Dragon Fruit for 100 grams nutrition facts.
- Protein: 1.2 grams
- Fat: 0 grams
- Carbs: 13 grams
- Fiber: 3 grams
- Vitamin C: 3% of the RDI
- Iron: 4% of the RDI
- Magnesium: 10% of the RDI
Latest news Battaramulla South - here are the news of nearby cities
The Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii) BIOMETRICS: Length: M: 66-72 cm – F: 35 cm Weight: M: 790-1140 g – F: 510-625 g The Sri Lankan Junglefowl is a member of the Galliformes bird order which is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is the national bird. The Sri Lankan Junglefowl is common in every part of Sri Lanka, wherever jungle or dense scrub of any extent is to be found, but it is mostly spotted at sites such as Kitulgala, Yala and Sinharaja As with other junglefowl, the Sri Lankan junglefowl is strongly sexually dimorphic. The male is much larger than the female Male Adult male has boldly streaked plumage. Breast and upperparts are fiery yellow to coppery-orange, finely streaked golden. Lower breast, scapulars and back sides are darker bright copper. Belly, flanks and tail are dark glossy purplish-black. Flight feathers are blackish. The tail is bushy with some longer central rectrices forming with all the tail feathers an elegant panache. Lower back and rump show pale blue feathers turning metallic darker blue on the uppertail coverts. On the head, the bare face and the two hanging wattles are bright red. Starting from forehead and extending over the top of the crown, a fleshy red crest shows central yellow patch. Chin and throat are purplish-blue. Bill is yellow to horn-coloured. Eyes are yellow. Legs and feet are red. After the breeding season, the comb reduces in size. Female Female is smaller and very different. She lacks the wattles and shows only a tiny crest behind the bill. She has very cryptic brown plumage, with typical white markings on underparts where feathers are broadly edged creamy-white. Wings are heavily barred creamy-white. Upperparts are darker brown finely streaked whitish. Tail is pale rufous, slightly barred dark brown. Bill is horn-coloured. Eyes are yellow. Legs and feet are dull yellow. Immature male resembles female, with in addition, some markings of the adult male VOICE: SOUNDS BY XENO-CANTO While foraging on the ground, the Ceylon Junglefowl male utters some short calls “kreeu, kreeu, kreeuu”. It also utters high-pitched rooster-like crow “cor-cor-chow” at dawn, often from a tree-branch. The female gives some “kwikkuk, kwikkukkuk”. The male is more vocal during the breeding season with advertising calls and various sounds during displays, as well with female as with rivals and in territorial defence. HABITAT: Ceylon Junglefowl frequents forests and coastal scrub to montane rainforests. It may be seen in cultivated areas when searching for food. This species is found from sea-level up to 2000 metres of elevation. RANGE: Ceylon Junglefowl is endemic to Sri Lanka. BEHAVIOUR: Ceylon Junglefowl is a terrestrial species. It forages on the ground along open roadsides and tracks in forest. It scratches with the feet for seeds, insects and fallen fruits. It forages in the morning and the evening, and mainly after rain. It pecks at the ground for food, as domestic poultry. But usually, this bird spends most of the time in forest and dense vegetation, and ventures out only to feed close to the cover. In the evening, Ceylon Junglefowl flies up into the trees for roosting. It often roosts alone, but sometimes in pairs or family groups. It returns regularly to the same place if not disturbed. During the breeding season, the male utters advertising calls. Displays are used to expose the beautiful colours of the plumage. The head pattern and the ornaments are brighter and the fiery body feathers are emphasized by the displays. The male struts about close to the female. During the breeding season, males often fight. Ceylon Junglefowl is probably sedentary in its range. It may perform some movements according to the food resources, and sometimes travels long distances to feed on their preferred food items. FLIGHT: As most of Phasianidae, the Ceylon Junglefowl is mostly terrestrial. It takes off when disturbed, in order to reach the protection of the cover. It often flies short distances, but it is able to travel longer distances for food. REPRODUCTION: Breeding season may be variable, with peak from February to May, and even to August in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Junglefowl nests on the ground. The nest is usually placed among vegetation, bushes or under logs. It may use sometimes abandoned nests of squirrels or crows, at several metres above the ground. Female usually lays 2-4 eggs. Clutches may be larger, with about 9 eggs, but probably laid by several females. Incubation lasts about 3 weeks in captivity. Chicks are precocial and start to scratch for food very soon. If threatened, female gives alarm calls and all the chicks reach immediately the protection of the vegetation DIET: Ceylon Junglefowl feeds on plant matter such as grain, seeds, berries, flowers, leaves and buds. It also consumes invertebrates such as termites, crickets, beetles and centipedes. PROTECTION / THREATS / STATUS: Ceylon Junglefowl is not threatened at this moment. It is adapted to human disturbances and degradation of the habitat. This species has restricted range but numbers are stable. References http://www.oiseaux-birds.com/card-ceylon-junglefowl.html#:~:text=DIET%3A,%2C%20crickets%2C%20beetles%20and%20centipedes.
Yangon Literature Walk... following the footpaths of Neruda and O'well
A couple of weeks has passed since the Irrawaddy literary festival which attracts writers and publishers around the world to Myanmar, an east Asian nation that has contributed enormously to global literature since its colonial times.
As an author who had spent a few years, hearing the life changing encounters of famous authors such as Pablo Neruda, George O’Weil , reading stories like “Return to Mandalay” of Rossana Lay, while working on my book “Rain of Fire” -the story of a Rohingya who fled Northern Rakhine to Cox in Bangladesh, I was always in an urge to explore the foot-prints of fellow authors in Myanmar, and navigate its ancient roots of global literature. The day I had a book sining event in famous Inwa books and cafe in Yangon, I was approached by a reporter from Myanmar Times- San Lin who is also an author, and simultaneously involved in a great initiative- Yangon Literature Walk. After a brief chat, and a photo with a signed book, he said to me “Lets meet tomorrow at hotel Shangri-La, I will take you on Yangon Literature Walk.
It was a sunny day, in the last week of November 2018 when met San Lin in Shangri-La hotel which is strategically coated on the Sule Pagoda Road in the heart of the downtown of Yangon, still known as Rangoon, the commercial capital of Myanmar formerly known as Burma. San Lin Tun is a freelance Myanmar-English writer of essays, poetry, short stories, and novel. He has published a few books in English including ”Reading A George Orwell Novel in a Myanmar Teashop and Other Essays” and his latest novel is ”An English Writer’’. And I was lucky that I stuck up a casual acquaintance with him shortly after a book launching event in Yangon, and his invitation for the famous, Yangon Literature-walk was undeniable. “So I will see you tomorrow, morning at eight in the lobby of Hotel Shangri-La” he was brief and reassuring.
“I nodded while giving him a signed copy of my latest release; Bayan”.
The following morning, I was awakened before the crake of the bangs of crows that occupies every standing tree in Yangon, and, after grabbing my morning coffee, I went down to the lobby. In his well-knotted lungi and white cotton shirt, green Shan bag on his shoulders, San was already waiting at the lobby.
‘We will cross the road from here, and then there will be a walk around three hours approximately…” San said looking up in the sky; the sun was gradually conquering the blue skies above the city of golden Pagodas: Yangon.
“Coming from a tropical country, and also having lived in Yangon, and several other places in Burma, the harshness of Sun in the dry season was not new to me. Yes, the heat began to grow with every step we made, as we moved across the Bogyoke Market, heading towards the famous 33rd street, the upper block where best publishers and book shops lay and famous Wuthering Height tea shop existed. Turning into the 33rd street, San stopped just in front of a faded beige color building which still held its double-faced outlook; it was a structure, for some unknown reason, would cause a doubt at first sight. “This is a temporary church where American Missionary Adoniram Justin stayed for a while, now its occasionally used as a cinema hall’ San Added facing 33rd street that looked straight through the balconies full of cloth ropes and hanging orchids of old five-floor apartment buildings that were partially consumed by the moss as if to show the stranger the might of the tropical rains falling on this part of earth or the poverty in most of the population; in most of the buildings the paint was almost invisible, and orchids and colourful clothes in balconies, fused with flashy signboards of the shops at the sound floor has added some colorfulness to the fading beauty of the buildings. And hooting taxies, bells of rickshaws and timorous smiles of locals added a unique liveliness to the atmosphere.
“Shwe Yin Aye Moant Lat Saung” the first time a human voice loud enough to be called a scream, I head right behind me. Its Shwe Yin Aye, a sweet, street food mostly consumed during Tyanjan, water festival, san cleared my doubts. “Shwe Yin Aye is the name of the food, which is considered as a snack often given as a gift. Walking passing old publishing houses, listening to descriptive explanations of San, I was forced to think that the publishing industry in Myanmar is already deceased; once-prestigious printed book tradition is fading away. ‘We can’t blame the smartphones, tablets and the kindle reading…, the world is changing, but…” yes I picked what he swallowed. “the pleasure of reading a paperback…?’ That is what you meant?”
‘Yes”. Sharing certain personal preferences, and how the dynamics of the world impose new conditions one individuals, some sort of pensiveness was provoked in us. Here we have to turn right, San had noticed I was kind of lost in looking at a back alley of an apartment building that was used as a dumping site by its residents.
“Before the military time, we would use the back alley for literature talks, but now, we no longer use it”. Said San while turning into the main road next to an intersection and an over the road pedestrian cross. Once you are on the bridge, you can see the epicentre of old literary circle and, Sule Pagoda at your right shinning with its golden glow, you are facing the Armenian district before the world war II. During the colonial time, segregation was a part of the city plan, each ethnicity has their quarter, Hindus, Muslims, Burmese, Armenians, etc. Lost in a multitude of thoughts on the centuries-long social impact of colonialism in Burma-such as Arakan Rohingya crisis, my eyes were transfixed at the skyscrapers along the main street, while some thoughts about the lost scenic beauty of simple colonial structures were glooming together in my mind. “Down there, is the place Orwell used to visit whenever he came to Yangon, he was based outstation and he frequented his Burmese wife here”, that was much more than what I had heard about him. Retracing the steps of Orwell, going on a psychic journey on The Burmese Days, and trying to see the colonial policeman, not the writer who fused into Burmese society during his stay; San, as a contemporary writer, showed a keen interest in the literature of be-gone days, and his profound knowledge on little yet interesting things that may easily slip from an ordinary guide was an added value to my experience. Looking at the building where the tea shop that was frequented by Orwell was, we had an interest discussion on Burmese days, and then, I remembered by collage author Rosanna Lay who wrote ‘Return to Mandalay. ‘This is a land that spellbinds the authors” I said.
“You are also spell-bound,” San said leafing through my draft manuscript of Ran of Fire, Odyssey of an Exodus, written on the Rohingya crisis.
“There are many more who wrote on this land of golden pagodas, and beautiful women”
“That was a wink of an eighteen years old, not a father of three children, a man of fifty”
San did not reply, instead, he broke into a peal of laughter, and diverted the conversation to another famous author. Pablo Neruda, a well-celebrated Chilean poet and Nobel laureate for literature in 1971, lived in Rangoon, long before he became world-famous for his poetry, Neruda served as Chile’s honorary consul in colonial Yangon from 1927 to 1928, before he headed to Colombo, Sri Lanka where he served in the Chilean consulate till 1930 from 1929.
’“According to his writing, Neruda, who spent most of his time in Yangon living on what was then Dalhousie Street —today, Mahabandoola Road, was appalled by the British colonial occupiers who he later described as “monotonous and even ignorant.” This view was shared by many Myanmar at the time, large numbers of whom were actively resisting colonialism with strikes and protests, all of which were put down with brutal force.
The combination of his Latin American origins and his radical politics meant that Neruda was far from the typical westerner living in colonial Myanmar. His distaste for the British Empire was on full display in his poem “Rangoon 1927,” which describes both the city and the famous Strand Hotel, a popular gathering place for the colonial elites, in stark terms”’ San continues standing next to the balcony of a refurbished old building, that was facing today’s department of state administrative affairs of the government of Myanmar; during the colonial era, it has served as heart of British rule in Burma.
The sun had mounted on the top of the sky, and the tar on the road had become sticky, and we were lucky that it is a Sunday, there were no many vehicles on the road and city remained dormant and the noisy hooting and flying clouds of dust that would be added to the atmosphere in the busy downtown had been thinned. San gave me a piece of paper, and said: “read this, and discover how Neruda felt about the places where we walked across”.
‘“The street became my religion. The Burmese street, the Chinese quarter with its open-air theatres and paper dragons and splendid lanterns. The Hindu street, the humblest of them, with its temples operated as a business by one caste, and the poor people prostrate in the mud outside. Markets where the betel leaves rose in green pyramids like mountains of malachite. The stalls and pens where they sold wild animals and birds. The winding streets where supple Burmese women walked with long cheroots in their mouths. All this engrossed me and drew me gradually under the spell of real-life”’.
The narration was picturesque, I imagined what San was explaining to me showing different quarters; the literature walk gave me nearly every tiny bit of ingredients which could complete my visualisation. Thanks to San I had, in my mind, exactly what Pablo Neruda witnessed in this city that holds a lot of untold stories about eminent authors who lived or visited this city.
“Authors, they love to chat, right?” San wanted approval.
“Yes,” it was me.
“The tea shops were the places where they used to meet their friends, readers and other authors, its a part of Burmese literary cycle and those foreign authors who lived-in Burma also enjoyed the tea shop culture” San described slowing down, and then he stopped near a tea shop.
“Let’s have a cup of tea”. He invited me to have a cup of chai, and the next one hour we sat and had a literary talk flowing the long-lived Burmese tradition of literary talks. “The publishing industry in Myanmar had gone downhill after the military coup, and new authors face a lot of challenges in getting their work published, It always ends with frustration and, most of them do not try the second work” As a place where a lot of internationally renowned authors have left their traces and wrote about, Burma, as much as it does with the colonial history of Great Britain, has contributed to English literature. And, in Burma, literature, and Culture, irrespective of its cultural and ethnic diversity do remain embedded, and there is also a culture of ‘reading’. And a good number of skilled local authors have emerged from this eastern Asian nation, though most of their work remains limited to Burmese language, and there is a new generation of authors and translations who try to think beyond the horizon but their limit remains within the barriers remain within the frontiers of Myanmar; a limited number of them have reached Thailand and a few neighboring countries. Besides lack of supportive policies, foreign sanctions that prevent Myanmar nationals being able to publish using online platforms like Amazon, or Lulu, and working with foreign publishing companies. “its a stock of literary resources but there is no hope at the horizon…” San said sipping his chai. I felt that Burma is an ancient library; its walls are gradually being covered by moss, making once firm cement losing apart, and invading Kaka-bodhi trees that grew in the widening cracks, and racks are halfway covered by the termites mounds and the books under the thick layer of grim and dusk are being covered by the cobwebs of time; only rats and the silverfish make use of them. With those gloomy thoughts in my mind, we delightfully finished our tea-shop chatter and walked towards 37th street where there are bookshops. “Bagan bookshop, this is one of the most famous ones here”, San greeted the man in the shop “Minglabar”. Bagan bookshop is a place to visit, and it reminded me of a second-hand bookshop in the old city of Colombo, Kharkiv or Pune; the bookshop seemed remaining in the fixed three decades back.
Walking around the downtown, across vibrant markets, the streets that Pablo Neruda felt’ my religion’, meeting warm and simple people with radiant smiles, accompanied by one of the famous contemporary writers of Burma, I winded up Literature walk in Yangon with a positive thought of coming to Burma every year for Irrawaddy Literary Festival, country’s topmost literary event.
I thanked San for showing me the unknown from the city where I lived for over 2 years. Yangon-literature walk was a unique experience that unveiled the colonial heritage of the country, bringing life to Rangoon of the 1920s, revealing the rich history and well-known sites in the heart of the city and most importantly the foot prints of the fellow authors, and the enormous and invaluable contribution that Burma has given to the global literature.
Communicating with Communities (CWC): facilitating sustainable behaviour change in the times of COVID19
Response to public health emergencies requires changes in regular behavioural patterns. Encouraging these changes requires coordination and an understanding of the culture and communities affected.
During my seventeen-year humanitarian career, I have been involved in several responses to major worldwide disease outbreaks: Ebola, Lassa fever, Dengue, and now COVID-19. Having to lead a national-level response to this pandemic has proven to be an intense experience. It was necessary to strategise a timely, technically tested, and culturally appropriate response.
Nowadays, when countries are more interconnected than during the time of Spanish flu a century ago, disease outbreaks can spread much faster. However, knowledge transfer has also become easier and faster. But when a disease outbreak hits a country, region, or evolves to pandemic levels, we still seem to start from the very beginning and undergo a cycle of trial and error, ignoring our past lessons. I have witnessed this in Sri Lanka’s COVID-19 response, and elsewhere in the world.
While working for the West African Ebola crisis response, I learnt some useful lessons for the management of COVID-19, especially in relation to assisting behaviour change in the culturally, ethnically, and religiously diverse contexts of the developing world. In these areas, there is a grossly inadequate level of infrastructural support for adhering to desired behaviours, and myths, cultural practices, and local leadership remain barriers, rather than the impetus, for change. Extremely important cultural practices like the burial rituals of washing bodies, or practices of secret societies that had remained embedded within local cultures for centuries were labelled as risk behaviours and were stopped as prevention and containment measures took priority. The “Liberian snap-handshake,” arising from the Americo-Liberians’ arrival, was the first gesture to be stopped – just like the handshake today.
While tackling such sensitive behaviours deeply rooted in the local culture, the Ebola crisis showed the importance of understanding the information ecosystem of the geographies hit by the outbreak and exploring culturally appropriate communication strategies with communities. It revealed the added value of community participation that targets all layers of society, building trust and partnerships with formal and informal leaders. This includes close coordination with all people present, working with social scientists, and integrating protection and gender into the equation in order to facilitate sustainable behavioural change.
Understanding this information ecosystem requires assessing the information landscape, needs, use and impact of knowledge, production and movement, dynamics of access, and social trust. It requires reaching out across the entire social ecology.
The more the information ecosystem is understood, the more innovative and effective behavioural support could be. Being innovative is not merely introducing “modern technology” to communities, the innovation process begins with one basic premise – listen first. That is, we need to communicate with communities directly.
Targeting the social ecology of the individual is vital so that barriers at different levels can be better addressed and agents of change can also be identified and mobilised at every layer. One of the key lessons I learned during the Ebola response was that the negative deviance and protection-motivation approaches showed results at the response phase, and then positive deviance and health benefit-based messaging were amalgamated at the recovery stage. This results in a trans-theoretical approach to behaviour change, which has shown success in the Sri Lankan context in response to COVID-19. It helped communities to adhere to the desired behaviours swiftly and then to sustain them for a longer term.
It is important to address misinformation to avoid increasing anxieties around the disease outbreak, rather than throwing information at the public. One of the unpredicted challenges I noticed in the Ebola response was the misinformation surrounding Ebola, the same way it is with COVID-19 today. Community dialogue could help community leaders understand perceptions, tackle misinformation, and adjust their approach accordingly. It can also help to reduce the stigma associated with the disease and facilitate social integration. Working with social scientists such as sociologists, anthropologists, and psychologists has proven to be an added strength – especially in understanding the diverse nuances of different religious and ethnic groups and adapting messages toward effective behaviour change.
Communities play a vital role in the support for screening, referrals of suspected cases, contact follow-up, monitoring of the outbreak, and communication initiatives. Involving active and meaningful community leadership in risk communication and understanding the disease and desired behaviour has proven to be quite successful in the Ebola and COVID-19 contexts.
For diseases like COVID-19, where communities are often not familiar with what the disease is and how to prevent and treat it, the behaviour change messaging must come from a trusted source. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the most trusted and influential information sources and communicate with communities through those sources in a culturally appropriate way. In conflict and political crises, communities can be sceptical of governmental or international non-governmental organisations and may trust only their community leaders. Therefore, developing trust in communities is paramount.
Disease outbreaks affect men, women, children, the elderly, and the especially-abled differently. Belonging to a marginalised group exacerbates the situation. As such, an individual’s information needs, accessibility of information, and the sources they can trust could be different from the general population – therefore, “leaving no one behind” is key.
Partnerships and coordination ensure that the interventions are built on trustworthy demographics and context formations, utilising validated strategies without duplication. That is, they make it possible to reach people affected by the outbreak sooner and more effectively.
Epidemics centre around human behaviour, so understanding the information ecosystem and communication with communities will help create sustainable behavioural change. Even pandemics like COVID-19 aren’t exempt from that.
By-Pramudith D Rupasinghe ©
𝟐𝟎𝟏𝟏 𝐖𝐂 𝐅𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐟𝐢𝐱𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐜𝐥𝐚𝐢𝐦𝐬: 𝐒𝐚𝐧𝐠𝐚 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐌𝐚𝐡𝐞𝐥𝐚
(- Lahiru Pothmulla and Piyumi Fonseka)
In response to former Sports Minister Mahindananda Aluthgamage’s allegation that the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final between India and Sri Lanka was fixed, former Sri Lankan Cricketers Mahela Jayawardana and Kumar Sangakkara demanded the names and evidence involved, be revealed.
In an interview with a private television channel, Aluthgamage alleged that he can responsibly claim that the match was sold to India by certain parties. He said he wished not to involve names of any players.
However, responding to the claims, Mahela Jayawardana tweeted, “Is the elections around the corner? Looks like the circus has started. Names and evidence? #SLpolitics #ICC.”
Kumar Sangakkara who was the captain of the Sri Lankan Cricket team during the 2011 WC final, tweeted that the former minister needs to take his “evidence” to the ICC and the Anti-Corruption and Security Unit so the claims could be investigated thoroughly.
When contacted by the Daily Mirror, Sangakkara further said it is baffling why Aluthgamage who was the sports minister at that time, waited so long to open up about something this serious in such a casual manner.
Former Sri Lanka cricketer and former Sri Lankan cricket team Batting Coach Tilan Samaraweera also tweeted and said, “What a shaky statement! Why couldn't the person who was on the highest seat of sports then, .... Get this investigated by the ICC, then?
Meanwhile, the Daily Mirror spoke to Sri Lanka Cricket Board Chairman Shammi Silva regarding the allegation. He said the SLC has never received a complaint or any report over the 2011 WC Final match.
“We have not received any reports about allegations over any incident of fixing the 2011 World Cup Final match. I wasn’t even in the SLC then. Therefore, I don’t have much to say about this allegation. It is only the former minister who levelled the allegation who needs to explain his claim,” Silva told the Daily M.
බුදු දහම ඇසුරෙන් අන්ය ආගමික නායකයින්ට සලකමු....
An article by - Mahim Dissanayake , Daily M ,Sri Lanka
අපේ බෞද්ධ හිතවතුන් බොහෝ දෙනා අන්ය ආගම්වලට ගරු කරන බව හොඳින් පෙනෙන්නට තිබෙනවා මෙය ආගමික සහජීවනයට ඉතාම වැදගත් ආගමික සහජීවනයට මෙන්ම සමාජයේ ගැටලු අඩුකර ගැනීමට වැදගත්වන තවත් කරුණක් කෙරෙහි අප බොහෝ දෙනාගේ අවධානයක් නැහැ
ආගමික සහජීවනය, එකමුතුව ගැන කතා කළ ලොව ශ්රේෂ්ඨම උත්තමයන් වහන්සේ බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේය. උන් වහන්සේ එය ආදර්ශයෙන්ම ඔප්පු කර පෙන්වූවා. බුදුරඡාණන් වහන්සේ ගම් පියසකට වැඩම කළොත් එම ගම් පියසේ වාසය කළ ආජීවක පරිබ්රාජක, අවේලක නිගණ්ඨ යන කවර හෝ අයකුගේ අසපුවට වැඩම කිරීමට උන්වහන්සේ පසුබට වූයේ නැහැ.
සන්දක පිරිවැජියාගේ අසපුවට බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වඩින අවස්ථාවේදී සන්දක තම අනුගාමිකයන් අමතා කීවේ “ ගෞතම ශ්රමණයාණන් වහන්සේ මෙහි පැමිණෙනවා. උන්වහන්සේ නිශ්ශබ්දතාවය අගයන අයෙක්. නිශ්ශබ්ද වන්න යන්නයි බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේට අන්ය ආගමික නායකයන් ගරු කළ බවට මෙය හොඳම නිදසුනක් වනවා.
බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වදාළේ ධර්මය ඉදිරියේ එක් එක් විශේෂණයන් තිබෙන නමුත් ධර්මය යන්න එක් දර්ශනයක් බවයි. බෞද්ධ, ඉස්ලාම්, හින්දු, කතෝලික ආදී වශයෙන් ආගමික නාමකරණ තිබුණද ධර්මය නියෝජනය එකක් පමණක් බව උන්වහන්සේ වදාළා. සියලු ආගමික ධර්මයන් එකක් හෝ සම තත්ත්වයෙහි ලා සලකන්නේ යැයි වරදවා වටහා නොගත යුතුයි. ධර්මය මඟින් බ්රහ්මත්වය දක්වා සිත දියුණු කළ හැකියි. බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේගේ ජීවමාන සමයේ බ්රහ්මත්වය දක්වා සිත දියුණු කළ පිරිස් සිටි බව අප අමතක නොකළ යුතුයි. එසේනම් එම ධර්මතාවන්හි යම් සාරධර්ම පද්ධතියක් උගන්වා තිබෙන බව අපට පෙනෙනවා. ධ්යාන ලබන්නට පුළුවන් නම් අප ඒවාට ගරු කළ යුතුයි.
එහෙත් නිවන තිබෙන්නේ බුදු දහමේම පමණයි. සාරධර්ම පෙන්වාදීම් අතින් සියලු ආගම් වැදගත් තැනක ලා සැලකුවත් බුදු දහම අනිත්ය, දුක්ඛ, අනාත්ම යන ත්රිලක්ෂණය මත පිහිටා සමාජ යථාර්ථය වටහා දෙන ආගමක්. අනිකුත් සියලු ආගම් හා දර්ශන නිත්ය සුඛ සාර්ධර්ම පද්ධතියක් ඇති ආගම්. එමනිසා බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වදාළේ එම ආගම්වලට ගරු කරන ලෙසයි. මෙයින් එම ආගම්වල දර්ශනය පිළිගත යුතු යැයි අදහස් වන්නේ නැහැ.
බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේගේ දේශනාවන් අතර ඉතා වැදගත් දේශනාවක් මෙහිදී සිහිපත් කළයුතු වනවා. ‘ යමෙක් තමාගේ දහමට වඩාත් ගරු කරන්නේද ඔහු විසින් කළයුත්තේ අන්ය ආගම්වලට ගරු කිරීමයි.’
බෞද්ධයන් වන අයගෙන් අන්ය ආගම් සඳහා ඉහළම සැලකිල්ල ලැබෙන බව මෙයින් ඉතා පැහැදිලියි. අපේ නිහතමානීත්වය, අපේ ගරුත්වය රඳා පවතින්නේ අප අනෙක් අයට දක්වන සැලකිල්ල ගරුත්වය මත බව අප සිහි තබා ගතයුතුයි.
අප ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේට වැඳ නමස්කාර කර ගරු කරනවා. එහිදී ස්වාමීන් වහනසේ එම ගරුත්වය පිළිගත යුතුයි. වැඳ නමස්කාර කිරීමේදී පමණක් නොව අනෙක් සියලු අවස්ථාවන්හිදීත් මේ තත්ත්වය තිබිය යුතුයි.
බස් රථයකදී අසුනක් ලබා දුනහොත් ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේ නමක් මෙන්ම වැඩිහිටියන්, ගැබිනි මවක් හෝ වෙනත් රෝගියකු හෝ තමන්ට අසුන ලබා දුන් තැනැත්තාට වචනයකින් හෝ ගරු කළ යුතු වනවා. අඩුම වශයෙන් ‘ පින් සිද්ධ වෙනවා’ නැත්නම් ‘ බොහොම ස්තුතියි’ කියා හෝ ඔහුට තම සැලකිල්ල දැක්විය යුතු වනවා.
‘ මං නිසා කරදර වුණා නේද ?’ කියාවත් අසන්නේ කී දෙනෙකුද ?
ඇතැමුන් අසුන ඉදිරියේ බලා සිටින්නේ තම අයිතියක් ලබා ගැනීමේ අපේක්ෂාවෙන්. බෞද්ධයන් වන අප සැමවිටම නිහතමානී ගුණයෙන්, කාරුණික බව පිළිබිඹු කළයුතු වනවා.
අපේ බෞද්ධ පින්වතුන් බොහෝ දෙනා අන්ය ආගම්වලට ගරු කරන බව හොඳින් පෙනෙන්නට තිබෙනවා. මෙය ආගමික සහජීවනයට ඉතාම වැදගත්.
ආගමික සහජීවනයට මෙන්ම සමාජයේ ගැටලු අඩුකර ගැනීමට වැදගත්වන තවත් කරුණක් කෙරෙහි අප බොහෝ දෙනාගේ අවධානයක් නැහැ.
‘ පූජ්ය’ හා ‘ පූජක’ යන්නෙහි තේරුම අද ඇතැම් දෙනා දන්නේ නැහැ. පූජ්ය පක්ෂය කියා හඳුන්වන්නේ වන්දනා ලබන්නායි. එම පිරිස් තවත් අයට වන්දනා කරන්නෙක් නෙමෙයි. යාඥා කරන්නෙක් නෙමෙයි. පූජ්ය යන්නට අදාළ වන එකම පිරිස බෞද්ධ භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේයි. ‘ සංඝ’ යනුවෙන් හඳුන්වන්නේ තුනුරුවන් අතුරින් එක් රත්නයක්. ධාතුන් වහන්සේ මෙන්ම බෝධිය මෙන්ම බුදු පිළිමයට මෙන්ම දෙදන බිම තබා වන්දනා ලබන්නෙක් වන්නේ බෞද්ධ භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේයි.
පූජක යනුවෙන් හඳුන්වන්නේ තවත් කෙනෙක් වෙනුවෙන් වන්දනා කරන්නා. නැත්නම් යාඥා කරන්නා. බෞද්ධ භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේ හැර අන්ය ආගමික පිරිස පූජක පක්ෂයටයි අයත් වන්නේ.
මාධ්යයක හෝ වෙනත් ස්ථානයක අන්ය ආගමික නියෝජිතයන් පූජ්ය කියා හඳුන්වනවා නම් එය පූජකතුමාට කරනු ලබන අපහාසයක්.
එසේම ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේට පූජක යැයි හැඳින්වීමත් වැරැද්දක්. උන්වහන්සේ යාඥා කරන්නෙක් එහෙමත් නැතිනම් කපු මහතකු නෙවෙයි.
එම නිසා පූජ්ය හා පූජක දෙපක්ෂය සම අසුන් ගැන්වීම පවා සුදුසු නැහැ.
අනෙක් ආගම්වල සර්වබලධාරී දෙවිවරු ඉන්නවා. සදාකාලික අපාය නැත්නම් ස්වර්ගයක් තියෙනවා. බුදු දහමේ මේ කිසිවක් නැහැ. ඇත්තේ සදාකාලික නිවන පමණයි. එසේ නම් බුදු දහම අනෙක් ආගම් හා එකතු කර සර්වාගමික සංකල්පයට එක් කිරීම වරදක්.
බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වදාළ ශීලය රකිනා ස්වාමීන්වහන්සේට අසුන් ගැනීම පිණිස අසුනට සුදු වස්ත්රයක් යොදනවා.
වර්තමාන සමාජය මෙය වැරැදියට තේරුම් අරගෙන තිබෙන බව ඔවුන්ගේ ක්රියාකාරකම් මඟින් පැහැදිලියි.
භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේ තමන්ගේ මව පියා දේපල ඇතුළු ඥාති පරපුර පවා අතහැර බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේගේ ධර්මය උදෙසා කැපවූ පිරිසක්. තමන්ගේ නම පවා අත්හැර බුද්ධ චීවරය දරා ගන්නවා. උන් වහන්සේට ආගම් භේද ජාති භේද නැහැ. එවන් අයකුට පමණයි උඩ, වියන් බඳින්න පුළුවන්. පාවාඩ දාන්න පුළුවන්. ආසනයට සුදු ඇතිරිල්ලක් දාන්න පුළුවන්.
විදේශ රටකට ගියත් භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේට සුදු ඇතිරිල්ලක් දමා ආසනයක් පනවනවා. භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේ ජාතික කොඩිය ඔසවන අවස්ථාවේ පවා අසුනින් නැඟී සිටින්නේ නැහැ. තමන් වහන්සේ දරා සිටින අර්හත් ධජය ඊට ඉහළයි. එම නිසයි එසේ අසුනින් නැඟිටීමට උත්සුක නොවන්නේ.
එහෙත් මේ වනවිට භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේ තීරණය කර තිබෙනවා ජාතික ගීයට හමුදාවට ගරු බුහුමන් දක්වන අවස්ථාවන්හිදී නැඟී සිට ඊට ගෞරව පුදන්නට. ඒ අනාගත දූ දරුවන්ට ආදර්ශයක් ලබාදීම උදෙසාය.
8 June : World Oceans Day
by :-Mahim Dissanayake
We celebrate World Oceans Day to remind everyone of the major role the oceans have in everyday life. They are the lungs of our planet, providing most of the oxygen we breathe. The purpose of the Day is to inform the public of the impact of human actions on the ocean, develop a worldwide movement of citizens for the ocean, and mobilize and unite the world’s population on a project for the sustainable management of the world’s oceans. They are a major source of food and medicines and a critical part of the biosphere. In the end, it is a day to celebrate together the beauty, the wealth and the promise of the ocean.
Action focus for 2018: preventing plastic pollution and encouraging solutions for a healthy ocean
Plastic pollution is causing tremendous harm to our marine resources. For example:
80% of all pollution in the ocean comes from people on land.
8 million tonnes of plastic per year ends up in the ocean, wreaking havoc on wildlife, fisheries and tourism.
Plastic pollution costs the lives of 1 million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals per year.
Fish eat plastic, and we eat the fish.
Plastic causes $8 billion in damage to marine ecosystems each year.
Change starts with you
There are many things we can do as individuals to reduce our plastic consumption.
Remember: Use less plastic and recycle the plastic you must use. Use these hashtags in social media to spread the word to help clean up our ocean: #WorldOceansDay, #SaveOurOcean.
As in previous years since 2014, the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea is recognizing on 8 June the winners of the Annual World Oceans Day Oceanic Photo Competition in an event at United Nations Headquarters.
Oceans and the Sustainable Development Goals
The Declaration of World Oceans Day in 2008 catalysed action worldwide. Twenty-five years after the first Oceans Day took place in Rio de Janeiro at UNCED, a special event on June 8th marked its celebration during the United Nations Ocean Conference held from 5-9 June 2017. The Ocean Conference was convened to support the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
By its resolution 63/111 of 5 December 2008, the UN General Assembly designated 8 June as World Oceans Day.
The concept of a ‘World Oceans Day’ was first proposed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro as a way to celebrate our world’s shared ocean and our personal connection to the sea, as well as to raise awareness about the crucial role the ocean plays in our lives and the important ways people can help protect it.
To raise awareness about the role the United Nations and international law can play in the sustainable development and use of the oceans and their living and non-living resources, the UN Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea is actively coordinating different activities of the World Oceans Day.
UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) sponsors the World Ocean Network, which has since 2002 been instrumental in building support for ocean awareness events on 8 June.
The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind.
Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea. Throughout history, oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation.
Careful management of this essential global resource is a key feature of a sustainable future.
Facts and Figures
Oceans cover three quarters of the Earth’s surface, contain 97 per cent of the Earth’s water, and represent 99 per cent of the living space on the planet by volume.
Over three billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods.
Globally, the market value of marine and coastal resources and industries is estimated at $3 trillion per year or about 5 per cent of global GDP.
Oceans contain nearly 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers may lie in the millions.
Oceans absorb about 30 per cent of carbon dioxide produced by humans, buffering the impacts of global warming.
Oceans serve as the world’s largest source of protein, with more than 2.6 billion people depending on the oceans as their primary source of protein.
Marine fisheries directly or indirectly employ over 200 million people.
Subsidies for fishing are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species and are preventing efforts to save and restore global fisheries and related jobs, causing ocean fisheries to generate US$ 50 billion less per year than they could.
As much as 40 per cent of the world oceans are heavily affected by human activities, including pollution, depleted fisheries, and loss of coastal habitats.
Source : UNITED NATIONS,2018
Teenage couple died for love
Why were they choose that hard dission? It maybe young madness of their . Why weren't they discuss with their parents? I think this is one of problem in Sri lankan society. The Relationship between parents and children not so close.