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Nepotism is defined as the practice among those with power or influence of favouring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs. It is actually the unfair use of power for their families only. It can also be defined as hiring or encouraging a relative or friend, even if there are other certified candidates for the position. Nepotism in the workplace is not uncommon, since this is a practice that does not have any universal law attached to it. However, in recent times, states have passed laws to lower this practice, since it has many social issues involved in it. These practices can have spoiling effects on businesses—such as the support of non-favored employees or lowering the value and innovation of management. Nepotism is both seen in the private and public sector. However, based on research, it is actually more extensive in the public sector.
Nepotism is apparent in family owned businesses for the manifest reasons. Families would want to pass the business from generation to generation and this means that the profit and all gains will stay within the family and will be come into by family members. And other qualified people are not given opportunity to participate.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NEPOTISM:
However nepotism has many advantages as well as may disadvantages, some these are discussed in below.
If practiced fairly (itself a disputable term in this regard), nepotism can be a true benefit, Sharon Nelton suggests, citing the example of Thomas Publishing Company. In 1998 there were seven third- and fourth-generation family members working for the company. The third-generation president, Tom Knudson, inspire nepotism among their independent sales contractors because he believed it resulted in high performance, stability, and long-term commitment.
Chad Kaydo also writes that nepotism may be applicable. For example, a top salesperson's relative may have many of the same qualities that make the representative successful. Enlisting family members can therefore boost both performance as well as detention.
However, nepotism is considered as a disaster. Lines Brothers in Britain, once a highly successful maker of Triang toys, was extend worthless in just a few years by its second generation of leadership. Yale Express, a U.S. delivery company, was bankrupt within five years of the second generation presuming the presidency.
Nepotism can contribute to lots of disadvantages to an organization such as unfairness to other employees, lower employees’ morale and pressure to the relatives themselves.
First and foremost, the disadvantage of nepotism is unfairness to other employees. The feeling arises because employer shows favoritism only to the relative’s workers. There is possibility that non-family employees will feel disappointed and prejudice when they are treated like that.
EFFECT OF NEPOTISM:
When nepotism give negative effects on a company, the morale of the employees decreases, and their self-confidence also decreases no matter how productive the company is but it result in lowering of a person self-esteem.
Employees may feel unrewarded, and as a result, they may lose motivation to do day-to-day tasks and they start to question their abilities. Companies should avoid playing favorites when it comes to work and productivity. This is unfairness to other people which affects the team as a whole, leading to declined performance. People should be treated equally at work. They should focus on creating a professional environment where everyone has equal chances of success.
Types of Nepotism:
Credentials nepotism: This form of nepotism is sometimes obscure but could be very dangerous to both an individual and an organization. In this situation people are given more credit for attending a class and passing but cannot apply what they have learnt. In short credential nepotism means giving someone more credit because they are certified.
Referral nepotism: Referral is an employment which is said to be natural. In this case, management asks high performers within the organization to recommend someone for a job opening that needs to be filled. Management hiring someone who turns out to be a poor performer but is tied to a high performer through friendship could lead to chaos in that trying to conclude that poor performer without upsetting the high performer is almost inevitable.
Contribution nepotism: This is a situation where persons within an organization receive preferential treatment because of a one-time contribution that made the organization more successful even though their succeeding performance has been poor or unsatisfactory.
Connection nepotism: is a connection which comes about by virtue of a shared experience such as attending the same school, attend the same church, from the same community, are members of the same sports club or were in the same profession. Connection nepotism is inclined to turn a blind eye to low employee performance and poor job fit.
An effective anti-nepotism policy can actually help the employers to avoid the approach of favoritism. Additionally, make sure all hiring, promotion, compensation, and other employment decisions are based on objective factors, including an individual's qualifications, ability, and performance.
EDUCATION PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN
Education is the basic need for every human present in this earth, it is an important tool which is very useful in everybody’s life. It is the only source which makes a man the smartest creature on earth. It empowers human and gets them ready to face challenges of life more efficiently. As we know that it is our religious obligation to get education. It is very important religious obligation you can assume its importance from one of the verse of Quran which is;
“Are those who have knowledge equal to those who do not have knowledge?”(39:9)
Educational awareness needs to be spread throughout the country to make education accessible because no one will survive in future without getting education. But, this remains incomplete without knowing the importance of education. Education is the only key which eliminate poverty and employments. Moreover, it gives overall benefit to the country. So, the higher the level of education in a country, the better the chance of development
Education system of Pakistan is going through a very critical phase with many multiphase problems. All these problems are directly or indirectly comes from a week and undefined education system. According to human developing report, 2019 Pakistan ranked 152th out of 189th in UNESCO’s for all education development index. As per research, in 2018 Pakistan literacy rate was seventy(70) percent and in the rural areas it is even below than fifty(50) percent. Pakistan has also the world’s second highest out-of-school population of children with an estimated of 22.8 million children aged 5-16 not attending school. There are much more issues in our education system which can endangered our democracy. There is a need to improve our education system this will not only give strength to democracy but also ensure social security.
Following are some problems related to education are as below;
LACK OF FUNDING
There is a huge list of issues and problems in in our education system .The most significant is the lack of funding. For example our government has reduced the budget for education by nearly fifty (50) percent. This lack of funding effects the quality and impact of teaching. As we know that there are high rate of unemployment in Pakistan so it is very difficult for parents to provide quality education to their children. As per research the crisis of funding was best captured by an American politician “Bernie Sanders” who said, “In giving up their dreams of going to college, while many others are graduating in depth.” The same situation are happening in Pakistan as well, our young generation whose dream is to become an educated person and to work for their country, unfortunately they are seen mostly working as a labor in hotels, selling fruit in the street, picking trash from dustbin and also begging to fulfill their needs. As many of the NGOs working for the welfare of the children to give them proper education as these children are the only hope of our nation.
LACK OF PROPER PLANNING
Another major issue is lack of proper planning. Our government has not clear vision about the provision of education as well as no plans to achieve their desire goals. Beside that people are less aware about the importance of education and they consider as the waste of time and money. Mostly people don’t send their children especially their daughter to school due to gender discrimination. This needs to be stop because women are also an important part of our society. They have also rights to get education properly. As we know that we are also going through Poverty so it is very difficult for the labor class to provide quality education to their children as well as to provide good environment in which a student can study properly. Government must have to focus and needs to work on economic gape between poor and rich.
LACK OF QUALITY TEACHERS
As we know that, teachers are the backbone of education system. The quality of teachers in Pakistan is quite deplorable. According to UNESCO report, the quality of teachers and instruction in schools is of low quality. This situation is mostly found in the remote areas of Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan where even there are not any teachers available within the schools. Research has found that teachers don’t use new methods and method of teaching and learning. Another significant factor plaguing the education sector is radicalizations, which encourages lack of poor quality of teaching and the unviability of jobs for the students which are studding in universities. Every year thousands of students are graduated from all over Pakistan and the first thing is they do is to search for good jobs as we know that there is high rate of unemployment in Pakistan they don’t even get a job and this result in depression in the country.
LACK OF INSTITUTES
The education systems is not easily for Pakistan it facings many difficulties to maintain this system. The main role to maintain the education system is teacher which plays their role with honesty and integrity but in the goings day’s education is going difficult for the students and teacher did not understand how to deal with the student or help them. Training is essential for quality performance. Teaching is a challenging job. There is a lack of training opportunities for teachers in Pakistan. Although there are various teacher training institutes in the country. These institutes are not well resource and being poor due to the lack of fund. There are no proper training standers are available in the training institutes around the country. Most of the training institutes have been closed down due to lack of funds. The courses being run in the teacher’s educational institutes are outdated and very traditional which does not enhance the skills, motivation and quality of teachers so, government needs to focus on teachers training and learning institutes which help them to deal with the student and discover their talents which is essential in modern day education system.
SYSTEM OF EXAMINATION
Examination is the evaluation of student’s learning. It should be based on quality techniques to enhance the performance of students, but the examination system of Pakistan is not only outdated but it also does not have the quality to enhance the performance of learners comprehensively. The examination system of Pakistan tests only the memory of the students. It doesn't evaluate them altogether aspects of learning. Government should also need to focus on that.
It concludes that, there is always a solution to get rid of all the problems so we have to take steps to remove our problems regarding education. First of all government should organize teams, conducting programs on TV during which they need to inform their nation about the importance of education. This needs to be done in the rural areas so that people should send their children to schools. Also government should give subsidy on the education departments so that people easily afford the expenses of education. Government should make sound policies on education and also on the budget in order to provide education to people more easily. By increasing within the educational budget we will make more schools, colleges and also chemical laboratories to boost our research work also
Regular preventive general wellbeing measures. Measures, for example, these have contributed significantly to the soundness of populaces and expansions in future. General wellbeing assumes a significant part in illness anticipation endeavors in both the creating scene and in created nations through neighborhood wellbeing frameworks and non-legislative associations. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the worldwide office that facilitates general Health , has been characterized as "the science and craft of forestalling infection", drawing out life and improving personal satisfaction through coordinated endeavors and educated decisions regarding society, associations (public and private), networks and people. Breaking down the determinants of soundness of a populace and the dangers it faces is the reason for public health. general society can be as little as a small bunch of individuals or as extensive as a town or a whole city; on account of a pandemic it might include a few mainlands. The idea of wellbeing considers physical, mental, and social prosperity. Thusly, as per the World Health Organization, it isn't only the nonappearance of illness or sickness and all the more as of late, an asset for regular living. General wellbeing is an interdisciplinary field. For instance, the study of disease transmission, biostatistics, sociologies and the board of wellbeing administrations are largely important. Other significant sub-fields incorporate ecological wellbeing, local area wellbeing, conduct wellbeing, wellbeing financial aspects, public arrangement, emotional wellness, wellbeing training, wellbeing governmental issues, word related security, handicap, sex issues in wellbeing, and sexual and regenerative wellbeing.
Local area wellbeing laborers
The focal point of a general wellbeing intercession is to forestall and relieve sicknesses, wounds and other ailments through observation of cases and the advancement of sound practices, networks and conditions. Numerous sicknesses are preventable through basic, nonmedical strategies. For instance, research has indicated that the straightforward demonstration of handwashing with cleanser can forestall the spread of numerous infectious illnesses. In different cases, treating an infection or controlling a microbe can be imperative to forestalling its spread to other people, either during a flare-up of irresistible illness or through pollution of food or water supplies. General wellbeing interchanges programs, immunization projects and dissemination of condoms are instances of and follows up on worldwide general medical problems. Most nations have their own legislative general wellbeing organization, regularly called the service of wellbeing, with obligation regarding homegrown medical problems.
In the United States, state and neighborhood wellbeing divisions are on the bleeding edge of general wellbeing activities. Notwithstanding their public obligations, the United States Public Health Service (PHS), drove by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, settled in Atlanta, are additionally associated with global wellbeing exercises. Most governments perceive the significance of general wellbeing programs in lessening the occurrence of sickness, inability, and the impacts of maturing and other physical and psychological wellness conditions. Be that as it may, general wellbeing by and large gets essentially less government financing contrasted and medication. Despite the fact that the joint effort of nearby wellbeing and government offices is viewed as best practice to improve general wellbeing, the bits of proof accessible to help this is restricted. General wellbeing programs giving inoculations have gained ground in advancing wellbeing, including the annihilation of smallpox, a sickness that tormented mankind for millennia. Three previous heads of the Global Smallpox Eradication Program perusing the news that smallpox had been worldwide destroyed, 1980
The World Health Organization (WHO) distinguishes center elements of general wellbeing programs including:
• providing initiative on issues basic to wellbeing and participating in organizations where joint activity is required;
• shaping an examination plan and animating the age, interpretation and dispersal of important information;
• setting standards and principles and advancing and checking their usage; Specifically, general wellbeing reconnaissance projects can:
• serve as an early notice framework for approaching general wellbeing crises;
report the effect of a mediation, or attempt The historical backdrop of general medical services shows the worldwide exertion to improve medical services for all.However, in current medication, genuine, quantifiable change has not been plainly seen, and pundits contend that this absence of progress is because of incapable techniques that are being executed. As contended by Paul E. Rancher, underlying mediations might actually have a huge effect, but then there are various issues regarding why this procedure presently can't seem to be joined into the wellbeing framework. One of the principle reasons that he proposes could be the way that doctors are not appropriately prepared to do underlying intercessions, implying that the ground level medical care experts can't execute these upgrades. While primary intercessions can not be the solitary zone for development, the absence of coordination between financial elements and medical care for poor people could be counterproductive, and wind up causing more prominent disparity between the medical services administrations got by the rich and by poor people. Except if medical services is not, at this point treated as a ware, worldwide general wellbeing will at last not be achieved.This being the situation, without changing the manner by which medical services is conveyed to the individuals who have less admittance to it, the all inclusive objective of general medical services can't be accomplished
Another motivation behind why quantifiable changes may not be seen in general wellbeing is on the grounds that organizations themselves may not gauge their projects' adequacy. Perrault et al.analyzed more than 4,000 distributed destinations from Community Health Improvement Plans (CHIPs) of 280 nearby authorize and non-certify general wellbeing offices in the U.S., and found that most of targets – around 66% – were centered around accomplishing organization yields (e.g., creating correspondence plans, introducing walkways, scattering information to the local area). Applications in medical services Just as looking to improve populace wellbeing through the execution of explicit populace level mediations, general wellbeing adds to clinical consideration by distinguishing and surveying populace needs for medical care administrations, including :
• Assessing current administrations and assessing whether they are meeting the goals of the medical services framework
• Ascertaining necessities as communicated by wellbeing experts, the general population and different partners
• Identifying the most suitable mediations
• Considering the impact on assets for proposed intercessions and evaluating their cost-viability.
Executing compelling improvement systems
To improve general wellbeing, one significant system is to advance present day medication and logical nonpartisanship to drive the general wellbeing strategy and mission, which is suggested by Armanda Solórzano, through a contextual investigation of the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm crusade in Mexico during the 1920s. Soloranza contends that general wellbeing strategy can't concern just governmental issues or financial matters. Political concerns can lead government authorities to shroud the genuine quantities of individuals influenced by infection in their districts, for example, impending decisions. Thusly, logical impartiality in unveiling wellbeing strategy is basic; it can guarantee treatment needs are met paying little mind to political and monetary conditions. Another motivation behind why quantifiable changes may not be seen in general wellbeing is on the grounds that offices themselves may not gauge their projects' viability. Perrault et al.analyzed more than 4,000 distributed targets from Community Health Improvement Plans (CHIPs) of 280 neighborhood licensed and non-authorize general wellbeing organizations in the U.S., and found that most of goals – around 66% – were centered around accomplishing office yields (e.g., creating correspondence plans, introducing walkways, spreading information to the local area). Roughly 33% zeroed in on looking for quantifiable changes in the populaces they serve (i.e., changing individuals' information, mentalities, practices). What this exploration exhibits is that if offices are just centered around achieving assignments (i.e., yields) and don't have an emphasis on estimating real changes in their populaces with the exercises they perform, it ought not be astounding when quantifiable changes are not revealed. Perrault et al.advocate for general wellbeing offices to work with those in the control of Health Communication to make goals that are quantifiable results, and to help organizations in creating instruments and techniques to have the option to follow more proximal changes in their objective populaces (e.g., information and demeanor moves) that might be affected by the exercises the offices are performing.
General Health 2.0
Government assistance, Public Health and Family Policy Area of the Flemish Government 2018
General Health 2.0 is a development inside general wellbeing that expects to make the field more available to the overall population and more client driven. The term is utilized in three detects. In the primary sense, "General Health 2.0" is like "Wellbeing 2.0" and depicts the manners by which customary general wellbeing specialists and foundations are connecting (or could contact) general society through web-based media and wellbeing sites.
In the subsequent sense, "General Health 2.0" portrays general wellbeing research that utilizes information assembled from interpersonal interaction destinations, internet searcher questions, mobile phones, or different advancements. A new model is the proposition of measurable structure that uses online client created content (from web-based media or internet searcher inquiries) to gauge the effect of a flu immunization crusade in the UK. In the third sense,
"General Health 2.0"
is utilized to portray general wellbeing exercises that are totally client driven. A model is the assortment and sharing of data about natural radiation levels after the March 2011 tidal wave in Japan. In all cases, Public Health 2.0 draws on thoughts from Web 2.0, for example, publicly supporting, data sharing, and client focused plan. While numerous person medical care suppliers have begun making their very own commitments to "General Health 2.0" through close to home sites, social profiles, and sites, other bigger associations, for example, the American Heart Association (AHA) and United Medical Education (UME), have a bigger group of representatives revolved around online driven wellbeing schooling, examination, and preparing. These private associations perceive the requirement for nothing and simple to get to wellbeing materials frequently assembling libraries of instructive articles.
Wellbeing help in agricultural nations :
Wellbeing help to agricultural nations is a significant wellspring of general wellbeing subsidizing for some non-industrial nations. Wellbeing help to agricultural nations has demonstrated a critical increment after World War II as worries over the spread of infection because of globalization expanded and the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa surfaced. From 1990 to 2010, all out wellbeing help from created nations expanded from 5.5 billion to 26.87 billion with affluent nations persistently giving billions of dollars consistently with the objective of improving populace wellbeing. A few endeavors, be that as it may, get a fundamentally bigger extent of assets, for example, HIV which got an increment in assets of over $6 billion somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2010 which was more than twice the expansion found in some other area during those years.Health help has seen an extension through numerous channels including private altruism, non-legislative associations, private establishments, for example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, reciprocal contributors, and multilateral givers, for example, the World Bank or UNICEF. The outcome has been a sharp ascent in ungraceful and divided subsidizing of a steadily expanding number of activities and undertakings. To advance better essential collaboration and coordination between accomplices, especially among respective improvement offices and subsidizing associations, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) led the foundation of ESSENCE, an activity to encourage exchange between benefactors/funders, permitting them to distinguish cooperative energies. Pith unites a wide scope of subsidizing offices to organize financing endeavors.
The COVID-19 pandemic has featured how worldwide wellbeing security is dependent on all nations around the globe, including low-and center pay nations, having solid wellbeing frameworks and at any rate at least wellbeing research limits. In an article 2020 in Annals of Global Health, the ESSENCE bunch plot an instrument for audit of interest in wellbeing research limit working in low-and center pay nations. The survey instrument will give funders of exploration for wellbeing the data to distinguish the holes in limit that exist in low-and center pay nations and the chance to cooperate to address those incongruities. The general objective is expanded, facilitated backing of exploration on public wellbeing needs just as improved pandemic readiness in LMICs, and, in the long run, less nations with restricted wellbeing research limit..
Global wellbeing help discusses
Discussions exist scrutinizing the viability of global wellbeing help. Allies of help guarantee that wellbeing help from rich nations is essential all together for agricultural nations to get away from the destitution trap. Rivals of wellbeing help guarantee that global
Other world news
Interim report finds race bias in medical aid scheme fraud investigations - IOL
An investigation into allegations that non-white healthcare professionals were unfairly treated by medical aid schemes has found that found that black providers are discriminated against on the grounds of race.
By Zelda Venter10h ago Pretoria - The council for Medical Schemes' investigation into allegations of racial profiling against black and Indian private medical practitioners found that black providers are unfairly discriminated against on the grounds of race. This is according to a preliminary report issued Tuesday by a panel headed by Advocate Tembeka Ngcukaitobi, who chaired the investigation. The panel found that some of the current procedures followed by schemes to enforce their rights in terms of the law are unfair. These findings are both serious and far-reaching. But we believe that it is important to stress that we have not found evidence of deliberate unfair treatment. The evidence shows the unfair discrimination is in the outcomes (of claims). The investigation - known as the Section 59 Investigation Panel - followed allegations by members of the National Health Care Professionals Association that they were being unfairly treated and their claims were withheld by medical schemes because of the colour of their skin and their ethnicity. Advocate Ngcukaitobi along with advocates Adila Hassim and Kerry Williams probed these allegations over several months which resulted in their interim report. The issuing of the preliminary report was meanwhile challenged by the Government Employees Medical Scheme (Gems) which rushed to the Gauteng High Court, Pretoria, over the weekend to stop the report from being released and made public. Gems argued that they should first be given the opportunity to comment on it, before scathing allegations against them and other schemes are made public. The issuing of the interim report has been postponed on two previous occasions, but the panel said it was ready to divulge its preliminary report on Sunday. Gems, however, rushed to the urgent court two hours before the report was due to be made public. Judge Colleen Collis delivered her judgment on Tuesday in which she struck the matter from the roll due to a lack of urgency. The judge said Gems had created the urgency, as the report was due to be released on December 16. The panel since then postponed the release date twice but indicated that it would be released on ( this past) Sunday. The judge questioned by Gems did not in December already turn to the court, but now opted to run to court two hours before the due release time on Sunday to try and block the release. Gems, one of the biggest medical aid schemes in the country, said in its court application that it was told that the interim report contained findings that black healthcare providers are unfairly discriminated against on grounds of race. They said that they should first be able to see the report and comment on it, as these allegations would seriously impact on their good name and reputation. Judge Collis, however, did not comment on these submissions in her judgment, as she simply removed the matter from the roll due to the urgency technicality. The report was meanwhile released less than an hour following her ruling. It was, among others, found that between 2012 and 2019 Discovery, Medscheme and Gems were more likely to find that black practitioners have committed fraud, waste and abuse of the system than their white counterparts. The investigation further found that Discovery was 35% more inclined to identify black healthcare providers guilty of abusing the system, while Gems was 80% more likely and Medscheme 330% more likely. This means that there was unfair racial discrimination, the panel concluded. The panel said it had no power to find anyone guilty. Nor were we appointed to investigate the veracity of each claim of unfair treatment and unfair discrimination. But we would be failing in our duty, if we ignored the degrading, humiliating and distressing impact of racism against the individuals who testified before us. The panel concluded that their findings will hopefully provide a basis for the necessary reconstructive work which must be undertaken by the role-players in the medical schemes industry. [email protected] Pretoria News
Cyberpunk 2077: Second Lawsuit Filed Against CD Projekt - IGN Africa
Investors are unhappy.
A second class-action lawsuit has been filed against Cyberpunk 2077 developer and publisher, CD Projekt, submitted by a law firm representing the studios investors. CD Projekt itself states in a regulatory announcement that it has received the lawsuit, which has been filed in the US District Court for the Central District of California on behalf of investors. The content of the claim is said to be the same as the one filed against the studio at the end of last year. That first lawsuit claims that investors were misled about the performance of Cyberpunk 2077 on Xbox One and PlayStation 4 consoles. The announcement states that the complaint has not specified the quantity of damages sought, so its currently unknown how much the investors would like to claim. Regardless of what those eventual damages may amount to, CDP intends to undertake vigorous action to defend itself against any such claims. This is, once again, the same response the company had to the previous lawsuit submitted by New York-based Rosen Law Firm. Cyberpunk 2077s launch has not been a smooth one, but the implications of its poor performance reach far beyond some unsatisfied players. The huge anticipation for the game generated significant expectations from investors, and so the fallout - involving Cyberpunks removal from the PlayStation Store - is of large concern. Furthermore, CD Projekts approach to player refund is under investigation from Polands consumer protection agency. The agency has the power to fine CDP up to 10% of its income should it deem their refund practice unsatisfactory. Despite all this, Cyberpunk 2077 has been a commercial success for CD Projekt, with 13 million copies sold, even accounting for refunds. Matt Purslow is IGN's UK News and Entertainment Writer.
Covid-19 vaccine: Health officials get process underway to appoint distributors - News24
National Treasury has granted the Department of Health permission to directly appoint the Biovac Institute to store and distribute the 1.5 million Covid-19 vaccines that it is in the process of acquiring from India.
National Treasury has granted the Department of Health permission to directly appoint the Biovac Institute to store and distribute the 1.5 million Covid-19 vaccines that it is in the process of acquiring from India. A letter written by the Treasury's director-general Dondo Mogajane to Corruption Watch on Monday, showed that officials granted the Department of Health permission to deviate from normal tender procedures and directly appoint the Biovac Institute to store and distribute the vaccine for three months.