation creating the regulator and providing the regulator with the appropriate authorities

2. Road Maintenance Project

(a) Summary of Project and Activities.

The objective of the Road Maintenance Project (the “Road Maintenance Project”) is to maintain road quality across Nepal’s primary or strategic road network (the “SRN”). To achieve the Road Maintenance Project Objective, MCC Funding will support: (i) funding for technical assistance and capacity building to Nepal’s DOR and RBN, and (ii) up to 305 kilometers of maintenance works on Nepal’s SRN.

(i) Technical Assistance Activity.

This Activity will provide training and capacity building for the DOR and RBN. Compact funding will support training and capacity building for DOR and RBN, as applicable, in the areas of: 1) improved data collection and techniques; 2) preparation of appropriate road maintenance plans driven by economic justification; 3) improved prioritization of periodic maintenance; 4) improved contracting and contracting management, including integration of improved road safety features; and 5) improved project management. The training and capacity-building provided will also entail the transfer of modern road maintenance methods, technologies, and business processes under this Activity.

(ii) Strategic Road Maintenance Works Activity.

The Strategic Road Maintenance Works Activity is intended to complement and build upon the Technical Assistance Activity and will include two components: (i) a pilot sub-Activity focused on pavement recycling (the “Pavement Recycling sub-Activity”); and (ii) a matching fund to finance periodic maintenance works. The Pavement Recycling sub-Activity will be undertaken using new technology which has the potential to address some of the issues associated with carrying out works on narrow roads, namely traffic congestion, difficult work conditions, and extended construction times. This sub-Activity is proposed to be tested and evaluated prior to entry into force of the Compact to inform the remaining program design for the Strategic Road Maintenance Works Activity.

Annex I-7


To incentivize additional Government spending on road maintenance, MCC Funding will be used to establish a matching fund that would provide US$2 for every US$1 the Government spends above its current average annual amount for periodic road maintenance up to a total of US$15,000,000 annually for three years. The matching fund would be used to fund periodic road maintenance works on up to 305 kilometers in total, selected from a pool of 2,000 kilometers of Nepal’s SRN. Using the HDM-4 Model, the Government has initially selected five road segments for periodic maintenance. At the time of implementation, if it is no longer feasible to perform periodic maintenance on the selected road segments, the Government will use the HDM- 4 model to select substitute road segments of up to 305 kilometers in total. The overall program of works will be confirmed through a multi-year maintenance plan to be generated through technical assistance support of the Project, which will focus on utilization of improved data and an economic prioritization of works.

(b) Beneficiaries.

The Road Maintenance Project is estimated to benefit approximately 924,000 individuals (in approximately 205,000 households) spread over the local administrative units crossed by the proposed five road segments.

(c) Environmental and Social Mitigation Measures.

The Road Maintenance Project is classified as Category B under MCC’s Environmental Guidelines where the proposed activities have potentially limited adverse environmental or social risks, or impacts that are few in number, generally site-specific, largely reversible, and readily addressed through mitigation measures. The Project is limited to maintenance and rehabilitation of existing roads and is unlikely to have significant adverse environmental and social impacts for which standard management measures are unavailable. Environmental or social impact caused by construction activities, such as temporary road closures, excavation and borrow pits, noise, dust, and worker and community health and safety, will be managed through targeted environmental and social management plans based on the findings of an abbreviated environmental and social impact assessment. No land acquisition or physical resettlement is anticipated.

In addition, the Road Maintenance Project will promote road safety through improved road design, and through information and awareness campaigns by the Government to help with more responsible and safer use of roads by both vehicle operators as well as non-motorized users of Nepal’s primary or “strategic road network.” The information and awareness campaign will raise awareness about truck and bus driver responsibilities, vehicle maintenance, and safe and responsible use of highways by both vehicles and pedestrians. To mitigate the accident risks, the Project will support building “shoulders” along selected roads with high incidents of accidents to pedestrians and non-motorized means of transport.

(d) Social and Gender Inclusion.

MCC Funding under the Road Maintenance Project will also be used to engage with contractors and the DOR to encourage the participation of women and marginalized groups in higher skilled and higher paying maintenance jobs.

Annex I-8


(e) Donor Coordination.

There are two primary donors working on maintenance related work on the SRN: the Asian Development Bank and DFID. MCC will coordinate its technical assistance efforts under the Compact, to the extent possible, to reinforce these technical assistance efforts.

(f) USAID.

USAID is not currently funding any programs in Nepal specifically targeting the transport sector. Throughout the implementation of the Compact, MCC will coordinate with USAID if any transport-related activities are supported by USAID.

(g) Sustainability.

Investments in road maintenance are an investment in longer-term sustainability. The Road Maintenance Project is expected to help the Government move towards addressing its long-term maintenance needs through improved data collection on the SRN, improved maintenance planning, and prioritization, the mobilization of an appropriate amount of financial resources, and developing an improved system contractor performance mechanism.

(h) Policy, Legal, and Regulatory Reforms.

Road maintenance has suffered from inadequate resources and management practices not consistent with international best practices. Even though the RBN has been established to manage funding for maintenance, rehabilitation, reconstruction, pavement upgrading, and road safety, only part of the financial resources meant for road maintenance actually reach the RBN. To address these issues, development partners are providing technical assistance to the Government, including the RBN and DOR and assisting with the amendment or, if necessary, the replacement of the Road Board Act.

Both the technical assistance and the infrastructure components of the Road Maintenance Project should help raise DOR’s capacity to manage road maintenance to international standards and use lessons learned to implement 305 kilometers of road maintenance projects, including the possible use of performance-based maintenance contracting. In particular, the matching fund should incentivize the Government to increase its road maintenance budget beyond the historic average.

C. IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK 1. MCA-Nepal

(a) Structure and Establishment.

The Government will establish MCA-Nepal as a development board through passage of a formation order approved by the Council of Ministers and published in the Nepal Gazette. Development boards are independent and flexible entities, and are commonly used in Nepal to implement a variety of projects including foreign grant or loan-funded projects. MCA-Nepal will have full decision-making autonomy, including, inter alia, the ability, without the consent or

Annex I-9


approval of any other party, to: (i) enter into contracts in its own name, (ii) sue and be sued, (iii) establish an account in a financial institution in the name of MCA-Nepal and hold MCC Funding in that account, (iv) expend MCC Funding, (v) engage contractors, consultants and/or grantees, including, without limitation, procurement and fiscal agents, and (vi) competitively engage one or more auditors to conduct audits of its accounts. The governance of MCA-Nepal will be set forth in more detail in the Program Implementation Agreement, the formation order and internal regulations of MCA-Nepal (“Internal Regulations”) or as otherwise agreed in writing by the Parties. The Internal Regulations will be in accordance with the Governance Guidelines.

MCA-Nepal will be administered, managed and supported by the following bodies: a board of directors (the “Board of Directors”), a management unit (the “Management Unit”), and one or more Stakeholders Committees. MCA-Nepal will use various Government entities to help implement the Projects.

(b) Board of Directors.

The Board of Directors will have ultimate responsibility for the oversight, direction, and decisions of MCA-Nepal, as well as the overall implementation of the Compact. The Board of Directors will be comprised of seven voting members. As of the date hereof, the voting members of the Board of Directors will include the following representatives:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

the Finance Secretary of the Ministry of Finance;

a Joint Secretary of the Ministry of Energy;

a Joint Secretary of the Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport; the Executive Director of MCA-Nepal;

the Managing Director of the Nepal Electricity Authority;

a representative from civil society; and

a private sector representative.

members and their identities may be changed through amendments to the

voting

The number of

Internal Regulations with MCC’s approval. The members of the Board of Directors may be represented by alternates appointed pursuant to MCA-Nepal’s Internal Regulations. In addition, MCC’s Resident Country Director in Nepal will serve as a non-voting observer to the Board. In addition, representatives from the following ministries, as well as any other experts the Board of Directors finds helpful, may be invited on an as needed basis: (a) the Ministry of Land Reform and Management, (b) the Ministry of Home Affairs, (c) the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, and (d) the Ministry of Population and Environment.

The process of selecting the Board members will be further stipulated in the Internal Regulations and will be consistent with the Governance Guidelines.

Annex I-10


(c) Management Unit.

The Management Unit, as defined below, will report to the Board of Directors and will have principal responsibility for the day-to-day operations and management of the Compact.

The Management Unit will be led by an Executive Director and will be composed of the directors and officers as agreed between the Parties and consistent with the Governance Guidelines. The Management Unit will be selected after an open, competitive, and non- discriminatory recruitment and selection process (or its equivalent), and the appointment of each member of the Management Unit is subject to MCC no-objection. The officers will be supported by appropriate additional staff to enable the Management Unit to execute its roles and responsibilities. Upon written notice by MCC to MCA-Nepal, the selection of candidates for additional positions within MCA-Nepal will be subject to MCC approval.

(d) Stakeholders’ Committees.

The Parties recognize the importance of establishing one or more stakeholders’ committees, (each, a “Stakeholders’ Committee”), both to promote transparency and ongoing consultation among Compact stakeholders, as well as to further the overall goals and objectives of the Compact. The Stakeholders’ Committee will be identified and operated in accordance with procedures described in the Governance Guidelines and the Stakeholder Engagement Plan (the “SEP”). The Parties agree that (a) MCA-Nepal will regularly update the SEP; (b) MCA-Nepal will ensure that each Stakeholders’ Committee identified in the SEP will meet or engage in coordinated collaboration with MCA-Nepal on at least a semi-annual basis; (c) the SEP will provide MCA-Nepal’s oversight and procedures for receiving, sharing, and responding to feedback from and in collaboration with each Stakeholders’ Committee identified in the SEP; and (d) MCA-Nepal will provide regular updates regarding the SEP to its Board of Directors.

2. Project Partners.

Subject to the terms and conditions of this Compact, the Program Implementation Agreement and any other related agreement entered into in connection with this Compact, the Government may engage one or more entities of the Government to assist with implementation and carry out any Project or Activity (or a component thereof) under this Compact (each, a “Project Partner”). The appointment of any Project Partner will be subject to review and approval by MCC. The Government will ensure that the roles and responsibilities of each Project Partner and other appropriate terms are set forth in an agreement, in form and substance satisfactory to MCC (each a “Project Cooperation Agreement”).

3. Fiscal Agent.

Unless MCC agrees otherwise in writing, the Government will engage a fiscal agent (a “Fiscal Agent”), which will be responsible for assisting the Government with its fiscal management and assuring appropriate fiscal accountability of MCC Funding, and whose duties will include those set forth in the Program Implementation Agreement and such agreement as the Government enters into with the Fiscal Agent, which agreement will be in form and substance satisfactory to MCC.

Annex I-11


4. Procurement Agent.

Unless MCC agrees otherwise in writing, the Government will engage one or more procurement agents (collectively, the “Procurement Agent”) to carry out and certify specified procurement activities in furtherance of this Compact. The roles and responsibilities of the Procurement Agent will be set forth in the Program Implementation Agreement or such agreement as the Government enters into with the Procurement Agent, which agreement will be in form and substance satisfactory to MCC. The Procurement Agent will adhere to the procurement standards set forth in the MCC Program Procurement Guidelines and ensure procurements are consistent with the procurement plan adopted by the Government pursuant to the Program Implementation Agreement, unless MCC agrees otherwise in writing.

Annex I-12


ANNEX II

MULTI-YEAR FINANCIAL PLAN SUMMARY

This Annex II summarizes the Multi-Year Financial Plan for the Program.

1. General.

A multi-year financial plan summary (“Multi-Year Financial Plan Summary”) is attached hereto as Exhibit A to this Annex II. By such time as specified in the Program Implementation Agreement, the Government will adopt, subject to MCC approval, a multi-year financial plan that includes, in addition to the multi-year summary of estimated MCC Funding and the Government’s contribution of funds and resources, the annual and quarterly funding requirements for the Program (including administrative costs) and for each Project, projected both on a commitment and cash requirement basis.

2. Government Contribution.

The Government Contribution may include in-kind and financial contributions (including obligations of Nepal on any debt incurred toward meeting these contribution obligations). In connection with this obligation, the Government has developed a budget over the Compact Term to complement MCC Funding through budget allocations to the Compact Program. The Government Contribution is US$130,000,000. The Government Contribution includes a contribution of US$40,000,000 following Compact-signing but prior to entry into force of the Compact. The remaining contribution of US$90,000,000 will be committed by the Government prior to the initial disbursement of Program Funding and subsequently disbursed within the Compact Term. The Government Contribution is exclusive of the Government’s other obligations in the Compact including exemption of all Taxes. The Government Contribution will be subject to any legal requirements in Nepal for the budgeting and appropriation of such contribution, including approval of the Government’s annual budget by its legislature. The Parties may set forth in the Program Implementation Agreement or other appropriate Supplemental Agreements certain requirements regarding this Government Contribution, which requirements may be conditions precedent to the Disbursement of MCC Funding.


EXHIBIT A TO ANNEX II MULTI-YEAR FINANCIAL PLAN SUMMARY

(US$)

Component

CDF

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Total

1. Electricity Transmission Project

(a) Transmission Lines Activity

(b) Substations Activity

(c) Power Sector Technical Assistance Activity

(d) Program Management and Technical Oversight Activity

Subtotal

2. Road Maintenance Project

(a) Technical Assistance Activity

(b) Strategic Road Maintenance Works Activity

Subtotal

3. Monitoring and Evaluation

M&E Component Activities

2,489,000

2,050,000

435,000

17,375,000

22,349,000

2,632,000 3,520,000 6,152,000

198,000

55,677,000

19,712,000

6,398,000

4,115,000

85,902,000

1,843,000 1,033,000 2,876,000

732,000

2,480,000 4,110,000

6,590,000

41,235,000

22,122,000

4,054,000

3,207,000

70,618,000

1,227,000 11,645,000 12,872,000

1,977,000

2,550,000 2,310,000

4,860,000

41,235,000

22,122,000

2,886,000

3,207,000

69,450,000

1,142,000 16,011,000 17,153,000

1,898,000

2,020,000 2,310,000

4,330,000

90,000,000

55,320,000

30,121,000

4,331,000

4,207,000

93,979,000

165,000 13,031,000 13,196,000

1,355,000

2,553,000 2,310,000

4,863,000

32,291,000

17,895,000

4,301,000

1,448,000

55,935,000

36,000 --- 36,000

3,332,000

4,466,000 3,080,000

7,546,000

228,247,000

114,022,000

22,405,000

33,559,000

398,233,000

7,045,000 45,240,000 52,285,000

9,492,000

23,350,000 16,640,000

39,990,000

130,000,000

4. Program Management and Administration

(a) MCA-Nepal Program Administration

(b) Procurement, Fiscal, and Audit Services

Subtotal

GOVERNMENT CONTRIBUTION

9,281,000 2,520,000

11,801,000

40,000,000

-----------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------

MCC INVESTMENT

40,500,000

96,100,000

90,327,000

92,831,000

113,393,000

66,849,000

500,000,000

GRAND TOTAL

80,500,000

630,000,000

Annex II-2


ANNEX III

COMPACT MONITORING & EVALUATION SUMMARY

This Annex III summarizes the monitoring and evaluation plan for this Compact (“M&E Plan”). The actual structure and content of the M&E Plan, which may differ from those specified in this Annex III, will be agreed to by MCC and the Government in accordance with MCC’s Policy for Monitoring and Evaluation of Compacts and Threshold Programs (the “MCC M&E Policy”). In addition, the M&E Plan may be modified from time to time as described in the MCC M&E Policy without requiring an amendment to this Annex III. The M&E Plan will be posted publicly on the MCC Website and updated as necessary.

1. Objective

MCC and the Government will formulate and agree to, and the Government will implement or cause to be implemented, an M&E Plan that explains in detail how and what MCC and MCA- Nepal will: (i) monitor to determine whether the Projects are on track to achieve their intended results (“Monitoring Component”); and (ii) evaluate to assess implementation strategies, provide lessons learned, determine cost effectiveness and estimate the impact of Compact interventions (“Evaluation Component”). The M&E Plan will summarize all indicators that must be reported to MCC on a regular basis, as well as a description of any complementary data to be collected for evaluation of the Program. The M&E Plan will also include any monitoring and evaluation (“M&E”) requirements that MCA-Nepal must meet in order to receive Disbursements, and will serve as a communication tool so that MCA-Nepal staff and other stakeholders clearly understand the objectives and targets the MCA-Nepal is responsible for achieving. The results of M&E activities, measured by monitoring data and evaluations, will be made publicly available on the website of MCA-Nepal and on the MCC Website.

2. Program Logic

The M&E Plan will summarize the clearly defined Project-level logic models, which for each Project will illustrate how the Activities, and sub-Activities (as necessary) contribute to the Project Objectives and Compact Goal. All logic models will clearly summarize the outputs, outcomes, and goal expected to result from the Program. A description of the logic underlying each Project is included below:

(a) Electricity Transmission Project

The objective of the Electricity Transmission Project is to increase electricity consumption by improving the availability and reliability of electricity supply in Nepal’s electricity grid and by facilitating power trade. Compact investments in Nepal’s transmission network and cross-border interconnection will support increased supply of electricity to consumers by providing a path for delivery for a pipeline of new domestic electricity generation as well as increased electricity trade with India. The transmission backbone will allow more efficient movement of electricity across the grid, with lower technical losses, such that supply is better able to meet demand. This is contingent on the pipeline of domestic generation coming to fruition in a timely manner or the successful introduction of increased cross-border electricity trade with India.


The cross-border interconnection will facilitate the import of electricity from India to meet demand, particularly in the dry season when domestic generation is at its lowest. It will also facilitate exports to India in the rainy season when domestic generation is expected to exceed domestic demand. Export revenues are expected to facilitate more investment in domestic generation by the Government and private investors including independent power producers and electricity traders. Results related to electricity trade with India are contingent on the negotiation of power trade agreements between Nepal and India and the appropriate calibration of the two grids, both of which are directly addressed by the Government.

The Power Sector Technical Assistance Activity investments in establishing a new regulator and assisting the Government with better planning, cost recovery, and grid operation will result in: 1) a power sector that balances the economic and financial interests for sector stakeholders and promotes the safe operation of the grid; and 2) improved sustainability of MCC infrastructure investment by enabling NEA to operate, manage, and maintain the new 400 kilovolt (“kV”) system, with which it has no prior experience. These investments are expected to increase the financial and physical sustainability of the infrastructure investment.

The increase of electricity in Nepal’s grid is expected to increase the amount of electricity supplied to consumers and increase electricity trade with India. Increased, more reliable, and potentially more affordable electricity should allow consumers to use more electricity to meet their energy needs and incur less expenditures per unit of energy consumed than experienced currently. The savings generated from this are expected to be reinvested to produce growth and reduce poverty.

A detailed program logic diagram for the Electricity Transmission Project is below.

Annex III-2


The M&E Plan will also outline key assumptions and risks that underlie the accomplishment of the theory of change summarized in the program logic. However, such assumptions and risks will not excuse any party’s performance unless otherwise expressly agreed to in writing by the other party. The known assumptions and risks for the Electricity Transmission Project include:

(i) Implementation delays;

(ii) Appropriate technical/commercial arrangements and infrastructure are in

place to facilitate increased electricity trade with India;

(iii) Slow commissioning of domestic new generation projects can reduce utilization of the electricity transmission line;

(iv) Slow implementation of complementary transmission and distribution projects can restrict delivery of electricity to consumers;

(v) Land acquisition is too slow and difficult to execute;

(vi) Communities oppose MCC projects;

(vii) Failure to enact legislation to authorize the electricity regulator and to

fund its initial and ongoing operations; and

(viii) Savings from cheaper electricity are invested in the economy to produce

growth.

(c) Road Maintenance Project

The objective of the Road Maintenance Project is to maintain road quality across the SRN. First, this Project will provide technical assistance related to road maintenance planning, assessment, and implementation to strengthen the DOR’s and RBN’s capacity to plan and execute routine and periodic maintenance. Second, these interventions will be reinforced through a learning-by- doing approach to conducting maintenance on a subset of the SRN. This maintenance work will reduce road roughness and associated vehicle operating costs. These funds will be applied using a matching scheme aimed at incentivizing allocation of greater amounts of road maintenance resources. The expectation is that by equipping the DOR with the data, skills, and experience necessary to plan and implement road maintenance, combined with an increased level of funding under an improved road maintenance funding regime, the SRN will be adequately maintained and the road quality will not deteriorate.

Annex III-3


A detailed program logic diagram for the Road Maintenance Project is below.

MCC Goal:

Nepal Road Maintenance Project Logic

Poverty Reduction Through Economic Growth

Outcomes:

Outputs:

(Learning by doing)

Objective:

Avoided increases in transportation costs across the strategic road network

(through avoided deterioration of maintained roads and better DoR road maintenance)

Avoided road rehabilitation/upgrading expenditures (as a result of more timely

maintenance) across the strategic road network

[this branch of the logic, i.e. SRN-level impacts, is not modeled in the economic analysis]

Avoided road rehabilitation/upgrading expenditures on 5 maintained roads

Improved Maintenance Planning:

Increased DoR/RBN Capacity for Prioritization of Maintenance (use of HDM-4)

Improved Maintenance Implementation:

Improved DoR procurement practices and improved project management of implementation

Increased maintenance spending by DoR

Technical Assistance

Population of DoR database with complete information about deflection, as-builts, and geo-referencing. Training on use of HDM-4, asset management, and road safety.

Incentive matching fund for periodic maintenance

Maintenance works on 5 roads, including enhanced road safety features

Problem Statement: The high cost of transport in Nepal is a binding constraint to economic growth. The underlying root cause for this is poor road quality due to insufficient road maintenance. Road maintenance is limited by the lack of both adequate funding and modern techniques and systems.

Objective Statement: To maintain road quality across the strategic road network.

The known assumptions and risks for the Road Maintenance Project include:

(i) The Project does not receive strong political and institutional support making implementation uncertain and risky; and

(ii) Construction capacity to perform high quality works in a timely manner is

low.

3. Projected Economic Benefits and Beneficiaries 3.1 Economic Benefits

(a) Electricity Transmission Project

The primary benefit from the Electricity Transmission Project is an increase in the supply of electricity to Nepali consumers. A separate but related benefit results from a decrease in load- shedding so that electricity is available for a greater proportion of the day. Incremental improvements in the supply of electricity would be the result of increased imports from India, increases in domestic production, and decreases in technical losses from the newly constructed, higher capacity transmission system. Decreases in load-shedding are expected as a result of increased supply of electricity to the system and continued improvements at the distribution and sub-transmission level.

Exports are a separate benefit stream valued at the tariff rate for electricity sales to India, as benefits for Indian consumers are not counted in the economic rate of return (“ERR”) estimate.

Annex III-4


While this means that exports are technically valued at a lower rate than domestic consumption in the ERR, the opportunity cost of Nepal’s exports is lower as well, since much of this electricity would otherwise be spilled. Moreover, sales of wet season surplus electricity are critical for encouraging new investments from independent power producers.

In addition to MCC costs, the ERR model includes cost contributions from the Government, costs paid in user fees, and estimated costs of complementary investments in new generation attributable to the Project. Benefits, including electricity consumed, imports, exports, and reductions in transmission losses, are estimated for years 2023 and 2030. The economic analysis assumes that Nepal’s electricity generation capacity will increase by 360 percent between 2016 and 2023 (from 856 megawatts (“MW”) to 3,946 MW).

The estimated ERR for the Electricity Transmission Project is 12 percent. (b) Road Maintenance Project

The Road Maintenance Project is designed to maintain road quality across the SRN by promoting improved road maintenance practices. The Project will provide technical assistance to the DOR and RBN and hands-on learning through the maintenance of approximately 305 kilometers of roads. Maintenance interventions will include pavement improvement (overlays or surface dressings), safety enhancements, and slope stability improvements to reduce road closures caused by landslides.

Roads that will receive periodic maintenance under the Project were selected through a prioritization process that analyzed the economic efficiency of maintenance interventions by road. The selection started with a schedule of approximately 2,000 kilometers of roads proposed by the DOR, all of which are part of the SRN. The economic returns to periodic maintenance of these 2,000 kilometers were estimated using the HDM-4 Model, which estimates the increase in consumer surplus from a decline in transport costs as represented by the decrease in vehicle operating costs and travel time caused by a road improvement. Roads were then ranked by the ratio of economic benefit to cost and those with the highest benefit-to-cost ratio, within the available budget envelope, were selected for Compact-funded maintenance. This prioritization resulted in the selection of five roads in Nepal’s Eastern, Central, and Mid-Western development regions, comprising a total of approximately 305 kilometers.

The five roads selected for periodic maintenance currently have relatively high traffic volumes compared to many other roads in Nepal and the road surfaces are in poor condition (high international roughness index (“IRI”) values). However, the roads have not deteriorated to the point where a major rehabilitation is required. The purpose of the periodic maintenance interventions is to prevent further deterioration that would be very expensive to repair. The economic analysis assumes that traffic growth will be the same in the “with Project” and the “without Project” scenarios. In other words, only normal traffic growth is assumed in the HDM-4 models; no assumption is made regarding the Project’s potential to generate additional traffic.

Comparing Project cost with the economic benefit of road maintenance over a 20-year period, as estimated by HDM-4, the present value of economic costs comes to US$38,400,000, the present value of benefits is US$158,500,000, and the net present value of the Project is US$120,100,000.

Annex III-5


The estimated ERR for the Road Maintenance Project is 29 percent.

3.2 Beneficiary Analysis

The M&E Plan will also define in detail the persons or entities expected to benefit from the Program. Beneficiary analysis is an extension of ERR analysis that seeks to disaggregate the

total increase in income to determine specifically which segments of society will benefit from the Program. MCC considers beneficiaries3 to be those people who experience better standards of living as a result of the Program through higher real incomes. The expected beneficiaries the Program are shown in the following table:

Electricity Transmission Project 23 million*

Road Maintenance Project 0.92 million*

*There is some overlap, hence the Project beneficiaries cannot be added together to estimate Compact beneficiaries.

4. Monitoring Component

As defined in the MCC M&E Policy, monitoring is the continuous, systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide indications of progress toward objectives and the achievement of intermediate results along the way. To monitor progress toward the achievement of results of this Compact, the Monitoring Component of the M&E Plan will identify (i) the Indicators (as defined below), (ii) the definitions of the Indicators, (iii) the sources and methods for data collection, (iv) the frequency for data collection, (v) the party or parties responsible for collecting and analyzing relevant data, and (vi) the timeline for reporting on each Indicator to MCC. It should be noted that some indicators will continue to be tracked after the Compact Term as necessary.

4.1 Goal, Outcome, Output, and Process Indicators.

The M&E Plan will measure the results of the Program using quantitative, objective, and reliable

data (“Indicators”).

(a) The M&E Plan will establish baselines for every Indicator (each a, “Baseline”). An Indicator’s Baseline should be established prior to the start of the corresponding Project, Activity, and/or sub-Activity. Baselines demonstrate that the problem can be specified in measurable terms, and are thus a pre-requisite for adequate intervention design. The Government will collect Baselines on the selected Indicators or verify already collected Baselines where applicable.

(b) The M&E Plan will establish a benchmark for each Indicator that specifies the expected value and the expected time by which the result will be achieved (“Target”).

3 As used in this Compact, the term “beneficiary” has the meaning described in MCC’s Guidelines for Economic and Beneficiary Analysis.

Project

Estimated Beneficiaries

Annex III-6


(c) The M&E Plan will indicate which Indicators will be disaggregated by gender, income level, age, and beneficiary types to the extent practical and applicable.

(d) MCC’s Common Indicators (as described in the MCC M&E Policy) will also be included as relevant. These will be denoted by the Common Indicator code.

(e) Subject to prior written approval from MCC and in accordance with the MCC M&E Policy, the Government may add Indicators or refine the definitions and Targets of existing Indicators.

(f) MCA-Nepal must report to MCC on monitoring Indicators in the M&E Plan on a quarterly basis using an Indicator Tracking Table (“ITT”) in the form provided by MCC. No changes to Indicators, Baselines, or Targets may be made in the ITT until the changes have been approved in the M&E Plan. Additional guidance on Indicator reporting is contained in MCC’s Guidance on Quarterly MCA Disbursement Request and Reporting Package. In the case that MCA-Nepal submits a six-month disbursement request, the ITT must still be submitted quarterly.

Key Indicators that can be reported on at least an annual basis will be included in quarterly monitoring indicator reports, while Indicators that require survey data or a longer time period to track will be tracked for evaluation purposes. The M&E Plan will contain the monitoring Indicators listed in the following tables:

Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Outcome Indicators

Reduced Load- Shedding

Load-shedding

The deliberate shutdown of electric feeders, generally to prevent the failure of the entire electricity system when power supply is lower than demand at transmission level. Calculated as the annual difference between supply delivered through the distribution system and estimated load.

Annex III-7

Gigawatt hours (“GWh”)

3,161 (2016)

Source: NEA 2014/15 Annual Report, p109 (Projected Consumption) NEA 2015/16 Annual Report, p 124 (Total Available Electricity, minus Losses)

1,726.4 (2023)

Source: PSSE in TT Feasibility Study

(Volume 1, Table 3.23)

Increased Imports

Imported electricity

Annual quantity of electricity purchased from India

GWh

1,758.41 (2016)

Source: NEA 2015/6 Annual

5,823.2 (2023)

Source: PSSE in TT Feasibility Study


Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Increased Exports

Increased Revenues from Exports

Exported electricity

Annual quantity of electricity sold to India

Increased utilization of Transmission Network

Capacity utilization factor of a transmission line

The ratio of peak loading on the transmission line (in amperes) segment in a quarter and design capacity of the line. (Disaggregation by transmission line segment)

Annex III-8

Unit

GWh

Percentage

Baseline

Report, page (Volume 1, 120, 124 Table 3.23)

3.25 (2016)

Source: NEA 2015/6 Annual Report, page 124

0%

Compact Target

2,895.8 (2023)

Source: PSSE in TT Feasibility Study

(Volume 1, Table 3.23)

Reduced Transmission Technical Losses

Transmission system technical losses (%)

1- (Total megawatt hours transmitted out from transmission substations/Total megawatt hours received from generation to transmission substations)

Percentage

4.82% (2016)

Source: NEA 2015/6 Annual Report, page 38 (2072/73 in Nepali years)

1.89% (2023)

Source: PSSE in TT Feasibility Study

(Volume 1, Table 3.23)

TBD

Benefit Sharing Keeps Construction on Schedule

Days of work missed

Number of days reported by the construction contractor that work must be stopped due to community unrest

Number

TBD

TBD

Economic/ERC: Balancing the financial and economic interests of the sector stakeholders.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Technical/ERC: Promoting the safe and reliable operation of the system.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD


Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Licensing/ERC: Establishing and Monitoring the Legal Framework for Efficient Power Sector Operations.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Stakeholder/ERC: Provide a mechanism for licensees, consumers, and other stakeholders to resolve disputes and to provide public consultations.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Assist NEA to implement its obligation to comply with transmissions regulations as defined by an independent regulator

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Improving NEA’s transmission system planning and project preparation activities

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Improve NEA’s capacity to manage and operate its transmission system

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Improve DOED’s performance in management and oversight of the electricity sector

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Output Indicators

Transmission Infrastructure

Transmission throughput capacity added

The increase in throughput capacity, measured in megawatts, added by new, reconstructed, rehabilitated, or upgraded transmission lines

Annex III-9

Megawatts

0

3,920

Source: WSP Technical Directive 6,


Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

that have been energized, tested, and commissioned with MCC support. This is the throughput capacity for each of the five segments of transmission lines individually.

New Hetauda – Ratmate 400 kV D/C

Ratmate to Lapsiphedi 400 kV D/C

Ratmate to New Damauli 400 kV D/C

New Damauli to New Butwal 400 kV D/C

New Butwal to Indian Border (Further to Gorakhpur, India)

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Mission Report, March 2017, Annex E, pg 2, Table 2

Substation Infrastructure

Transmission substation capacity added

The total added transmission substation capacity, measured in mega volt-amperes, which is energized, commissioned, and accompanied by a test report and supervising engineer’s certification resulting from new construction or refurbishment of existing substations that is due to MCC support. In Nepal, this comprises 3 400/220 kV Substations in New Butwal, New Damauli, and Ratmate.

Annex III-10

Mega volt ampere

0

Total: 2,330 Ratmate (640)

New Damauli (640)

New Butwal (1,050)

Source: WSP Technical Directive 6, Mission Report, March 2017, Annex E, pg 1

Transmission Infrastructure

Km transmission lines upgraded or built

The sum of linear km of new, reconstructed, rehabilitated, or upgraded transmission lines that have been energized, tested, and commissioned with MCC support.

In Nepal, this comprises a 400kV transmission line within the East-West transmission backbone and the Nepal side of the New Butwal border connection to India. The indicator target reflects that both the NR1 and XB1 projects include two circuits; therefore, the length of the line is doubled.

Kilometers

0

NR1 – New Damauli to Ratmate: 88.23 km

NR1 – Ratmate to Lapsiphedi: 57.83 km

NR1 – Ratmate to New Hetauda: 55.59 km

New Damauli to New Butwal: 84 km

XB1/New Butwal to Indian Border: 23 km


Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Benefit Sharing TBD (Connections or

Activities TBD provision of more electricity) TBD TBD TBD Implemented

TBD

TBD

Technical/ ERC: Promoting the safe and reliable operation of the system.

TBD

TBD

Annex III-11

TBD

TBD

Total: 617.3km

Source: TT DFS Report, Vol. 9, p.4 (XB1 and N Butwal-N Damauli); p.116 (remaining three segments)

Substation Infrastructure

Length of entry road constructed

The length of entry road constructed to approach the substation.

Kilometers

0

3.3

Source: TT DFS Report, Vol. 9, p.125, Scenario 3

Economic/ERC: Balancing the financial and economic interests of the sector stakeholders.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Licensing/ERC: Establishing and Monitoring the Legal Framework for Efficient Power Sector Operations.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Stakeholder/ERC: Provide a mechanism for licensees, consumers, and other stakeholders to resolve disputes and to provide public consultations.

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Assist NEA to implement its obligation to comply with transmissions

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD


Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

regulations as defined by an independent regulator

Improving NEA’s transmission system planning and project preparation activities

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Improve NEA’s capacity to manage and operate its transmission system

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Improve DOED’s performance in management and oversight of the electricity sector

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

Road Maintenance Project

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Outcome Indicators

Avoided increases in transportation costs across the SRN

Avoided road rehabilitation/ upgrading expenditures

Roughness performance of the SRN

The share of the SRN that falls into bad (IRI>8), poor (6<IRI<8), fair (4<IRI<6), and good (IRI<4) categories of road roughness, by Nepali standards. Road roughness will be measured in terms of the International Roughness Index.

Percentage

2015/16: Bad: 44% Poor: 34% Fair: 15% Good: 6%

Source: iMC Task 1 Report, Executive Summary

CED: Bad: 43% Poor: 33% Fair: 15% Good: 9%

Source: calculation based on improvement of 305km from bad/poor to fair/good

Surface distress performance of the SRN

The share of SRN that falls into poor (3.1<SDI<5), fair (1.8<SDI<3), and good (SDI<1.8) categories of road surface distress, by Nepali standards. Surface distress will be measured in terms of the surface distress index (“SDI”).

Percentage

2015/16: Poor: 18% Fair: 77%

CED: Poor: 18% Fair: 77%

Annex III-12


Road Maintenance Project

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

Good: 4%

Source: iMC Task 1 Report, Executive Summary

Good: 4%

Source: iMC Task 1 Report, Executive Summary

Improved maintenance implementation

DOR annual maintenance expenditures

Annual DOR spending on routine, recurrent, and periodic maintenance.

US$

2014/15:

35.8M (3.692B Nepali Rupees converted at 103.16 NPR/US$)

Source: iMC Task 1 Report, p. 13

US$22.5M above spending in the year prior to the start of the compact maintenance works, cumulative over 3 years

Source: Road Maintenance Project design

Output Indicators

Maintenance works

Kilometers of roads completed

The length of roads in km on which

construction of new roads or reconstruction,

rehabilitation, resurfacing or upgrading of

existing roads is complete (certificates

handed over and approved). The targeted

road segments initially include:

H02: Hetauda – Bhimphedi, H07: Charali – Phidim, H08: Dharan – Basantapur/Chitre, H09: Kadmaha – Gaighat, and H11: Amelia – Tulsipur.

Kilometers

0

Total: Up to 305 (the exact target will be updated based on signed maintenance contracts)

Source: RMP design and 2017 RMP CBA

Maintenance works

Roughness

The measure of the roughness of the road

surface, in meters of height per kilometer of

distance traveled. This measure reflects the

Meters per kilometer

H07 (Charali – Phidim): 8.0

H08 (Dharan – Basantapur/ Chitre): 8.9

H09 (Kadmaha – Gaighat): 9.0

IRI at completion of Compact-funded road

maintenance works. Calculated as sum of IRI

measure per kilometer / total road length.

At contract completion (estimated 2022):

H07: 3.5 H08: 3.5 H09: 3.5 H02: 4.1 H11: 3.5

Source: 2017 RMP CBA

Annex III-13


Road Maintenance Project

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Compact Target

H02 (Hetauda – Bhimphedi) : 9.8

H11 (Amelia- Tulsipur) 7.1

(2016)

Source: 2017 RMP CBA

Technical Assistance

Population of Highway Management Information System database

Date on which Highway Management Information System database is complete with updated as-built and deflection data for entire network.

Date

N/A

TBD

Matching Fund

DOR annual maintenance budget

Annual DOR budget allocated for routine, recurrent, and periodic maintenance.

US$

FY 2016:

40M (4.28B Nepali Rupees converted at 103.16 NPR/US$)

Source: iMC Task 1 Report, page 9

US$22.5M above spending in the year prior to the start of the compact maintenance works, cumulative over 3 years

Source: RMP design

5. Evaluation Component

While good program monitoring is necessary for program management, it is not sufficient for assessing ultimate results. MCC therefore advocates the use of different types of evaluations as complementary tools to better understand the effectiveness of its programs. As defined in the MCC M&E Policy, evaluation is the objective, systematic assessment of a program’s design, implementation, and results. MCC is committed to making its evaluations as rigorous as warranted in order to understand the causal impacts of its programs on the expected outcomes and to assess cost effectiveness. The Evaluation Component of the M&E Plan may contain three types of evaluation activities as necessary: (i) independent evaluations (impact and/or

Annex III-14


performance evaluations); (ii) self-evaluation; and (iii) special studies, each of which is further described in the MCC M&E Policy.

(a) Independent Evaluations.

Every Project must undergo a comprehensive, independent evaluation (impact and/or performance) in accordance with the MCC M&E Policy. The Evaluation Component of the M&E Plan will describe the purpose of the evaluation, methodology, timeline, required MCC approvals, and the process for collection and analysis of data for each evaluation. All independent evaluations must be designed and implemented by independent, third-party evaluators. If the Government wishes to engage an evaluator, the engagement will be subject to the prior written approval of MCC. Contract terms must be acceptable to MCC and ensure non- biased results and the publication of results.

For each independent evaluation, MCA-Nepal is expected to review and provide feedback to independent evaluators on the evaluation design reports, evaluation materials (including questionnaires), baseline report (if applicable), and any interim/final reports in order to ensure proposed evaluation activities are feasible, and final evaluation products are technically and factually accurate.

(b) Electricity Transmission Project:

The evaluation of the Electricity Transmission Project is expected to be a performance evaluation based largely on quantitative data. It will make use of generation, load flow, and export/import data over time to assess what impacts may be the result of the MCC investment. It will likely include a household or business data collection component to assess the high level impacts, such as electricity consumption and expenditure per energy unit among grid customers. The evaluation will include a process study, assessing the fidelity of implementation to the original design, and setting the stage for the assessment of results further down the logical chain. The questions that will guide the design of the evaluation include:

• Was the Electricity Transmission Project implemented as planned? Did the quality of the work meet the specifications initially laid out?

• Was load-shedding in Nepal reduced as a result of the Electricity Transmission Project? This question links to the following outcome indicator: Load-shedding.

• How was cross-border electricity trade changed by the Electricity Transmission Project? This question links to the following outcome indicators: Imported Electricity and Exported Electricity.

• Did the Electricity Transmission Project increase the consumption of on-grid electricity by households and businesses in Nepal? This question links to the following outcome indicator: Electricity consumption per capita, which is the Project Objective.

• Did the BIKAS approach to transmission projects reduce community resistance to the Project, and construction delays? This question links to the following outcome indicator: Days of Work Missed.

• Additional evaluation questions related to the technical assistance provided through Activity 1.3 will be articulated later, once the targeted results are better understood.

Annex III-15


The M&E Plan will contain the evaluation Indicators listed in the following table:

Electricity Transmission Project:

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Target

Target Date

Outcome Indicators

Cost Savings to Households and Businesses

Project Objective: Increased Electricity Consumption

Increased Supply for Distribution

Electricity consumption per capita

The quantity of electricity consumed annually per capita in Nepal.

kWh/ capita

133 (2016)

Source: NEA Annual Report 2015/6 (Total Sales of Electricity), Government of Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics, Population Projection 2011-2031, National Population and Housing Census 2011, Volume 8 NHPC 2011 (2016 Population Estimate)

394

Source: PSSE in TT Feasibility Study (Volume 1, Table 3.23, Consumption minus 15% Technical Losses), divided by a population estimate of 32,759,302.

2023

(c) Road Maintenance Project:

The evaluation of the Road Maintenance Project is expected to be a performance evaluation with quantitative and qualitative components. One component will be economic modeling using the HDM-4 Model. This approach will require an independent assessment of road quality data across the SRN both before and after the MCC investments. The final independent assessment and HDM-4 model should occur at least 2-3 years after completion of the Project works. The independent evaluator will assess the HDM-4 calculations that went into the investment decision and determine whether baseline data collection is required to update the model. This quantitative component to the evaluation will speak to the effectiveness of both the technical assistance and maintenance works because it will evaluate achievement of the overall Project Objective of avoiding increases in transportation costs across the SRN. The qualitative component of the evaluation will attempt to capture the effectiveness of the technical assistance on improving DOR’s maintenance planning and implementation. This may include process evaluation to map how processes have changed from baseline to endline and/or document review and observation. The questions that will guide the design of the evaluation include:

Annex III-16


• What is the economic return – calculated in terms of vehicle operating cost savings and travel time savings – of the road maintenance investment? This question links to the following outcome indicators: road roughness and surface distress index.

• What are the relevant road authority’s current maintenance practices and what is the likelihood that MCC’s investment will remain adequately maintained? What were the effects of investments in improved maintenance? Has maintenance of the overall network improved? These questions link to the outcome indicator tracking road maintenance expenditures and the pending indicators related to improved maintenance planning and implementation.

Road Maintenance Project

Result

Indicator

Definition

Unit

Baseline

Target

Target Date

Outcome Indicators

Project Objective:

Avoided increases in transportation costs across the SRN

Avoided road rehabilitation/ upgrading expenditures

Roughness

The measure of the roughness of

the road surface, in meters of

height per kilometer of distance

traveled. Calculated as sum of

International Roughness Index

(IRI) measure per kilometer /

total road length.

Meters per kilometer

H07: 8.0 H08: 8.9 H09: 9.0 H02: 9.8 H11: 7.1 (2016)

Source: 2017 RMP CBA

H07: 3.7 H08: 3.8 H09: 3.7 H02: 4.4 H11: 3.7

Source: 2017 RMP CBA

3 years post completion of works

(d) Self-Evaluation.

Upon completion of the Compact Term, both MCC and MCA-Nepal will comprehensively assess three fundamental questions: (i) Did the Program meet the Project Objectives; (ii) Why did the Program meet or not meet the Project Objectives; and (iii) What lessons can be learned from the implementation experience (both procedural and substantive). The MCA-Nepal staff will draft the Compact Completion Report (“CCR”) in the last year of the Compact Term to evaluate these fundamental questions and other aspects of Program performance. Each MCA- Nepal department will be responsible for drafting its own section to the CCR for its own activities, subject to cross-departmental review. After MCA-Nepal staff drafts the CCR, relevant MCC staff will draft a Compact performance review. Similar to the CCR, each MCC division will be responsible for drafting its own section of the document, subject to cross-department review.

(e) Special Studies.

Plans for conducting special studies will be determined jointly between the Government and MCC before the approval of the M&E Plan. The M&E Plan will identify and make provision for

Annex III-17


any special studies, ad hoc evaluations, and research that may be needed as part of the monitoring and evaluating of this Compact. Either MCC or the Government may request special studies or ad hoc evaluations of Projects, Activities, or the Program as a whole, prior to the expiration of the Compact Term.

The results of all evaluations will be made publicly available in accordance with the MCC M&E Policy.

6. Data Quality Reviews.

Data Quality Reviews (“DQR”) are a mechanism to review and analyze the utility, objectivity, and integrity of performance information. DQRs are to cover: a) quality of data; b) data collection instruments; c) survey sampling methodology; d) data collection procedures; e) data entry, storage, and retrieval processes; f) data manipulation and analyses; and g) data dissemination. MCC requires that an independent entity conduct the DQR, such as a local or international specialized firm or research organization, or an individual consultant, depending on the size of the Program or Project in review. The frequency and timing of data quality reviews must be set forth in the M&E Plan; however, MCC may request a DQR at any time. DQRs should be timed to occur before or early enough in the Compact Term that meaningful remedial measures (if any) may be taken depending on the results of the review. The methodology for the review should include a mix of document and record reviews, site visits, key informant interviews, and focus groups.

7. Other Components of the M&E Plan.

In addition to the monitoring and evaluation components, the M&E Plan will include the following components:

(a) Management Information System.

The M&E Plan will describe the information system that will be used to collect data, store, process and deliver information to relevant stakeholders in such a way that the Program information collected and verified pursuant to the M&E Plan is at all times accessible and useful to those who wish to use it. The system development will take into consideration the requirement and data needs of the components of the Program, and will be aligned with existing MCC systems, other service providers, and ministries.

(b) Budget.

A detailed cost estimate for all components of the M&E Plan. 8. Responsibility for Developing the M&E Plan.

MCC desires to “[refrain] from requesting the introduction of performance indicators that are not consistent with countries’ national development strategies.”4 For this reason, primary responsibility for developing the M&E Plan lies with the M&E directorate of MCA-Nepal with

4 Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, Busan Outcome Document, 1 December 2011, p.5 Annex III-18


support and input from MCC’s M&E and economist staff. The M&E Plan must be developed in conjunction with key stakeholders, including MCA-Nepal leadership and sector leads, the MCC Resident Country Mission, and other MCC staff (such as Environmental and Social Performance and Gender and Social Inclusion), as well as external stakeholders, as applicable. While the entire M&E Plan must be developed collaboratively, MCC and MCA-Nepal Project/Activity leads are expected to guide the selection of Indicators at the process and output levels that are particularly useful for management and oversight of Projects and Activities.

9. Approval and Implementation of the M&E Plan.

The approval and implementation of the M&E Plan, as amended from time to time, will be in accordance with the Program Implementation Agreement, any other relevant Supplemental Agreement and the MCC M&E Policy. All M&E Plan modifications proposed by MCA-Nepal must be submitted to MCC for prior written approval. The M&E Plan may undergo peer review within MCC before the beginning of the formal approval process.

10. Post Compact M&E Plan.

As part of the planning process for winding up the Program at the end of the Compact Term, MCC and MCA-Nepal will develop a post-Compact M&E Plan designed to observe the persistence of benefits created under this Compact. This plan should describe future monitoring and evaluation activities, identify the individuals and organizations that will undertake these activities, and provide a budget framework for future monitoring and evaluation. The post- Compact M&E Plan should build directly off the Compact M&E Plan.

Annex III-19


ANNEX IV

CONDITIONS PRECEDENT TO DISBURSEMENT OF COMPACT CDF

This Annex IV sets forth the conditions precedent applicable to Disbursements of Compact CDF (each a “Compact CDF Disbursement”). Upon execution of the Program Implementation Agreement, each Compact CDF Disbursement will be subject to all of the terms of the Program Implementation Agreement, except that the conditions to each Compact CDF Disbursement will continue to be those set forth in this Annex IV.

1. Conditions Precedent to Initial Compact CDF Disbursement.

Each of the following must have occurred or been satisfied prior to the initial Compact CDF Disbursement:

(a)

The Government (or MCA-Nepal) has delivered to MCC:

an interim fiscal accountability plan acceptable to MCC; and a Compact CDF procurement plan acceptable to MCC.

(i) (ii)

(b)

Section 2.8 of this Compact.

The Government will have enacted such regulations as necessary to implement

(c) The Government will have provided a schedule and procedures, acceptable in form and substance to MCC, for the disbursement of the first US$40,000,000 of the Government Contribution.

2. Conditions Precedent to all Compact CDF Disbursements (Including Initial Compact CDF Disbursement).

Each of the following must have occurred or been satisfied prior to each Compact CDF Disbursement:

(a) The Government (or MCA-Nepal) has delivered to MCC the following documents, in form and substance satisfactory to MCC:

(i) a completed Disbursement Request, together with the applicable Periodic Reports, for the applicable Disbursement Period, all in accordance with the Reporting Guidelines;

(ii) a certificate of the Government (or MCA-Nepal), dated as of the date of the Compact CDF Disbursement Request, in such form as provided by MCC;


(iii) if a Fiscal Agent has been engaged, a Fiscal Agent Disbursement Certificate; and

(iv) if a Procurement Agent has been engaged, a Procurement Agent Disbursement Certificate.

(b) If any proceeds of the Compact CDF Disbursement are to be deposited in a bank account, MCC has received satisfactory evidence that (i) the Bank Agreement has been executed and (ii) the Permitted Accounts have been established.

(c) Appointment of an entity or individual to provide fiscal agent services, as approved by MCC, until such time as the Government provides to MCC a true and complete copy of a Fiscal Agent Agreement, duly executed and in full force and effect, and the fiscal agent engaged thereby is mobilized.

(d) Appointment of an entity or individual to provide procurement agent services, as approved by MCC, until such time as the Government provides to MCC a true and complete copy of the Procurement Agent Agreement, duly executed and in full force and effect, and the procurement agent engaged thereby is mobilized.

(e) MCC is satisfied that (i) the activities being funded with such Compact CDF Disbursement are necessary, advisable or otherwise consistent with the goal of facilitating the implementation of this Compact and will not violate any applicable law or regulation; (ii) no material default or breach of any covenant, obligation or responsibility by the Government, MCA-Nepal or any Government entity has occurred and is continuing under this Compact or any Supplemental Agreement; (iii) there has been no violation of, and the use of requested funds for the purposes requested will not violate, the limitations on use or treatment of MCC Funding set forth in Section 2.7 of this Compact or in any applicable law or regulation; (iv) any Taxes paid with MCC Funding through the date 90 days prior to the start of the applicable Disbursement Period have been reimbursed by the Government in full in accordance with Section 2.8(c) of this Compact; and (v) the Government has satisfied all of its payment obligations, including any insurance, indemnification, tax payments or other obligations, and contributed all resources required from it, under this Compact and any Supplemental Agreement.

(f) For any Compact CDF Disbursement occurring after this Compact has entered into force in accordance with Article 7: MCC is satisfied that (1) MCC has received copies of any reports due from any technical consultants (including environmental auditors engaged by MCA-Nepal) for any Activity since the previous Disbursement Request, and all such reports are in form and substance satisfactory to MCC; (2) the Implementation Plan Documents and Fiscal Accountability Plan are current and updated and are in form and substance satisfactory to MCC, and there has been progress satisfactory to MCC on the components of the Implementation Plan for any relevant Projects or Activities related to such Compact CDF Disbursement; (3) there has been progress satisfactory to MCC on the M&E Plan and Social and Gender Integration Plan for the Program or relevant Project or Activity and substantial compliance with the requirements of the M&E Plan and Social and Gender Integration Plan (including the targets set forth therein and any applicable reporting requirements set forth therein for the relevant Disbursement Period); (4)

Annex IV-2


there has been no material negative finding in any financial audit report delivered in accordance with this Compact and the Audit Plan, for the prior two quarters (or such other period as the Audit Plan may require); (5) MCC does not have grounds for concluding that any matter certified to it in the related MCA Disbursement Certificate, the Fiscal Agent Disbursement Certificate or the Procurement Agent Disbursement Certificate is not as certified; and (vi) if any of the officers or key staff of MCA-Nepal have been removed or resigned and the position remains vacant, MCA-Nepal is actively engaged in recruiting a replacement.

(g) MCC has not determined that an act, omission, condition, or event has occurred that would be the basis for MCC to suspend or terminate, in whole or in part, this Compact or MCC Funding in accordance with Section 5.1 of this Compact.

(h) Prior to the third Compact CDF Disbursement, the Government will have designated the Electricity Transmission Project as a National Pride Project.

(i) The Government must be in compliance with the schedules and procedures provided pursuant to Section 1(c) above.

Annex IV-3


ANNEX V

ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS PRECEDENT TO ENTRY INTO FORCE

The following additional conditions precedent must be met before this Compact enters into force.

(a) The Government must have submitted a plan, in form and substance acceptable to MCC, and consented to by the governments of India, memorializing (i) key financial and technical terms for the construction of the New Butwal-Gorakhpur cross-border transmission line, and (ii) operational principles for the New Butwal-Gorakhpur cross-border transmission line;

(b) The Government must have submitted evidence to MCC that the Electricity Regulatory Commission bill has either been passed by the Federal Parliament, or that progress, satisfactory to MCC, is being made on the passage of the bill;

(c) The Government must have completed those approvals, permits, and determinations, identified by MCC as necessary to ensure that all necessary land acquisition, site access and forest clearance is completed in a timely manner to ensure Projects may be completed prior to the Compact End Date; and

(d) The Government will have designated the Electricity Transmission Project as a National Pride Project.


ANNEX VI DEFINITIONS

Activity has the meaning provided in Section B of Annex I.

Additional Representative has the meaning provided in Section 4.2.

Audit Guidelines has the meaning provided in Section 3.8(a).

Baseline has the meaning provided in paragraph 3 of Annex III.

BIKAS has the meaning provided in Section B.1(a)(i)(A) of Annex I.

Board of Directors has the meaning provided in Section C.1(a) of Annex I.

Compact has the meaning provided in the Preamble.

Compact CDF has the meaning provided in Section 2.2(a).

Compact CDF Disbursement has the meaning provided in the preamble to Annex IV. Compact Goal has the meaning provided in Section 1.1.

Compact Records has the meaning provided in Section 3.7(a).

Compact Term has the meaning provided in Section 7.4.

COS has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

Covered Provider has the meaning provided in the Audit Guidelines.

DFID has the meaning provided in Section B.1(e) of Annex I.

Disbursement has the meaning provided in Section 2.4.

DOC has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

DOR has the meaning provided in Section A.2(a) of Annex I.

DQR has the meaning provided in paragraph 5 of Annex III.

Electricity Transmission Project has the meaning provided in Section B.1(a) of Annex I. ERC has the meaning provided in Section B.1(a)(iii) of Annex I.

ERR has the meaning provided in paragraph E.1.a. of Annex III.

Evaluation Component has the meaning provided in paragraph A. of Annex III.


Excess Compact CDF Amount has the meaning provided in Section 2.2(d). Exempt Entity has the meaning provided in Schedule A to Annex VII.

Exempt Employers has the meaning provided in Schedule E to Annex VII. Exempt Individual has the meaning provided in Schedule A to Annex VII. Exempt Personal Income has the meaning provided in Schedule E to Annex VII. Fiscal Agent has the meaning provided in Section C.3 of Annex I.

Governance Guidelines means MCC’s Guidelines for Accountable Entities and Implementation Structures.

Government has the meaning provided in the Preamble.

Government Contribution has the meaning provided in Section 2.6.

Grant has the meaning provided in Section 3.6(b).

GWh has the meaning provided in Annex III.

IFC Performance Standards has the meaning provided in Section B.1(c) of Annex I. Implementation Letter has the meaning provided in Section 3.5.

Income Tax Exempt Entity has the meaning provided in Schedule D to Annex VII. Income Tax Exempt Individual has the meaning provided in Schedule D to Annex VII. Indicators has the meaning provided in paragraph 3.a. of Annex III.

Inspector General has the meaning provided in Section 3.7(c).

Intellectual Property means all registered and unregistered trademarks, service marks, logos, names, trade names and all other trademark rights; all registered and unregistered copyrights; all patents, inventions, shop rights, know how, trade secrets, designs, drawings, art work, plans, prints, manuals, computer files, computer software, hard copy files, catalogues, specifications, and other proprietary technology and similar information; and all registrations for, and applications for registration of, any of the foregoing, that are financed, in whole or in part, using MCC Funding.

Internal Regulations has the meaning provided in Section C.1(a) of Annex I. IRD has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

IRI has the meaning provided in paragraph 1 of Annex III.

Annex VI-2


ITT has the meaning provided in paragraph 3 of Annex III.

kV has the meaning provided in paragraph 2 of Annex III.

Local Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule K to Annex VII.

LRO has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

M&E Plan has the meaning provided in the first paragraph of Annex III.

Management Unit has the meaning provided in Section C.1(a) of Annex I.

MCA Act has the meaning provided in Section 2.2(a).

MCA-Nepal has the meaning provided in Section 3.2(b).

MCC has the meaning provided in the Preamble.

MCC Environmental Guidelines has the meaning provided in Section 2.7(c).

MCC Funding has the meaning provided in Section 2.3.

MCC Gender Policy means the MCC Gender Policy (including any guidance documents issued in connection with such policy).

MCC M&E Policy has the meaning provided in the first paragraph of Annex III.

MCC Program Closure Guidelines means the MCC Program Closure Guidelines (including any

guidance documents issued in connection with such guidelines).

MCC Program Procurement Guidelines has the meaning provided in Section 3.6.

MCC Website means the MCC website at www.mcc.gov.

Monitoring Component has the meaning provided in paragraph 1 of Annex III.

Multi-Year Financial Plan Summary has the meaning provided in Section I of Annex II. MW has the meaning provided in paragraph 2.1 of Annex III.

NEA has the meaning provided in Section B.1(a)(iii) of Annex I.

Nepal has the meaning provided in the Preamble.

Other National Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule J to Annex VII.

Party and Parties have the meaning provided in the Preamble.

Pavement Recycling sub-Activity has the meaning provided in Section B.2(a)(ii) of Annex I.

Annex VI-3


Permitted Account has the meaning provided in Section 2.4.

Personal Income Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule D to Annex VII.

Personal Tax Exempt Individual has the meaning provided in Schedule E to Annex VII.

Petroleum Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule F to Annex VII.

Principal Representative has the meaning provided in Section 4.2.

Procurement Agent has the meaning provided in Section C.4 of Annex I.

Program has the meaning provided in the recitals to this Compact.

Program Assets means any assets, goods or property (real, tangible, or intangible) purchased or financed in whole or in part (directly or indirectly) by MCC Funding.

Program Funding has the meaning provided in Section 2.1.

Program Guidelines means collectively the Audit Guidelines, the MCC Environmental Guidelines, the Governance Guidelines, the MCC Program Procurement Guidelines, the Reporting Guidelines, the MCC M&E Policy, the MCC Cost Principles for Government Affiliates Involved in Compact Implementation, the MCC Program Closure Guidelines, the MCC Gender Policy, the MCC Gender Integration Guidelines, the MCC Guidelines for Economic and Beneficiary Analysis, the MCC Standards for Global Marking, and any other guidelines, policies or guidance papers relating to the administration of MCC-funded compact programs, in each case, as such may be posted from time to time on the MCC Website.

Program Implementation Agreement and PIA have the meaning provided in Section 3.1. Project(s) has the meaning provided in Section 1.2.

Project Objective(s) has the meaning provided in Section 1.2.

Project Cooperation Agreement has the meaning provided in Section C.2 of Annex I. Project Partner has the meaning provided in Section C.2 of Annex I.

Property Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule H to Annex VII.

Provider means (i) any entity of the Government that receives or uses MCC Funding or any other Program Asset in carrying out activities in furtherance of this Compact or (ii) any third party that receives at least US$50,000 in the aggregate of MCC Funding (other than as salary or compensation as an employee of an entity of the Government) during the Compact Term.

RBN has the meaning provided in Section A.2(a) of Annex I.

Reporting Guidelines means the MCC Guidance on Quarterly MCA Disbursement Request and Reporting Package.

Annex VI-4


Road Maintenance Project has the meaning provided in Section B.2(a) of Annex I. SDI has the meaning provided in Annex III.

SEP has the meaning provided in Section C.1(d) of Annex I.

Service Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule I to Annex VII.

SRN has the meaning provided in Section B.2(a) of Annex I.

Stakeholders’ Committee has the meaning provided in Section C.1(d) of Annex I.

Supplemental Agreement means any agreement between (A) the Government (or any Government affiliate, including MCA-Nepal) and MCC (including, but not limited to, the PIA), or (B) MCC and/or the Government (or any Government affiliate, including MCA-Nepal), on the one hand, and any third party, on the other hand, including any of the Providers, in each case, setting forth the details of any funding, implementing or other arrangements in furtherance of, and in compliance with, this Compact.

Target has the meaning provided in paragraph 3 of Annex III.

Tax Departments has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

Taxes has the meaning provided in Section 2.8(a).

Telecommunication Taxes has the meaning provided in Schedule G to Annex VII. VAT has the meaning provided in Annex VII.

United States Dollars or US$ means the lawful currency of the United States of America. USAID has the meaning provided in Section A.1(b) of Annex I.

Annex VI-5


ANNEX VII TAX SCHEDULES

The Government will ensure that MCA-Nepal and all Providers, Covered Providers, Project Partners, contractors (prime contractors and subcontractors), consultants, and other entities and individuals that receive MCC funding directly or indirectly in furtherance of the Compact are exempt from Taxes or will be refunded equal amount of Taxes paid in respect of the MCC funding in accordance with Section 2.8.

The following Schedules identify specific Taxes and mechanisms to implement compliance with the tax exemption under the Compact. The Government will provide an instruction letter and a copy of the Compact, including these Schedules, to the Inland Revenue Department of Nepal (“IRD”), Department of Customs (“DOC”), Land Revenue Offices (“LRO”), Custom Offices (“COS”) and all other authorities, including local and state authorities, involved in tax collection and administration (collectively “Tax Departments”) to ensure that the Tax Departments implement the terms of the Compact and the mechanisms to implement the tax exemption as agreed herein, or as otherwise adopted under the Compact.

MCA-Nepal will facilitate and assist all other beneficiaries of the tax exemption, including Providers, Covered Providers, Project Partners, contractors (prime contractors and subcontractors), consultants, and other entities and individuals that receive MCC funding directly or indirectly in furtherance of the Compact, to ensure compliance with the exemption or refund terms herein that apply to Taxes.

There is not a need to make multiple applications or recommendations if more than one tax is required to be exempted or refunded in respect of the same transaction (e.g. value added tax (“VAT”), excise duty, and custom duty applying to same goods or services).

Taxes to be exempt and refunded are set out below:

Schedule

Tax

Mechanism

A Value Added Tax

B Custom Duties

C Excise Duties

D Corporate Income and

Withholding Tax

E Individual Income Tax

F Taxation of Petroleum Products

G Taxation of Telecommunication

Services

H Property Taxes

I Service Taxes

J Other National Taxes

K Local Taxes

Exemption Exemption Exemption Exemption

Exemption Exemption Exemption

Exemption Exemption Exemption Exemption

and refund and refund and refund

and refund and refund

and refund and refund and refund and refund


Legal Basis for Exemption

SCHEDULE A VALUE ADDED TAX

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

2. Value Added Tax Act of 1996, Section 25(1).

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Project Partner, and any Provider, Covered Provider, or any other entity, including prime contractors and any subcontractors working directly with prime contractors and all natural persons, importing or providing goods, works or services in furtherance of the Compact (an “Exempt Entity” in the case of a legal entity or an “Exempt Individual” in the case of a natural person).

Procedures

1. Summary - Goods and services procured by MCA-Nepal or procured and supplied by any Exempt Entity or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from VAT or VAT will be refunded if it has been paid. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be able to sell, purchase, or import goods and services in connection to the Compact without paying or collecting VAT. In circumstances where VAT has been paid by a beneficiary, IRD will refund VAT according to the procedures and timelines further outlined in this Schedule.

2. Goods or services imported by MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual or goods imported on their behalf by another supplier – VAT will not be charged for goods and services imported by MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual or by other suppliers on their behalf. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will not have to pay VAT on import of services in furtherance to the Compact. Upon the satisfaction of the following procedures, the relevant COS will not charge VAT applicable on such imports. The beneficiary applies to the Ministry of Finance (“MOF”) through MCA-Nepal to obtain a letter providing for tax exemption. MCA-Nepal then forwards the application to the MOF for the tax exemption with the following documents after which the MOF will, within five working days, issue an exemption letter:

• application letter for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued in official letterhead which confirms that the

goods are imported exclusively in furtherance of the Compact; and

• purchase order or contract (if available).

Annex VII-2


Following receipt of the letter from the MOF, the beneficiary applies to the COS. Upon receipt of the following documents, the relevant COS shall not charge VAT applicable on such imports:

• application for reimbursement by beneficiary;

• a letter from the MOF, issued on official letterhead which confirms the tax

exemption and requires the COS not to charge VAT;

• invoice for goods;

• purchase order or contract (if available);

• banking and payment documents; and

• transportation documents.

3. Refund process for VAT paid – In the event that procedures in paragraph 2 of this Schedule A are not practicable or do not apply, VAT will be refunded. MCA-Nepal, the Exempt Entity, or the Exempt Individual will obtain tax invoices from the supplier in respect of the goods or services purchased locally or tax assessment receipts in case of goods imported in respect of which VAT has been paid and apply for refund of the VAT paid along with the following documents:

• application for refund by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead confirming that the

goods and services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available); and

• original tax invoice or tax receipt issued by the supplier.

IRD will refund the VAT within 30 working days upon receiving the request from the beneficiary.

Annex VII-3


Legal Basis for Exemption

SCHEDULE B CUSTOMS DUTIES

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

2. Customs Act of 2007, Section 9(4)

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Summary – MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual, or any other person importing goods on their behalf in connection to the Compact (including goods imported temporarily) will be exempt from paying custom duty on items imported in connection to the Compact.

2. Goods imported by MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity, or Exempt Individual or by a supplier on their behalf – Custom duty will not be charged for goods imported by MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual or by other suppliers on their behalf. The beneficiary applies to the MOF through MCA-Nepal to obtain a letter providing tax exemption. MCA-Nepal then forwards the application to the MOF for the tax exemption with the following documents after which the MOF will, within five working days, issue an exemption letter:

• application letter for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods are imported exclusively in the furtherance of the Compact; and

• purchase order or contract (if available).

Following receipt of the letter from the MOF, the beneficiary applies to the COS. Upon receipt of the following documents, the relevant COS shall not charge custom duty applicable on such imports:

• application for reimbursement by beneficiary;

• a letter from the MOF, issued in official letterhead which confirms the tax

exemption and requires the COS not to charge custom duty;

• invoice for the goods;

• purchase order or contract (if available);

• banking and payment documents; and

• transportation documents.

Annex VII-4


The COS will promptly clear the goods within five working days and grant exemption from custom duties applicable on such imports.

3. Refund for goods purchased by MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual on which custom duty has been paid by the importer – MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be entitled to refund of any custom duty applying to goods which was imported by the supplier for which supplier has paid custom duty. The beneficiary will apply to the IRD for refund of the custom duty paid along with the following documents:

• application for refund by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available);

• copies of documents showing custom duty paid in respect of such goods;

• original tax invoice or tax receipt issued by the supplier; and

• documents evidencing tax paid during import.

IRD will refund such duty within 30 working days of application by the beneficiary.

Annex VII-5


Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

SCHEDULE C EXCISE DUTIES

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Summary - Goods and services procured by MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from excise duties or will be refunded. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be able to purchase or import goods and services without paying excise duty during production or import.

2. Goods imported by MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity, or Exempt Individual or by a supplier on their behalf - Excise duty will not be charged for goods imported by MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual or by other suppliers on their behalf. The beneficiary applies to the MOF through MCA-Nepal to obtain a letter providing tax exemption. MCA-Nepal then forwards the application to the MOF for the tax exemption with the following documents after which the MOF will, within five working days, issue an exemption letter:

• Application letter for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods are imported exclusively in furtherance of the Compact; and

• purchase order or contract (if available).

Following receipt of the letter from the MOF, the beneficiary applies to the COS. Upon receipt of the following documents, the relevant COS shall not charge excise duty applicable on such imports:

• application for reimbursement by beneficiary;

• a letter from the MOF, issued on official letterhead which confirms the tax

exemption and requires the COS not to charge excise duty;

• invoice for the goods;

• purchase order or contract (if available);

• banking and payment documents; and

• transportation documents.

Annex VII-6


The COS will promptly clear the goods within five working days and grant exemption from excise duties applicable on such imports.

3. Duty exemption for local goods and services purchased by or for MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity, or Exempt Individual – For locally produced goods or services for which excise duty is applicable, purchased by or supplied to MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or Exempt Individual will be exempt from excise duty. The beneficiary will submit the following documents to the IRD in respect of goods and services for which exemption from excise duty should apply:

• application for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods and services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• two copies of the pro forma invoice issued by the supplier;

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available); and

• tax registration certificate of the supplier.

The IRD, within five working days of receipt the above documents, will stamp the pro forma invoice submitted and issue an exemption certificate. On receipt of such stamped pro forma invoice, the supplier will supply goods and services without charging excise duty.

Annex VII-7


SCHEDULE D

CORPORATE INCOME AND WITHHOLDING TAX

Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

2. Income Tax Act 2002 Section 10(a).

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity, other than legal persons that are legal entities registered under the laws of Nepal (the “Income Tax Exempt Entity”). Any income that is derived from MCC funding by legal entities or persons, but not individuals, that are considered taxable, per the tax code, due to residence in Nepal solely with respect to their work performed in furtherance of the Compact will not be considered taxable or subject to taxation in Nepal.

Procedures

1. MCA-Nepal and all Income Tax Exempt Entities will be entitled to an exemption from Nepali income tax and related taxes on income earned from supplying goods, works, or services in furtherance of the Compact.

2. MCA-Nepal will not be required to withhold tax deductible at source from payments made from or with respect to MCC Funding to an Income Tax Exempt Entity.

3. Income Tax Exempt Entities will not be required to withhold tax deductible at source from payments made from or with respect to MCC Funding when purchasing goods, works, or service in furtherance of the Compact.

4. Income Tax Exempt Entities not registered under the laws of Nepal that may have permanent establishment in Nepal will register as a taxable person in Nepal. MCA-Nepal will arrange this registration with a tax office of the IRD so that the Income Tax Exempt Entity (including its permanent establishment) and all income derived from MCC Funding will be exempt from taxation.

5. All income derived from MCC Funding will be recorded as exempt income and an Income Tax Exempt Entity will not be liable to pay tax with respect to any such income, including any taxes in respect to transfer of such income.

6. Entities other than Income Tax Exempt Entities deriving their income from MCC funding will themselves be responsible for filing their own tax returns and paying their taxes.

Annex VII-8


Legal Basis for Exemption

SCHEDULE E INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAX

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

2. Income Tax Act 2002 Section 10(a).

Beneficiaries of Exemption

All natural persons, whether paid internally or externally, working in furtherance of the Compact (each “Income Tax Exempt Individual”), other than citizens or residents of Nepal. Persons who derive income hereunder who otherwise were not citizens or residents of Nepal prior to receiving that income will also be deemed Income Tax Exempt Individuals.

Procedures

1. The Income Tax Exempt Individuals will be exempt from any income, social security, medical insurance, provident funds, or other mandatory taxes and charges imposed by Nepal on personal income (the “Personal Income Taxes”) received in connection with income earned from works and services performed in furtherance of the Compact (the “Exempt Personal Income”)

2. MCA-Nepal, the Exempt Entities, the Fiscal Agent and the Procurement Agent and any other vendor (the “Exempt Employers”) who employs Income Tax Exempt Individuals will not withhold or pay Personal Income Taxes for the Income Tax Exempt Individuals.

3. The Income Tax Exempt Individuals will have no obligation to file an income tax return in Nepal in relation to the Exempt Personal Income.

4. The Exempt Employers will have no obligation under the laws of Nepal in connection with the completion of any filings, registrations or reporting in relation to the Exempt Personal Income of the Income Tax Exempt Individuals.

5. Persons other than Income Tax Exempt Individuals deriving their income from MCC funding will themselves be responsible for filing their own tax returns and paying their taxes.

Annex VII-9


SCHEDULE F

TAXATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Overview - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from customs duty, excise duty, pollution control fee, infrastructure tax, and all other taxes and duties applicable on petroleum products (“Petroleum Taxes”) or any Petroleum Tax paid by the beneficiaries will be refunded.

2. Petroleum purchased from Nepal Oil Corporation in bulk - MCA-Nepal will facilitate the registration and purchasing of petroleum products wholesale or in bulk, including providing any necessary certifications to permit beneficiaries under this Schedule to

make purchases. Following application by MCA-Nepal, the MOF will write to the Nepal Oil Corporation (directly or through the Ministry of Suppliers, as appropriate) within five working days to provide petroleum products on a duty free basis to the beneficiaries. Nepal Oil Corporation will be exempted from paying any Petroleum Taxes on the products supplied to the beneficiaries on a duty free basis. The beneficiary will submit the following documents to the Nepal Oil Corporation in order to receive exemption from Petroleum Taxes:

• application for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods and services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact,

the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption;

• a letter from the MOF, issued on official letterhead which confirms the tax

exemption and requires the relevant authorities not to charge taxes; and

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available).

3. Non-bulk purchase made from retail outlets – Petroleum Taxes paid in respect of products purchased from retail outlets will be refunded. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will obtain from the local supplier any invoices and/or receipts relating to the Petroleum Tax in respect of the petroleum products in which Petroleum Taxes have been paid. The beneficiary will apply to the IRD for refund of the Petroleum Taxes paid along with the following documents:

Annex VII-10


• application for refund by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirm that the

petroleum products are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• original tax invoice or tax receipt issued by the supplier; and

• breakdown of Petroleum Tax paid in respect of the retail purchase.

The IRD will refund to the beneficiary the Petroleum Taxes paid within 30 working days of receipt of the application for refund.

Annex VII-11


SCHEDULE G

TAXATION OF TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES

Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Overview - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from telecommunication ownership fee, telecommunication service fee, value added tax, and all other taxes and duties applying to telecommunication services (“Telecommunication Taxes”) or be refunded

2. Exemption from Telecommunication Taxes - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempt from all Telecommunication Taxes. Following application by MCA-Nepal, the MOF shall write to the IRD confirming the exemption. The beneficiary will submit the following documents to the IRD in respect of telecommunication services for which exemption should apply:

• application for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

telecommunication services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• a letter from the MOF confirming the tax exemption;

• two copies of pro forma invoice issued by the service provider;

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available); and

• tax registration certificate of the service provider.

The IRD, within five working days of receipt the above documents, will stamp the pro forma invoice submitted and issue an exemption certificate. On receipt of such stamped pro forma invoice, the beneficiary will be exempt and the telecommunication service provider will not charge any Telecommunication Taxes on the services it provides to the beneficiary.

3 Refund of Telecommunication Taxes - In the event that procedures in paragraph 2 of this Schedule G are not practicable or do not apply, Telecommunication Taxes paid in respect of services purchased will be refunded. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will obtain from the local supplier in respect of the telecommunication services in which Telecommunication Taxes have been paid. Following application by

Annex VII-12


MCA-Nepal, the MOF shall write to the IRD confirming the exemption. The beneficiary will apply to the IRD for refund of the Telecommunication Taxes paid along with the following documents:

• application for refund by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the service provider;

• a letter from the MOF confirming the tax exemption;

• original tax invoice or recharge cards issued by the service provider; and

• breakdown of Telecommunication Taxes applicable on such invoice.

The IRD will refund to the beneficiary the Telecommunication Taxes paid within 10 working days of receipt of the application for refund.

Annex VII-13


Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

SCHEDULE H PROPERTY TAXES

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Overview - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from registration fee, service fee, charge fees, and all forms of taxes applicable on ownership, transfer of ownership, mortgage of land, houses, properties, and registration of legal documents relating to property (“Property Taxes”).

2. Exemption from Property Taxes - MCA-Nepal will write to the relevant Government department in charge of the collection of Property Taxes to exempt MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entities, and any Exempt Individuals from Property Taxes. Following application by MCA-Nepal, the MOF shall issue a letter confirming the exemption. The beneficiary will submit the following documents in respect of Property Taxes for which exemption should apply to the LRO or Tax Departments:

• application for exemption by beneficiary; and

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

transaction is undertaken exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name

of the project, and the name of the beneficiary of the exemption;

• a letter from the MOF confirming the tax exemption; and

• other documents setting out the nature of the transaction for which Property

Taxes apply (if applicable).

The LRO or Tax Departments in charge of collecting such taxes will exempt the beneficiaries from paying any Property Taxes after receiving the documents.

Annex VII-14


Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

SCHEDULE I SERVICE TAXES

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from taxes, including health services tax, education services tax, and all other taxes or duties applicable on the sale of products and services (“Service Taxes”).

2. Tax exemption for goods and services purchased by MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity, or Exempt Individual – MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity or any Exempt Individual will be exempt from all Service Taxes. Following application by MCA-Nepal, the MOF shall write to the IRD confirming the exemption. The beneficiary will submit the following documents to the IRD in respect of goods or services for which exemption should apply:

• application for exemption by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

goods or services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the supplier;

• a letter from the MOF confirming the tax exemption;

• two copies of the pro forma invoice issued by the supplier;

• copy of purchase order or contract (if available); and

• tax registration certificate of the supplier.

The IRD, within five working days of receipt the above documents, will stamp the pro forma invoice submitted and issue an exemption certificate. On receipt of such stamped pro forma invoice, the beneficiary will be exempt and the service provider will not charge any Service Taxes on the goods or services it provides to the beneficiary.

3. Goods and services locally purchased by MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual– In the event that procedures in paragraph 2 of this Schedule I are not practicable or do not apply, MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will obtain from the local supplier invoices relating to payment of Service Taxes in respect of the goods purchased in which Service Taxes has been paid. Following application by MCA-Nepal, the MOF shall write to the IRD confirming the exemption.

Annex VII-15


The beneficiary will apply to the IRD for refund of the Service Taxes paid along with the following documents:

• application for refund by beneficiary;

• a letter from MCA-Nepal, issued on official letterhead which confirms that the

services are provided exclusively in furtherance of the Compact, the name of the project, the name of the beneficiary of the exemption, and the name of the service provider;

• a letter from the MOF confirming the tax exemption; and

• original tax invoice issued by the supplier.

The IRD will refund to the beneficiary the Service Taxes paid within 10 working days of receipt of the application for refund.

Annex VII-16


Legal Basis for Exemption

SCHEDULE J OTHER NATIONAL TAXES

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

1. MCA-Nepal.

2. Each Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual.

Procedures

1. Overview - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from all other national taxes imposed by the Federal Government of Nepal not covered in Schedules A to I of Annex VII (“Other National Taxes”).

2. Exemption of Other National Taxes - For matters for which Other National Taxes are applicable, MCA-Nepal will write the relevant authority collecting the tax to exempt MCC Funding or beneficiaries of such funding from the requirement. Such taxes will be exempted by such authorities based on an official letter from the MOF obtained by the beneficiary by applying through the MCA-Nepal. The official letter will be provided to the relevant Tax Department assessing or collecting the tax in order to justify the exemption.

3. Refund of Other National Taxes– In the event that procedures in paragraph 2 of this Schedule J are not practicable or do not apply, MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual will obtain the invoice or receipt in respect of which Other National Taxes have been paid. The beneficiary will write to IRD with a copy of the receipt or invoice and supporting letter from MCA-Nepal and the MOF to obtain the refund of Other National Taxes. IRD will refund such taxes within 10 working days of the request.

Annex VII-17


Legal Basis for Exemption

1. Section 2.8 of the Compact.

Beneficiaries of Exemption

SCHEDULE K LOCAL TAXES

1. MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entities, and Exempt Individuals, performing an act or action in furtherance of the Compact that triggers payment of any real property tax, business tax, regional tax, municipal tax, village tax, community tax, or other local tax under Nepali law, and any other tax other than those addressed in Schedules A through Schedule J of this Annex VII (the “Local Taxes”).

Procedures

1. Overview - MCA-Nepal, any Exempt Entity, or any Exempt Individual will be exempted from all Local Taxes.

2. Exemption of Local Taxes - For matters for which Local Taxes are applicable, MCA- Nepal will write the relevant authority collecting the tax to exempt MCC Funding or beneficiaries of such funding from the requirement. Such taxes will be exempted by such authorities based on an official letter from the MOF obtained by the beneficiary by applying through the MCA-Nepal. The official letter will be provided to the relevant Tax Department assessing or collecting the tax in order to justify the exemption.

3. Refund of Local Taxes– In the event that procedures in paragraph 2 of this Schedule K are not practicable or do not apply, MCA-Nepal, Exempt Entity or Exempt Individual will obtain the invoice or receipt in respect of which Local Taxes have been paid. The beneficiary will write to IRD with a copy of the receipt or invoice and supporting letter from MCA-Nepal and the MOF to obtain the refund of Local Taxes. IRD will refund such taxes within 10 working days of the request.

Annex VII-18

Show more
0
78
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__396430_10_06_2020

भरत रिमाल


शेयर बजारको अवस्था


शेयर बजार सुधारका कुनै मापदण्ड विना यथा स्थितिमा खोल्नु भनेको साना लगानीकर्ता हरुलाई सिध्याउने खेल मात्र हो। अढाई महिनाको लकडाउनले आर्थिक दबावमा परेका लगानीकर्ता कुनै मूल्यमामा पनि शेयर बिक्री गर्नुपर्ने बाध्यतामा हुन्छन फलत: शेयर मुल्यमा अस्वभाबिक गिराटवट आउँने छ। यो गिरावटको फाईदा लिंदै शेयर माफियाले शेयर बजार कब्जा गरेर आर्थिक बर्षको लाभाम्स सँगैं उकासिने शेयर बजारको फाईदा लिनेछन। यसरी शेयर बजार माफियाको नियन्त्रणमा जाने अवस्था छ। लगानीकर्ता लाई आह्वान गर्छु की हतार गरेर शेयर बिक्री गर्ने हतारोमा फसेर घाटाको बोझ बोक्ने होईन अब केहि समय होल्ड गरेर आफ्नो पूँजी सुरक्षित गर्नुहोस्। सम्झनुहोस् कि तपाँईको पूँजी लुटिनेवाला छ, तालाचाबी दह्रो बनाउनु होला। माफियाहरुको योजना बमोजिम लकडाउनको बीचमा नियोजित रुपमा बजार खोलेर बजारको ओरालो बाटो शुरुवात भई नै सकेको छ। यस बीचमा शेयर बजारले जतिपनि क्षति ब्यहोर्नु पर्छ त्यसको कुनै लेखाजोखा हुने छैन।तालुकदार मन्त्रालयका मन्त्रीको बौद्धिकता र क्षमता बजेटमा देखिनै सकेका छौं अझ उनको कार्यशैलीले त देशको अर्तन्त्रलाई खण्डहर नै बनाउन उद्धत देखिन्छन्। राजनीति गर्ने गर्नेले जनतालाई जहिले पनि गरीबीमा गुजार्छ ता कि गरीबँग जोडिएका गाँस सँग राजनीति गर्न सजिलो होस्, भाषण गर्ने मसलेदार बिषय बनोस तर व्यापार गर्ने, व्यावसाय गर्नेले जनता सँधैं धनि भएको हेर्न चाहन्छ किन कि ग्राहक जति धनि भए उति व्यबसाय फस्टाउँछ।यहाँ व्याबसाय गरिएको छैन, हरेक ठाउँमा राजनीति गरिएको छ र यसैको चपेटामा परेको छ देशको अर्थतन्त्रको ऐना मानिने शेयर बजार पनि। यहाँ लगानीकर्तालाई लगानी गरी अर्थतन्त्रलाई चलायमान बनाउँने होईन लगानीकर्तालाई डर धम्की देखाई लुटिने गरिन्छ।

विश्वव्यापी महामारी कोभिड-१९ ले तहस नहस पारेको विश्व अर्थतन्त्र उकास्न हरेक देशले योजना तर्जुमा सार्वजनिक गर्दै गर्दा हाम्रोमा आर्थिक अनियमिता र भ्रष्ट्राचारले देश रुमलिएको छ। यस्तो अवस्थामा राज्यको तर्फबाट शेयर बजार सुधारको कुनै ठोस पहल होला भन्ने सोच्न सकिँदैन, धितोपत्र बोर्डको क्षमता हेरेकै हो। ब्रोकर्स एशोसियसन र बैंक तथा मर्चेन्ट बैंकहरु मुनाफा हेर्ने हुन, गोठमा गाई लैनो भए पनि थारो भए पनि दुध भए भैहाल्यो। तसर्थ यो अवस्थामा लगानीकर्ता आफैंले आफ्नो विवेकले क्षति न्यूनिकरण गर्ने हो, नाफाको त कुरै भएन। सकेसम्म सेप्टेम्बर अन्त्य सम्म संयम बनौं।


Show more
0
142
https://avalanches.com/np/kathmandu__368571_05_06_2020

भरत रिमाल

आजको आवश्यकता


हरेक धटना चाहे जति नै कष्टकर किन नहोस् केहि सकारात्मक पाटो हु्न्छ नै। २०७२ सालमा भुकम्पले तहस नहस बनाएको नेपालमा त्यो भयावह दैवी प्रकोपले पनि केहि सकारात्मक प्रभाव पारेकै छ जस्तो कि भुकम्प भन्दा पहिले घरहरु बन्न कुनै मापदण्ड थिएन, जसरी पनि घरहरु बन्थे र भुकम्पको जोखिममा पर्थे तर २०७२ सालको भुकम्प पछि भने घरको मापदण्ड निर्धारण भएको छ अझ पहिले घरको नक्सा पास भए पुग्थ्यो अहिले संरचना पनि पास गर्नुपर्छ यो कानुनी सकारात्मक पाटो भयो, अझ महत्वपूर्ण सकारात्मक पाटो भनेको मानिसले आफ्नो अगाडि सयौं घरहरु ढलेर हजारौं मानिस मरेको देखेका नेपाली आफैले घर मजबुत बन्नु पर्ने रहेछ भन्ने बुझे र आफैं मजबुत घर बनाउन थालेका छन्। मैले यो किन भनेको भने कतिपय समस्या कानुन बनेर मात्र समाधान हुँदैन, त्यसको औचित्य समाजले बुझ्नु पर्यो अनि त्यो प्रथा बन्छ र स्वत: समाजमा लागू हुन्छ। नेपालको अहिलेको हालत पनि यस्तै छ, सानो भन्दा सानो बिषय स्थापित गराउन अति ठूलो क्षति भोग्नु पर्ने। अझ यहाँ त धेरै अपूर्णनिय क्षति ब्यहोरेर नियमको रुपमा केहि बुँदा कानुन बनायौं तर कानुनको अर्थ समाजलाई बुझाउन कति भयाबह क्षति ब्यहोर्नु पर्ने हो थाह छैन। हामीले कयौं शहिद गुमायौं, देशभक्त योद्धा गुमायौं, लामो समय गुमायौं आन्दोलनको नाममा पुस्तौं गुमायौं अनि राणा शासन हटाएर प्रजातन्त्र ल्यायौं। बि पि, गणेशमान, पुषपलाल हरुको जीवन र आदर्श सबै धरौटी राखेर पन्चायत ल्यायौं, फेरि प्रजातन्त्र ल्यायौं हत्या माथि हत्या सत्रौं हजार मानिस मारेर गणतन्त्र ल्यायौं अहिले हामीसँग उपलब्धी मानिएको त होईन उपलब्धी भनिएको संविधान हो जुन आफ्नो देशको नक्सा बनाउन पनि संसोधन गर्नु पर्छ, एउटा अपराधीलाई कारवाही गर्न पनि संसोधन गर्नु पर्छ।यत्रो बलिदानी संविधान कानुन मन्त्रालयको दराजमा हुँदा हुँदै निर्मलाहरु बलात्कृत भई मारिएका छन्, अपराधी कहाँ छ सरकारलाई मात्र थाह छ जनतालाई पत्तै छैन। जनता नाकामा अलपत्र पर्छन जनतालाई थाह हुन्छ सरकारले पत्तै पाउँदैन।

रुकुम पश्चिममा नवराज विक सहित छ जनाको हत्या भयो, सामाजिक संजालमा, युटुबमा, अनलाईन खबरमा प्रमाण सहित हजारौं फैसला भैसके नवराज दलित भएकोले मारिएका, नवराजले गुण्डा गर्दी शैलीमा केटी उठाउन खोजेकोले हत्या भएको, मारेर नदिमा फालेका, नदिमा आफैं हामफालेर मरेका आदि आदि। सरकार छानविन गरिरहको छ, नेता तिनै लाश माथि राजनीति गर्दैछन, मिडियाहरु पैसा कमाईरहेका छन्, लकडाउनमा थुनिएका जनता समय बिताउने समाचार पाई रहेका छन्, कलाकारले कन्टेन्ट पाईरहेका छन्। पिडितका परिवारलाई बाहेक सबैलाई गफिने र विचार आफ्नो धारणा बनाउने बिषय मिलेको छ।

कानुन थियो, राज्य थियो, पुलिस थियो शक्ति थियो तर पनि अपराध रोक्न सकिएन, अपराधी भेट्न सकिएन किन? कारण राज्य संचालकहरू र राज्य सँग प्रत्यक्ष सरोकार भएका जनताका आवश्यकता र आकांक्षा कहिल्यै एउटै भएनन्। बुझाई कहिल्यै एउटै भएनन्। बनेका कानुन किन बने बनाउनेलाई नै थाह छैन किनकी कानुन बनाउने हरुका लागि जनता शिकार गर्ने हतियार हो, देश तिनको घर हो राज्यकोष तिनको बैंक ब्यालेन्स हो अनि कसलाई थाह हुन्छ घरमा साना ठुला हतियार ठ्याक्कै यति छन भनेर।

जब सम्म नियम कानुन किन र कसरी भनेर सामाजमा ईकाई स्तरबाट जनबोध हुँदैन तब सम्म कानुन बनेर केहि हुदैन। हतियार हातमा भएर के गर्नु चलाउन नजाने पछि शत्रुले त्यहि हतियार प्रयोग गरी हतियारवाला लाई नै मार्छ। मेरो मतलव हामीले कुनै बिषयमा हल्का टिप्पणी गर्नु, अर्काको विचालाई एउटा अनुभव एउटा मतको रुमा स्वीकार गर्नु भन्दा अनाबश्यक बहसको बिषय बनाउनु भन्दा कानुन के हो र हाम्रो कानुन के भन्दैछ बुझौं। जब समाजका ईकाईले (तपाई हामीले) कानुनको औचित्य र मर्मको बारे बुझ्छ तब मात्र कानुन कामयाबी हुन्छ नत्र यीनै कानुनलाई हतियार बनाएर राज्य संचालन गर्नेहरुले समाज लुटिरहन्छन। जसरी भुकम्प बिरुद्ध मजबुत घर बन्नु पर्ने रहेछ भन्ने बुझ्यौं त्यसरी नै कानुन, सामाजिक न्याय र आफ्नो कर्तव्य र अधिकारको बारे बुझौं। अर्काको विचारको सम्मान गर्दै आफ्नी विचार स्थापित गराउने आदत बसाऔं। आफू सहि छु भन्न अरुलाई गलत साबित गर्नै पर्छ भन्ने मनोदशाबाट मुक्त बनौं। तपाईं सहि हुनुको अर्थ म गलत हुनु कदापि होईन, यसैले सुसंस्कृत समाज निर्माण गर्न अमूल्य समय अरुलाई गलत साबित गर्न भन्दा आफुलाई सहि साबित गर्न खर्च गरौं। शुरूमा मैले भनेको थिए नि विनाशका केहि सकारात्मक पाटो पनि हुन्छन भनेर, धेरै विनाश भैसकेको छ, यहिं सम्मको विनाश बाट सकारात्मक पाटो खोजौं, समाजिक प्रणाली विकास गर्न अझै अरू क्षति न कुरौं।

Show more
0
254