Other News Mardan
Interlinking Meta-Cognition with university's students academic achievements in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
This study aims at investigating the association between metacognitive awareness and student’s
academic achievements. The study undertakes the objectives and hypotheses on Low, Average and
High achievers in addition to assess the effects of metacognition awareness level on student’s
academic achievement. Through multistage stratified random sampling, data was collected from 160
undergraduate students, studying in Department of Mathematics & Department of English in Abdul
Wali Khan University, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Data was collected through Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by schraw and Dennison(1994),CGPA of the students,self-developed objective
type subject test. Descriptive Statistics & statistical tests (Chi
square & Linear Regression) were
applied for data analyses. The results showed that metacognitive awareness had significant effect on
student’s academic achievement (CGPA) in Department of English whereas it was found to be
insignificant in Department of Mathematics. The study recommends an
introductory course on
Educational Psychology, which cater the metacognitive needs of the students. Moreover, research
studies are recommended in the subjects except English and Mathematics. The cultural difference of
the students, teachers, and locality
of the universities might be taken care of future perspective of
Learning is a continuous, rather complicated & cyclic process which plays important role in academic
development of learners (Dweck, 2002). Metacognition is a new emerging concept, which enable the
learner to be smart worker, not hard worker. Flavell in 1976 introduce a term meta-memory, which provided base for the introduction of metacognition in educational psychology(Baltaciand & Akpinar
2011; Kayashima et al., 2004;
Yore & Treagust, 2006). Metacognition is further elaborated
as know how about mental processes for learning & regulation of mental processes (Brown, 1987). It is the
capability through which students implicate cognitive processes in thinking & understanding about
and regulating their cognitive processes for the learning processes (Schraw & Dennison, 1994; Sungur & Senler, 2009). Meta-Cognition can be explained as the
knowledge about selection of appropriate strategies
for solving problems and fruitful learning. It actually gives information about when, how, why to use
any strategy for performing any learning task (Santrock, 2008).
It is generally assumed that students are not using metacognition consciously in their
academic as well as general tasks because metacognition is neither taught nor openly discussed
concept in the educational context in Pakistan. Metacognition enables the learner to be expert of their
own cognitive processes (evaluate, observe, monitor & regulate), which are important for learning. It
simply means that how, why and when they understand a concept as well as don‘t understand a
concept. According to research studies, significant association is found among Metacognition,
intelligence, and academic achievements (
Bağçeciet et al., 2011; Young & Fry, 2008; Dunning et al., 2003; Desoete & Roeyers, 2002; Kruger & Dunning, 1999;
Borkowski, Carr, & Pressely, 1987;
Sternberg, 1986a; Sternberg, 1984
). Meta-cognition is important
process for in
-depth involvement of
students in the learning process (Costa &Kellick, 2009). Highly strategic, Problem solver and good
predictors of own scores are those learners who are highly metacognitive aware (Artzt & Thomas, 1992; Garner & Alexander, 1989; Swanson, 1992). Researchers suggest metacognition as important
component for fruitful learning and high academic achievement
Taebee et al., 1998;
Awarded degrees after
completion and Cumulative
Grade Point Average (CGPA)
are mostly representative of
of individual student. In the current study, the Grade Point
Average (GPA) of individual stud
ents in previously completed semester‘s results were considered
their academic achievements.
The Govt. of Pakistan has focused on higher education and particularly
in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over the last two decades, and to enhance the outcomes of higher education,
29 public sector universities have been instituted in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as per mentioned phases: before year
2000, from 2000 to 2009, & from 2009 to 2018. A total of
nineteen (19) state-owned universities were established In the 3rd phase. Abdul Wali Khan
University Mardan (AWKUM) is the only university in 3rd phase, wh
ich mothered five universities in
Therefore, it is considered that the academic parameters in this university will be more Up to date than
others. Hence, the present study explains understanding of metacognition
among the Students in the chosen subjects of Mathematics and English. Metacognition in these two areas is most effective process for best learning (Benito, 2000; Ceylan, & Harputlu,
2015; Karbalaei, 2011;
Schoenfeld, 2009; Wenden, 1998
) but above cited reports were content limited mostly in the relevant
subjects. Our study co-relates
the general awareness of metacognition versus academic achievements of students & investigates its
effects on student‘s academic achievements, with special focus on Low, Average, and High achievers, in the selected teaching departments in AWKUM.For one, the
following objectives have been developed to answer the effects of Meta-Cognition on students‘
Objectives of the Study
To assess Meta-Cognitive Awareness
level of undergraduate students.
To investigate the effects of
level on students‘ academic
To find association between
level and students‘ gender.
To find association between
level and High, Average and Low
There is relationship between Meta
Cognitive Awareness level and academic achievements of
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of female and male students.
There is difference in Meta
Cognitive Awareness level
of High, Average and Low achievers.
Learning is a merely natural process which take place throughout the life, as an individual expose to
the Various events in his/her life. It is also time dependent process that means more exposure led to more learning. However, it depends on individual capabilities which a person has, that how much
he/she can learn from a single event in life. The knowledge of
metacognition and its appropriate
application could be helpful in minimizing the individual‘s differential learning. The proper utilization
of metacognitive strategies by subject tutors and respective students could lead to noteworthy impact
academic achievements of students. Our data exhibited that the students‘ academic achievements were
in direct relation to their metacognitive awareness. The previous reports were found in accordance to
the outcomes of department of English in our study (Coutinho, 2007,
Dunning et.al., 2003; Kodak& Boyacá
, 2010; Ndidiamaka, 2010; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Sperling et.al., 2002; Taebee et.al.,
1998; Young, Fry, & Jan, 2008). Furthermore, the student‘s data in Department of Mathematics
produced insignificant effect on academic achievements (CGPA) of students who were metacognitively aware. The previous reports (Cubukcu
, 2009; Mousoulides & Philippou, 2005) were in accordance to our findings.
For the purpose of improvement in achieving desired academic goa
ls, we recommend the following
points based on our data analysis and discussing it in light of related literature via Metacognitive
Knowledge and Metacognitive Self-regulation.
Keeping in view the Metacognitive needs of students in both departments,
include an introductory course on Educational.
For improvement of Critical Thinking among the students in both departments, Faculty
members might also be offered with refresher courses.
Teachers may also be trained for enabling the students
on how to undertake self-questioning,
self-Assessment, self-regulation and thinking aloud during learning activities. If faculty in
both departments of AWKUM lack the skill in that, then they might arrange training sessions
for teaching faculty based on th
e recommended strategies of Metacognition Knowledge &
Being the key target for learning, the students need to be evaluated by their tutors according
to the parameters discussed in the present research. The students, failing to comply with
discussed parameters might be provided with appropriate proper
on the respective subject. The students
should be provided by the experts in the
University, if not available at the institution, then sessions migh
t be arranged on the monthly
basis for such students by inviting the experts from other Universities.
Our data exhibited that the students tends to apply metacognitive strategies primarily for learn
by rote instead of conceptual learning and comprehension.
The tutors and counselling experts
must focus on realizing the students that understanding the information is primary to
memorizing, otherwise, it might lead them to be conceptually weak in the subject and unable
for further learning.
Furthermore, the researchers need to evaluate the impact of application of metacognitive
strategies in the various subjects excluding Mathematics & English. Moreover, the cultural
diversity might be considered during future research regimes.
For detail study click on below link: https://doi.org/10.36902/sjesr-vol3-iss4-2020(239-246)
Awareness of Metacognition is one of new emerging and interesting concept in education psychology. It's introduction has a link with Flavel work and latter on giving the name metamemory to his new introduced concept.Its umbrella ⛱️ term covers two major components; Metacognitive knowledge and self-regulation which further have 8 minor components.
Many months have elapsed! And yeah alot of temps (time) has passed that we couldn't see lumiére (light) at the end of tunnel. We couldn't see a ray of espérer (hope). We often have had glimpse bitter memoirs. We couldn't have coup d' oeil (glance) a true and perfect union. I like to be a boring soul. Being boring is bit inquisitive. Because boredom is something which we could feel in high times. If you're a boring person then you might ask comme la craie et le fromage (like chalk and cheese ) queries alternatively. And its been cool and wacky. Sometimes it have been far-reaching but we might behave like contemplative. Asking queries about politique (politics) is normal but it depends on our interest which would require a profundity. Discussing political system of Pakistan would sometimes blow your mind. But being a high-five class citizen we have need of our elementary rights. It consists of روٹی , کپڑا , مکان , تبدیلی , ضروریات وغیرہ.
Being boredom is better. Sometimes we discuss different questions about education system of Pakistan. Personally I love to talk about education. It is something to be loved. It would enhance and would strengthen your mind. Cool. Our education system is not on fleek. But we and our government have to take major steps to improve our education-system. We know that we've political, economic and social challenges and we're facing it very bravely. Cool.
Other News Pakistan
Characteristic of human being.
Every human being has a different nature. When he was in a new community, not a few individuals who have difficulty to adapt because he confronted by the diversity of these properties. But do you know that from dozens of human nature, there are actually only 4 basic character of human beings.
Then if all these characters, and how the characteristics.....?
This is 4 Basic of Human Characteristic, based on a psychology book (Personality Traits) which I read several years ago.
Basic first human character is the sanguinis.
Someone who has high confidence, and easily adapt to other people can be said as a sanguinis. Usually someone who has sanguinis character, likes to gather with other such as have party and make lively situation. The appropriate job for sanguinis is marketing or public relation
After sanguinis, second characteristic is melancholy.
As we know the word melancholy likely associated with the "graceful", then so does the melancholic person. Melancholy is often interpreted as the opposite character sanguinis. Someone who is melancholy tend to prefer solitude and became Sensitive. In this case sensitive is referred is to have a high enough sensitivity to a condition. It is not surprising that a melancholic woman could tear while seeing the movie drama. Whereas in the physical aspect, the oval-faced man could be classified into this category. Furthermore, the appropriate job of melancholy is a doctor or a psychologist.
Third Type of human character, is phlegmatis.
If you always show calmly and peace you could be categorized as individuals who have plegmatis. A plegmatis usually do not like conflict and tend to shy away from conflict. Besides that he also tend to be less expressive. And physically they usually have a round face.
The last characteristic is Koleris,
A leader is usually tend to have the basic character koleris. You remember with Margaret Teacher Not. A woman Prime Minister of Egypt, known for his leadership success. As a prime minister, Mrs. Teacher Margaret could be categorized as a Koleris.
A Koleris is known to have talent as a leader because of firmness in determining that there was something about him. But unfortunately the other side Koleris people have a weakness that is likely to make comment. The most people for this character usually has has a square face / jaw bones strong.
Although fundamentally human character can be divided into 4, but the psychology of the individual may not only consist of 1 character. For further review actually, every individual consists of more than one character. You would never find someone with one character. Usually there are more than 2 character in person. You must also often not heard the word "emotional". People who are emotionally in psychology tend to have 2 basic character of the opposite melancholic and sanguinis.
The person is usually able to easily demonstrate changes something on his faces. He could cry when facing sad condition on the other hand they will give nice laugh in funny situation. In addition, emotional person will looks more aggressive.
Whatever type of character of human nature, either melancholy, sanguinis, plegmatis, or the melancholy. Of course it has its own weaknesses and strengths. Most importantly perhaps it would be better if we can have a mature understanding of it in everyday social intercourse.
Then approximately, what it contained the basic character within each of us...? For a more objective answer would not hurt you to ask your friends or your closest family.
Ghotki people Inspite of having natural as well as Anthropological resources are deprived of basic necessaries.
Is someone alive who rises voice for the people of Ghotki ?
Have the political parties ever tried to lift up their people and to promote them their basic rights ?
Who is responsible to make People of Ghotki deprived of their basic rights ?
Indeed, political parties are responsible for this action. They have always played a drama with the people of Ghotki, because they already know, the illiterated, uncivilised and unconscious people would never arise a voice for their basic rights, that's why, they set up manifestos only during the weeks of General election. However, they do alot of promises during election that they will complete every suitable desire of their people but when they come in power they turn their minds and always try to avoid fact and do not come out to ask people their problems. Seeming from this perspective, they only join politics for their economic interests. When they are given funds for the improvement and progress of their selected areas then they do not think about their citizens. This is all due to, lack of accountability, lack of knowledge, lack of transparency, lack of justice ⚖ , and lack of check and balance. In short people are responsible for their destruction, because inspite of, knowing everything they do same mistake again and vote the same person. People have to make themselves conscious about right and wrong. This is so called democratic state where everyone has to play his own part, when everyone will play well then we will win the game.
Yes I'm as a patriotic citizen alive to arise voice fir the people of Ghotki. I will always support my people. I will always arise voice for their education and all basic needs. It's rightly said that, where is a will their is way. So you all people need to come out and know your rights. You make a slogan for your basic rights. You can win with your sincerity, and unity. First if all keep it in your mind that now you will not do mistake again. Do not vote these people, do not support PPP,, because Pakistan peoples party has done nothing in the favor of their public, despite of their proper rule and government since 1971, people are always remained deprived of basic rights. Now this is time to think, about their children basic education, time to think about basic needs time to bring change, because change 7s the best desir in human mind. Until you do no get a step towards change .. you would never be able to know about your success. Support those people who not only complete your demands but stand with you in your hurdles.
You are only one who can bring change, you know very well why you are missing numerous resources, you can ask question to your politicians, they will never give you right answer because they are lier, and fake. They will never bring back your right lz because they are responsible for that they have sold these resources. They will never want to promote their people towards success and progress because they know very well if they are becoming educated then they will kick us out of politics. Because it's rightly said that , illiteracy and bad governance cannot move together. Education brings great thoughts and guidance in masses.
You know very well if you are deprived of your own resources, like oil, gas, jobs, and basic anthropological resources. Politicians are responsible for that.
Concisely, without public struggle no nation can bring change in the society. Every one has to fight for his right then they win the races. Come out and fight for your rights why you deprived of basic rights. Utilize resources on your own people.
...... writer, Css Aspirant , Kashif Ali