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https://avalanches.com/pk/mardan_former_prime_minster_of_islamic_republic_of_pakistan_tweeted1932734_26_04_2022

Former Prime Minster of Islamic republic of Pakistan Tweeted

Strongly condemn the terrorist attack targeting Chinese teachers of Karachi University. This is yet another attack with a specific agenda of trying to undermine Pak-China strategic r'ship. We must ensure defeat of this foreign-backed agenda of our enemies.

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Interlinking Meta-Cognition with university's students academic achievements in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


Abstract

This study aims at investigating the association between metacognitive awareness and student’s

academic achievements. The study undertakes the objectives and hypotheses on Low, Average and

High achievers in addition to assess the effects of metacognition awareness level on student’s

academic achievement. Through multistage stratified random sampling, data was collected from 160

undergraduate students, studying in Department of Mathematics & Department of English in Abdul

Wali Khan University, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Data was collected through Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) by schraw and Dennison(1994),CGPA of the students,self-developed objective

type subject test. Descriptive Statistics & statistical tests (Chi

square & Linear Regression) were

applied for data analyses. The results showed that metacognitive awareness had significant effect on

student’s academic achievement (CGPA) in Department of English whereas it was found to be

insignificant in Department of Mathematics. The study recommends an

introductory course on

Educational Psychology, which cater the metacognitive needs of the students. Moreover, research

studies are recommended in the subjects except English and Mathematics. The cultural difference of

the students, teachers, and locality

of the universities might be taken care of future perspective of

researchers.

Introduction

Learning is a continuous, rather complicated & cyclic process which plays important role in academic

development of learners (Dweck, 2002). Metacognition is a new emerging concept, which enable the

learner to be smart worker, not hard worker. Flavell in 1976 introduce a term meta-memory, which provided base for the introduction of metacognition in educational psychology(Baltaciand & Akpinar

2011; Kayashima et al., 2004;

Yore & Treagust, 2006). Metacognition is further elaborated

as know how about mental processes for learning & regulation of mental processes (Brown, 1987). It is the

capability through which students implicate cognitive processes in thinking & understanding about

and regulating their cognitive processes for the learning processes (Schraw & Dennison, 1994; Sungur & Senler, 2009). Meta-Cognition can be explained as the

knowledge about selection of appropriate strategies

for solving problems and fruitful learning. It actually gives information about when, how, why to use

any strategy for performing any learning task (Santrock, 2008).

It is generally assumed that students are not using metacognition consciously in their

academic as well as general tasks because metacognition is neither taught nor openly discussed

concept in the educational context in Pakistan. Metacognition enables the learner to be expert of their

own cognitive processes (evaluate, observe, monitor & regulate), which are important for learning. It

simply means that how, why and when they understand a concept as well as don‘t understand a

concept. According to research studies, significant association is found among Metacognition,

intelligence, and academic achievements (

Bağçeciet et al., 2011; Young & Fry, 2008; Dunning et al., 2003; Desoete & Roeyers, 2002; Kruger & Dunning, 1999;

Borkowski, Carr, & Pressely, 1987;

Sternberg, 1986a; Sternberg, 1984

). Meta-cognition is important

process for in

-depth involvement of

students in the learning process (Costa &Kellick, 2009). Highly strategic, Problem solver and good

predictors of own scores are those learners who are highly metacognitive aware (Artzt & Thomas, 1992; Garner & Alexander, 1989; Swanson, 1992). Researchers suggest metacognition as important

component for fruitful learning and high academic achievement

(Coutinho, 2007;

Flavell, 1985;

Taebee et al., 1998;

Zimmerman, 1990).

Awarded degrees after

completion and Cumulative

Grade Point Average (CGPA)

are mostly representative of

academic achievements

of individual student. In the current study, the Grade Point

Average (GPA) of individual stud

ents in previously completed semester‘s results were considered

their academic achievements.

The Govt. of Pakistan has focused on higher education and particularly

in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa over the last two decades, and to enhance the outcomes of higher education,

29 public sector universities have been instituted in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as per mentioned phases: before year

2000, from 2000 to 2009, & from 2009 to 2018. A total of

nineteen (19) state-owned universities were established In the 3rd phase. Abdul Wali Khan

University Mardan (AWKUM) is the only university in 3rd phase, wh

ich mothered five universities in

the province.

Therefore, it is considered that the academic parameters in this university will be more Up to date than

others. Hence, the present study explains understanding of metacognition

among the Students in the chosen subjects of Mathematics and English. Metacognition in these two areas is most effective process for best learning (Benito, 2000; Ceylan, & Harputlu,

2015; Karbalaei, 2011;

Schoenfeld, 2009; Wenden, 1998

) but above cited reports were content limited mostly in the relevant

subjects. Our study co-relates

the general awareness of metacognition versus academic achievements of students & investigates its

effects on student‘s academic achievements, with special focus on Low, Average, and High achievers, in the selected teaching departments in AWKUM.For one, the

following objectives have been developed to answer the effects of Meta-Cognition on students‘

academic achievement:

Objectives of the Study

To assess Meta-Cognitive Awareness

level of undergraduate students.

To investigate the effects of

Meta-Cognitive Awareness

level on students‘ academic

achievement.

To find association between

Meta-Cognitive Awareness

level and students‘ gender.

To find association between

Meta-Cognitive Awareness

level and High, Average and Low

achievers.

Hypotheses

There is relationship between Meta

-

Cognitive Awareness level and academic achievements of

stud

ents.

There is difference in Meta

-

Cognitive Awareness level

of female and male students.

There is difference in Meta

-

Cognitive Awareness level

of High, Average and Low achievers.

Discussion

Learning is a merely natural process which take place throughout the life, as an individual expose to

the Various events in his/her life. It is also time dependent process that means more exposure led to more learning. However, it depends on individual capabilities which a person has, that how much

he/she can learn from a single event in life. The knowledge of

metacognition and its appropriate

application could be helpful in minimizing the individual‘s differential learning. The proper utilization

of metacognitive strategies by subject tutors and respective students could lead to noteworthy impact

academic achievements of students. Our data exhibited that the students‘ academic achievements were

in direct relation to their metacognitive awareness. The previous reports were found in accordance to

the outcomes of department of English in our study (Coutinho, 2007,

Dunning et.al., 2003; Kodak& Boyacá

, 2010; Ndidiamaka, 2010; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990; Sperling et.al., 2002; Taebee et.al.,

1998; Young, Fry, & Jan, 2008). Furthermore, the student‘s data in Department of Mathematics

produced insignificant effect on academic achievements (CGPA) of students who were metacognitively aware. The previous reports (Cubukcu

, 2009; Mousoulides & Philippou, 2005) were in accordance to our findings.

Recommendations

For the purpose of improvement in achieving desired academic goa

ls, we recommend the following

points based on our data analysis and discussing it in light of related literature via Metacognitive

Knowledge and Metacognitive Self-regulation.

1.

Keeping in view the Metacognitive needs of students in both departments,

curriculum may

include an introductory course on Educational.

2.

For improvement of Critical Thinking among the students in both departments, Faculty

members might also be offered with refresher courses.

3.

Teachers may also be trained for enabling the students

on how to undertake self-questioning,

self-Assessment, self-regulation and thinking aloud during learning activities. If faculty in

both departments of AWKUM lack the skill in that, then they might arrange training sessions

for teaching faculty based on th

e recommended strategies of Metacognition Knowledge &

Self-regulation.

4.

Being the key target for learning, the students need to be evaluated by their tutors according

to the parameters discussed in the present research. The students, failing to comply with

the

discussed parameters might be provided with appropriate proper

counselling

and/or guidance

on the respective subject. The students

counselling

should be provided by the experts in the

University, if not available at the institution, then sessions migh

t be arranged on the monthly

basis for such students by inviting the experts from other Universities.

5.

Our data exhibited that the students tends to apply metacognitive strategies primarily for learn

by rote instead of conceptual learning and comprehension.

The tutors and counselling experts

must focus on realizing the students that understanding the information is primary to

memorizing, otherwise, it might lead them to be conceptually weak in the subject and unable

for further learning.

6.

Furthermore, the researchers need to evaluate the impact of application of metacognitive

strategies in the various subjects excluding Mathematics & English. Moreover, the cultural

diversity might be considered during future research regimes.

For detail study click on below link: https://doi.org/10.36902/sjesr-vol3-iss4-2020(239-246)

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