World news of the United Kingdom
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Britons during quarantine buy more alcohol than usual
During quarantine, the British began to buy more alcohol than usual.
According to official figures, in March, sales in specialized alcohol stores in the country grew by almost one third.
This is the largest increase in monthly sales for all the time of observation - since 1988. At the same time, statistics do not take into account alcohol purchased in food supermarkets, where alcohol is most often bought.
Specialized liquor stores in the UK continue to work in quarantine.
Britain extended the training mission for the AFU for three years
The program provides for training for thousands of Ukrainian troops.
The British military will train Ukrainian colleagues for another three years as part of the ORBITAL mission. The decision to extend the relevant program was made by the UK government, the press service of the Armed Forces General Staff reported on Monday, May 18.
"The UK Department of Defense has extended the training operation ORBITAL by March 2023," the report said.
UK has got ahead of Italy in COVID-19 infections
During the pandemic of the new corona virus, 219,070 people fell ill with COVID-19 in Italy. At the same time, 220,449 cases of the disease have already been recorded in the UK. In the UK, with 220,449 (+ 3,923 patients over the past day) cases, 31,855 people died, 1,002 patients have already recovered. The first two cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in the country were discovered on January 31.
In Italy, with 219,070 (+802) cases, 30,560 died, 105,186 people recovered. On February 7, the country confirmed the first case of corona virus.
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Scientists have found another property of coffee that is beneficial for women
Scientists from the University of England found a strong connection between the habit of regular consuming of coffee and the accumulation of various types of fat in the female body.
The authors found out that women aged 20-44 who consumed 2 or 3 portions of coffee a day had the lowest obesity - 3.4% lower than those who did not drink coffee at all. For the age of 45-69 years, in order to achieve the best result - minus 4.1% - they had to drink 4 or more portions of coffee. Overall, for all ages, the average percent of total body fat was 2.8% lower in women who consumed 2 or 3 cups of coffee per day.
The connection maintained when various additional factors were taken into account, such as the caffeine content in coffee, smoking and the presence of concomitant diseases. It is important that, in addition to influencing the content of subcutaneous fat, coffee consuming was connected with the amount of visceral fat - the one that surrounds the internal organs and accumulates in the abdominal cavity. It is its excessive amount that is most harmful to health.
For men, this connection was also traced, but to a small extent. Significant results were shown by the age group of 20–44 years: for them, the habit of drinking 2 or 3 cups a day was connected with a decrease in total fat by 1.3%, and visceral - by 1.8%.
About seven million tons of coffee are consumed annually in the world. A volume of approximately 4 cups per day is considered safe, and pregnant women can afford two servings, according to most researchers. Despite the numerous evidence of the benefits of the drink, it is not worth consuming it uncontrollably in large quantities: this can lead to harm to health.
Britain began to mass-produce a potential vaccine against corona virus
Previously, WHO said that at the moment, three drugs from corona virus are officially leading among clinical trials. Meanwhile, the UK said it had begun producing a potential corona virus vaccine. By September, they target to produce about a million dosages.
It is noted that a would-be vaccine was elaborated by scientists at the University of Oxford and is currently in production at seven companies in the UK, Europe, India and China.
“We started the risky making of this vaccine, not only on a small scale, but with a chain of manufacturers in 7 various locations around the world. The target is to get at least a million dosages by September, when we also expect to get test results” — Adrian Hill University Professor said.
It is also reported that at the moment, scientists have announced a set of volunteers for testing the vaccine in humans. In case of failure, losses from the production of the drug will amount to tens of millions of pounds.
The evolution of Eco-friendly aircraft
Ever since the airline industry started booming in the late 20th century, aircraft manufacturers and their engineers have been constantly and iteratively improving the fuel efficiency of their aircraft. Especially after the oil crisis in the 1970s caused by a disruption in oil supplies from the Yom-Kippur War and the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
The nations who relied on the region’s energy exports such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the U.S, Japan and western Europe suffered large shortages in petroleum supplies and in turn high prices. This event paved the way for high capacity fuel efficient aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and crippled the newly blossoming supersonic industry in the Concord. Being forced to create more fuel-efficient aircraft, manufacturers had to find innovative ways to improve the carbon footprint of aircraft.
Aircraft manufacturers frequently outsourced their engines from experienced companies such as Rolls Royce. Initially large airlines utilized turbo jet engines which consisted of an air inlet, compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine which propelled the aircraft of the time with loud jets of hot air rapidly escaping the exhaust nozzle. As turbo fan engines began to be refined to the point of feasibility, aircraft began adopting the more fuel efficient low-bypass turbofans of that era.
These engines were essentially the same as the turbo jet but they had a large ducted fan that fell before the compressors which provided most of the thrust. The bypass ratio of a turbofan is the ratio of the mass flow rate of the “bypass stream” (Flow of air around the compressor, combustion chamber and turbine) to the mass flow rate entering “the core” (compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine). The higher the bypass ratio and the internal temperature of the combustion chamber and turbine, the more thrust can be produced by the engines.
Engineers have been continually increasing the bypass ratio and the maximum internal temperature of the core in order to increase thrust and fuel efficiency. Some innovations such as the chevrons on the engine nacelles of some Boeing aircraft reduce sound levels but also reduce thrust, this shows exactly how engineering is a tug of war battle with physics.
Airline manufacturers have been copying nature for efficient air foils (the cross section of a wing that produces a pressure difference on either side which results in lift or downforce).
The wingtips of aircraft have had a larger emphasis on the fuel efficiency and stability recently. On the tips of wings there are areas of “bleeding” where the high-pressure air beneath the wing is able to flow around the outside of the wing to the low-pressure air above creating vortices (spirals of air) which increased drag and diminished lift at the tip of the wing. Wing tips acted as barriers to prevent the air from reaching the top of the wing or to shift the vortices away from the wing.
Newer more complex wingtips are being tested and fitted to existing aircraft and new aircraft which also help increase lift and in turn increase fuel efficiency.
Possible aircraft innovation
Obvious improvements like solar panels incorporated to aircraft are being considered, however there are multiple areas of improvement such as the use of electric engines but there are no batteries with a high enough capacity right now but there will always be improvements made by the genius engineers behind each aircraft.
Article by David Ogolo
School: St Georges Sixth Form, Harpenden, England
Unemployment in India- Problems and Solutions
Unemployment basically refers to the state where an individual is deprived of work in order to attain livelihood in the form of income. This problem is witnessed basically in overpopulated countries where population is quite large in comparison to its limited resources. The economy of a country suffers setback because of employment which plays a major part in the development of a country. Every country has a different way of dealing towards this problem like for example in India there was a scheme of 1000 rupees per month as an unemployment allowance announced by the State Government of Uttar Pradesh in 2012 for poor youth who can maintain their studies. Similarly Universal pay Income of 5000 Rupees per unemployed by the Indian Congress leader Rahul Gandhi during the Lok Sabha 2019 Election Campaign was an effective plan since that would motivate the unemployed youth to a large extent and would have curbed in the prevention of various crimes as the youths would have found themselves in a state of business. Mostly youth commit crime owing to the fact of not having enough economical support from the government. There is lack of social development too responsible for this problem. For example- In India this problem is mainly because of lack of institutions such as Health care and Education which nearly accounts for certain percentage of employment. Doctors and teachers are finding themselves in a state of bother as far as the employment area is concerned.
Employment generation takes place by investing in institutions of maximum percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education also assisted with providing special training to the teachers and medical practitioners which in turn lead to the overall development and construction of nation, since a healthy and educated individual will only be able to tackle his needs and requirement on a day to day basis. Globalisation of education and health care would also culminate in bringing new brains and would liquidate the economy of a country. The problem of unemployment is quite grave which can be traced to old times, under-developed countries are facing ever worse condition than those of developing nations. Developed countries does not seem to face this issue owing to their holistic development with limited population and huge resources, these countries attract brain drain from other countries on a large scale owing to limited manpower. For any country to prosper, population control should be initiated since large population leads to shortage of resources per individuals which result in various negative activities like theft, murder, extortion, money- laundering, thug, dacoity etc for the sake of money along with land related offences. All these penal problems as mentioned are stated in Indian Penal Code, 1860 the trial is conducted and justice too is given but the work to curb all this is the reason of unemployment and the concerned connected laws associated with it. There should be population control law should be made in the concerned legislature of any country which Indian Government is failing to do so currently. There was a time in India when Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister the law related to population control was initiated but that did not last long. The current Indian Government apparently seems to neglect the important issues that can generate the employment like Health Care and Education as already mentioned along with Agriculture, Industrial development etc which generates employment in the form of labour, manpower and resources on a large scale. There should be unemployed allowance of which the womens should be provided more in comparison so that they can process their maintenance of livelihood also can maintain themselves. The problem of unemployment and initiating laws to tackle it is being neglected by the Indian Government.
To conclude, the unemployment contains lots of negatives and if not handled by the concerned nations it would be quite fatal in the near future. Example of India with 135 crores of population where there is lots of income disparity, currently there is no room being visible of employment. The Indian government is not focussing on developing infrastructure such as agriculture, medical health care, school construction, proper education which constitutes greatly for employment. Employment is the problem to every negative activities of crime as already mentioned earlier. Once there is development of institution there will be demand for manpower which will assist in problem of solution of unemployment along with the population control policy. Last but not the least the government should involved big players of corporate house under corporate social responsibility to come forward and aid the poor in getting the employment by collaborating with government to build institution effectively. With all these points, it is quite clear and evident that problem of unemployment is not impossible to solve yet it requires special concern from the government.
In Britain, the corona virus has caused a deficiency of pets
Britain has faced an acute deficiency of domestic animals due to the virus. Lonely British who found themselves in isolation lined up to get pets.
According to breeders, need for animals has raised to 140 percent in April. At the same time, one can not even hope to get the long-awaited friend so quick - waiting lists usually consist of 100 to 400 people who want them too.
In turn, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Violence against Animals recorded an increase in the amount of visits to their shelters by 600 percent. It clears that especially quarantined Britons are interested in cocker poodles (cockapu), French bulldogs and other dog breeds, which are relatively easy to care for.
Residents of Britain reported about huge black cats who attack sheep
Photographs of a large black cat hiding in the bushes were published by residents of the village of Tedburn St. Mary. In addition, traces of paws were observed, presumably belonging to the same predator, next to the remains of a deer. The forest near the village is now rarely visited by residents due to the regime of self-isolation and this, as local residents suggest, could give courage to large predators.
Dr. Terry Moore, a specialist in large predators of the feline family, said that reports of large cats, presumably cougars and panthers, had been received several times before from Hertfordshire, a four-hour drive from Devon.
Among locals there is an opinion that the huge cats, which they call "Beasts of Bodmin" and "Beasts of Dartmoor", have been living in the swamps of Devon and Cornwall for more than a decade. In July 2019, the owner of the zoo in Dartmoor said that he personally observed three cougars freely walking in the wild, which should have been transferred to the zoo at least three decades ago.
It is believed that panther and cougar could be let out by circus artist Mary Chipperfield after the closure of her zoo in Plymouth in 1978. Since 2000, more than 200 reports of large cats walking through swamps have been recorded in Devon and Cornwall.
There is a new painting in the English infirmary, it is dedicated to doctors
A new painting by the famous street artist Banksy with gratitude to doctors appeared in an English infirmary in Southampton.
A monochrome picture of 1 square meter was hung in the lobby of the infirmary near the emergency room.
It portrays a boy playing with a nurse-superhero at the trash can, in which there are also Batman and Spiderman.
Banksy left a fraze: "Thanks for everything you do. I hope this will brighten up this place, even though it is black and white."
In Britain, residents will be able to find out the level of air pollution in the area before buying a house
British real estate agencies will now provide people ,who wish to purchase housing ,with information on the level of air pollution in a certain area.
The media shared that many Britons bought expensive housing, not knowing that it was located in an area with a high level of pollution. Researchers urge the government to monitor air quality continuously in every residential area.
They also insist on the introduction of stringent restrictions recommended by the World Health Organization, which will help reduce pollution.
According to scientists from the Royal College of Physicians, dirty air kills about 40,000 people a year in the UK.
Glasgow ready to accept Euro in 2021
This was reported by the press service of the Scottish Football Association.
The organizing committee of the European Championship in Glasgow has confirmed its readiness to held Euro matches in 2021, according to the press service of the Scottish Football Association. The tournament, to be held in 12 cities in 11 European countries, was postponed from 2020 to 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.
Earlier in the British media there was information that Scotland could refuse to host Euro 2020 in 2021.
The final announcement of the Euro hosts will take place on May 27. In Glasgow there will be three tournament games in group D and one game of the 1/8 finals.
Found evidence of the hot bowels of Mars
Scientists claim that a meteorite formed deep beneath the surface of Mars is the first chemical evidence of magma convection (its constant movement) in the mantle layer.
For many years, we thought Mars was dead. A dusty, dry, barren planet where nothing happens. Only the winds blow. However, evidence has recently begun to appear that there is volcanic and geological activity on Mars.
Crystals of olivine (rock-forming mineral) in the Tissint meteorite, which fell to the Earth in 2011, could be formed only at temperature differences of about 574-582 million years ago. And this process can take place on the Red Planet today.
“Previously, there was no evidence of convection on Mars,” explains planetary geologist Nicola Marie of the University of Glasgow. “This is the first study that proves activity in the bowels of Mars from a chemical point of view and using a real Martian sample.”
When Marie and his colleagues began to study olivine crystals in the Tissint meteorite, they discovered something strange: the crystals were distributed unevenly in a piece of rock, forming phosphorus-rich veins. The same veins are found on Earth - a trap of solute. It was unexpected to find them on Mars.
“This happens when the crystal growth rate exceeds the rate at which phosphorus can be evenly distributed throughout the rock, penetrating its crystalline structure,” explained Nicola Marie. Traces of nickel and cobalt have confirmed previous evidence that a piece of rock came from the depths of the Martian crust - from 40 to 80 kilometers below the surface of Mars.
The Martian mantle probably had a temperature of about 1560 degrees Celsius. The Earth’s mantle (1650 degrees Celsius) 2.5-4 million years ago had the same temperature.
This does not mean that Mars is like the early Earth. But this means that Mars could store a lot of heat. “I think Mars can still be volcanically active - the results of the study indicate this,” said Marie. “We may not observe a volcanic eruption on Mars for the next 5 million years, but this does not mean that the planet is inactive. This may mean that the periods between eruptions on Mars and the Earth are different. "