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Insect pests pose heavy threat to maize and cotton crop each year . In the present study efficacy of five insecticides, i.e. Acetamiprid 20 SP, Alpha cypermethrin 5 EC, Mixture 80 EC, Perfection 40 EC and DDVP 50 EC were tested in maize field against maize stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe), grasshopper (Melanoplus differentialis Thomas), flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria Ashmead) and its influence on Ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus) was determined during 2009. The results revealed that all the insecticides were effective in reducing pest's population but also adversely affected the natural enemy population. Mixture yielded lowest density of C. partellus (1.22 infested plants/10 plants), M. differentialis (0.44 individuals/10 plants) and C. pulicaria (0.33 beetles/leaf) among the treatments. All the insecticides had adverse effect on population of C. septempunctata. Mean density of C. septempunctata in Mixture (0.44 beetles/plant) was the lowest among the treatments. In the untreated control mean density of the pests and natural enemy was higher than all the treatments. The yield of maize obtained from Mixture treatment was highest (2.71 ton/ha) than all the other treatments and control. The present results might help in better control of insect pests of maize, mainly using its natural enemies.


• Obtain the proper training before mixing pesticides. See section on pesticide licensing.

• Reduce infestations from outside sources and incorporate non-chemical methods such as biological, cultural and sanitation controls in your pest management program.

• Limit the frequency of treatments whenever possible, particularly nerve toxins. Evaluate the cost-benefit economics and use scouting and thresholds to justify treatments.

• Treat small areas as much as possible, and whenever possible, only treat infested plant(s) rather than treating all plants in the greenhouse.

• Avoid persistent compounds and slow release/encapsulated formulations. Ideally, an effective insecticide should be applied at a concentration high enough to kill all individuals in a population, and then quickly disappear from the environment.

• Avoid treatments that apply selection pressures on both larval and adult stages.

• Avoid tank mixes (mixing two or more insecticides together to control a single pest) except in cases where research has demonstrated improved efficacy.

• Rotate insecticides with different modes of action.

• Use insecticides with non-specific modes of action whenever possible. The less specific the mode of action of an insecticide, the less likely it is that genetic mutations can be selected.

• Note that resistance can develop to products other than traditional chemical pesticides. Resistance has been reported in some species to Bacillus thuringiensis and to some insect growth regulators.

• Test the pH of the water and adjust the pH of the water before mixing pesticides.

• Measure accurately when mixing pesticides. Measure wettable powders by weight using a scale. Measure liquids by volume.

• After mixing an insecticide with water, spray immediately or within a few hours. Never allow a mixed chemical to stand overnight before applying.

• Treat according to label directions.

• Inform your local fire department before using a smoke formulation of pesticide.

• Apply pesticides during the cooler part of the day, such as the early morning or evening.

• Add surfactants only when recommended on the pesticide label.

• Never use a sprayer for insecticides that was previously used to apply herbicides.

• Apply pesticides only after crops have been irrigated and show no signs of moisture stress.

• Do not apply pesticides with a fertilizer unless indicated on the label.

• Never use broad-leaved weed killers and brush killers around the greenhouse.

Proper Use of Pesticides

Before using pesticides, obtain the proper training. See section on pesticide licensing.


Warning

Information in this guide is provided for educational and planning purposes only. When using agricultural chemicals, you (the user) are responsible for making sure the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Before applying any insecticide, be sure to get current usage information. Read and follow the product label.

Precautions

Before using a pesticide, read the label carefully. Follow the directions. Pay attention to all precautions on the pesticide container label. Observe all regulations on worker protection and pesticide record-keeping. Store pesticides in plainly labeled containers safely away from livestock, pets, and children. Store pesticides in an area where they will not contaminate food or feed.

Resistance

Research indicates most cotton pests are pesticide-resistant. Some pesticides control pests in one area and not another. Excessive use of pesticides will intensify the problem.

Scouting

Proper scouting is the backbone of an effective cotton insect management program. The goal of any scouting program should be to minimize insecticide use and insect control costs by avoiding unnecessary treatments and by timing required treatments properly. Effective scouting requires spending enough time in the field and taking enough samples to make an accurate decision on whether or not treatment is required. Frequency of scouting is critical. During most of the growing season, scout fields thoroughly every 3 to 4 days. Allow enough time in the scouting schedule to allow more frequent “spot checks” when necessary.

Delaying Pesticide Resistance

To use fewer pesticides, it is important that pesticides, when used, are effective at killing pests. Pests can become resistant to pesticides making the pesticide ineffective for management. Resistance is genetic in nature, and an insect or mite cannot become resistant or acquire resistance during its life (that is, within one generation). Resistance is stimulated by widespread application of a pesticide but some individual pests survive and pass on genetic factors to the next generation. A chemical cannot adjust in response to genetic changes in the

pest population that help the pest survive the chemical application. Thus, the surviving pests can transfer the resistance factor(s) into the population, allowing the population to become resistant over a period of time. Repeat applications with one type of pesticide eventually remove almost all the susceptible individuals from a pest population and leave only those with the resistant gene.

Pests can become resistant to insecticides to which they have never been exposed. This can happen when two insecticides have a similar mode of action. Mode of Action (MoA) is how a pesticide specifically kills a pest. If two (or more) insecticides attack the pest in the same way, a resistance mechanism to one insecticide may also provide resistance to the other, even though the pest may never have been exposed to that second insecticide.

Tips for Delaying Pesticide Resistance:

• Reduce infestations from outside sources and incorporate non-chemical methods such as biological, cultural and sanitation controls in your pest management program.

• Limit the frequency of treatments whenever possible, particularly nerve toxins. Evaluate the cost-benefit economics and use scouting and thresholds to justify treatments.

• Treat small areas as much as possible, and whenever possible, only treating infested plant(s) rather than treating of all plants in the greenhouse.

• Avoid persistent compounds and slow release/encapsulated formulations. Ideally, an effective insecticide should be applied at a concentration high enough to kill all individuals in a population, and then quickly disappear from the environment.

• Avoid treatments that apply selection pressures on both larval and adult stages.

• Avoid tank mixes (mixing two or more insecticides together to control a single pest) except in cases where research has demonstrated improved efficacy. Take precautions when tank mixing. Phytotoxicity problems can occur with a mixture even though no problems were observed with either material used alone.

• Rotate insecticides with different modes of action. Unless otherwise directed on the pesticide label, switch to a pesticide with a different mode of action about every 2 to 3 pest generations or about every 2–3 weeks. Mode of Action (MoA) Classification provides information about pesticides and how they work. The actual length of an insecticide rotation depends on the time of year, as temperatures and season influence the length of insect life cycles. For example, warm temperatures often lead to overlapping generations and various stages of development present at the same time. As a result, more frequent applications and more frequent rotations of insecticides or miticides are needed. In winter, pest development is slower and insecticides and miticides may not need to be rotated as often.

• Use insecticides with non-specific modes of action whenever possible. Most synthetic and botanical insecticides kill insects and mites by affecting very specific chemical pathways in the pest (interfere with nerve transmission, development, metabolism, digestion, etc.). The less specific the mode of action of an insecticide, the less likely it is that genetic mutations can be selected. Insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils both have broad modes of action and are, therefore, unlikely to allow for the development of resistance.

• Note that resistance can develop to products other than traditional chemical pesticides. Resistance has been reported in some species to Bacillus thuringiensis and to some insect growth regulators.

Improving Efficacy of Pesticides

• Test the pH of the water before mixing pesticides. Many pesticides, especially organophosphates, are not effective when mixed in water with a pH greater than 7. If necessary, use a commercially available buffering agent to adjust the pH of water to be neutral (pH 7) or slightly acidic. More information including a list of pesticides and their optimum pH ranges is available at: Effects of ph on Pesticides and Growth Regulators

• Measure accurately when mixing pesticides. Use a scale to measure wettable powders by weight. Use a measuring cup to measure liquids by volume. Read labels carefully!

• After mixing an insecticide with water, spray immediately or within a few hours. Never allow a mixed chemical to stand overnight before applying.

• Treat according to label directions. Most pesticide labels now contain information on amounts to be applied to a certain area. This is important for delivering the correct amount of active ingredient for effective control.

Preventing Pesticide Damage to Plants (Phytotoxicity)

• Apply pesticides during the cooler part of the day, such as the early morning or evening. Treatments made in the early morning allow foliage to dry before temperatures reach 85–90°F. Take special precautions when using pesticides containing oil. Treat when conditions allow plants to dry quickly.

• Add surfactants only when recommended on the pesticide label.

• Avoid tank mixes. A mixture of insecticides may increase the chance of injury to plants.

• Never use a sprayer for insecticides that was previously used to apply herbicides.

• Apply pesticides only after crops have been irrigated and show no signs of moisture stress.

• Do not use more than one emulsifiable concentrate in a tank mixture.

• Do not apply pesticides with a fertilizer.

• Never use broad-leaved weed killers and brush killers around the greenhouse.


Insecticide Resistance and Resistance Management

Insecticide resistance is the increased tolerance to a particular insecticide by a pest population to the point the insecticide no longer controls effectively. This definition applies to insecticides delivered through transgenic crops as well as to foliar-applied insecticides.

Resistance develops as a result of repeated or continuous exposure of a pest population to a particular insecticide or class of insecticides. Following an insecticide application, the death rate for susceptible insects is considerably higher than the death rate of resistant insects. The numbers of resistant insects increase, and the resistance genes are passed down to the next generation. If the same insecticide or class of insecticide is used against the next generation of pests, the level of resistance increases even more. At first the number of resistant individuals within a population may be really low — 1 in every 10,000 or more — and the pesticide is very effective. However, if you keep using the same insecticide or class of insecticides, the percent of the population made up of resistant insects increases. As a result, that pesticide or pesticide class becomes less efficient, and field failures begin to occur.

High Cost of Resistance: Resistance is costly to cotton producers because it creates the need to increase insecticide rates, shorten treatment intervals, use expensive mixtures of insecticides, or use more costly alternative insecticides to maintain effective control. Reduced control means lower yield, which further reduces profits. Without effective treatment alternatives, outbreaks of resistant pests can result in disastrous levels of crop destruction.

Resistance Management: Insecticide resistance management is a plan of insecticide use that limits exposure of a pest population to a particular class of insecticide chemistry in order to prolong the useful life of that insecticide or class of insecticides. It is important to note that the goal of resistance management is not necessarily to prevent resistance from ever occurring, but to slow the development of resistance.


In past years cotton growers have had difficulty effectively managing resistance because of the limited availability of effective alternative control tools. Mississippi growers are now very fortunate to have a wide array of tools available to control many of the most damaging pests. these include boll weevil eradication, transgenic Bt cotton, and an impressive array of highly effective foliar applied insecticides. By effectively using all of these tools and avoiding overuse of any single method of control, Mississippi cotton producers have a greater opportunity than ever before to practice resistance management effectively.

Resistance Management Plan,

Growers can optimize their ability to manage resistance to both Bt cotton and foliar-applied insecticides by observing the following precautions:

1) Continue to support boll weevil eradication maintenance and take advantage of the benefits it offers in managing caterpillar pests. These benefits include increased ability to rely on beneficial insects to suppress populations of caterpillar pests and an overall reduction in the number of foliar insecticide treatments required to control caterpillar pests.

2) Plant the crop in a timely manner (April 15 to May 15 is the optimum planting window). Manage the crop to promote early maturity.

3) Plant fields that historically experience heaviest tobacco budworm infestations to Bt varieties.

4) Scout Bt fields for caterpillar pests and treat promptly with supplemental foliar insecticides if you detect damaging levels of caterpillar pests.

5) When non-Bt fields require treatment for caterpillar pests, rotate use of different classes of foliar insecticides against different generations of pests. Do not use the same insecticide or class of insecticides on successive generations of pests.

6) Stop insecticide applications as soon as the majority of the harvestable crop reaches maturity.

Resistance Management Plan, tarnished Plant Bugs and Cotton Aphids:

1) When choosing insecticides for use at planting or as foliar sprays for early-season thrips control, avoid using products that will be used later to control cotton aphids.

2) When choosing insecticides for use against aphids or plant bugs, avoid making repeated applications of the same insecticide or insecticides from the same class against following generations of pests.

Responding to Control Failures

Key considerations and responses following suspected insecticide failures:

1) Don’t panic! Do not automatically assume that the presence of live insects following an insecticide application is the result of an insecticide failure.

2) Examine the possible reasons that unsatisfactory control may have occurred. Control decisions should consider a wide range of variables that influence insecticide efficacy and damage potential: species complex, population density and age structure, application

timing, insecticide dosage rate, application methods and carriers, treatment evaluation timing, need for multiple applications, environmental conditions, and levels of insecticide resistance.

3) Under continuous pressure, multiple insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage. Against high, sustained infestations, multiple close-interval (3 to 5 days) applications of recommended economical treatments are often more effective than applications of expensive mixtures at high rates applied at longer intervals.

4) Selected combinations of insecticides are recommended to manage tobacco budworms at discrete time periods throughout the growing season. Do not use excessive rates of one or more insecticides in these mixtures. Using more than the recommended rate may not improve control.

5) If a field failure is suspected to be due to insecticide resistance, do not reapply the same insecticide. Change to another class of insecticides or use mixtures of insecticides from different classes.

6) Do not apply insecticides to control tobacco budworms beyond the time the major portion of the crop is resistant to insect damage. Protecting fruit that will not be harvested is not cost-effective and further selects for insecticide resistance.

Classes of insecticides: Effective resistance management requires rotation among the various classes of available insecticide chemistry. Often when one insecticide in a class fails because of insecticide resistance, other insecticides in the same class will also be ineffective. Selection of an insecticide from a different class will improve the chances of obtaining control. Growers need to be very aware of the type of insecticide chemistry being used. Classes of insecticides recommended in this guide are identified by the following abbreviations:

Avermectins – (AV)

Biologicals – (B)

Chloro-nicotinyl – (CN)

Carbamate – (C)

Diamides (D)

Insect Growth Regulators – (IGR)

METI-Acaricides (M)

Organophosphate – (OP)

Organochlorine – (OC)

Oxadiazine – (OX)

Pyrethroid – (P)

Pyridine Carboxamide – (PC)

Tetronic Acid – (TA)

Spinosyns – (SPN)

Terminating Insecticide Applications

In a normal, healthy crop, “cutout” is the point when Node Above White Flower averages 5 (NAWF = 5). In other words, cutout is the point when terminal growth slows to the point that the first position white flower is at the fifth node below the first “unfurled” leaf in the terminal. An unfurled leaf is about the size of a quarter. Sample at least ten plants per site from four representative

sites per field to determine average NAWF. Begin monitoring NAWF at weekly intervals shortly after first bloom.

Shift to twice weekly monitoring as NAWF counts begin to decline toward five. Begin monitoring daily heat unit (DD60s) accumulation on the day the crop reaches NAWF = 5.

Recent research has shown that growth and development in a normal, healthy crop are such that the last population of bolls that will effectively contribute to yield will be represented by those white blooms that are present at cutout (when the crop reaches NAWF = 5). Research has also shown that when these bolls accumulate 350 to 400 heat units (HU), or DD60s, they have a low

probability of sustaining economic damage from tarnished plant bugs (nymphs or adults) or from budworm/bollworm larvae that emerge after this point. erefore, control of tarnished plant bugs and budworms/bollworms can generally be terminated at nAWF = 5 + 350-400 HU (DD60s). Note, however, that threshold populations of larvae hatching before this point in the development

of the crop should be controlled. Also note that this guideline for terminating insecticide treatments applies primarily to bollworms and tobacco budworms and tarnished plant bugs.

Control of stinkbugs can be terminated at nAWF = 5 + 450 HU.

Control of fall armyworms can be terminated at nAWF = 5 + 500-550 HU.

Leaves help bolls mature, so protect the crop from excessive defoliation from pests such as loopers beyond the point of NAWF = 5 + 350 – 400 HUs.

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