World news of the Pakistan
Latest news Phagwāra - here are the news of nearby cities
This is a agricultural manner in which the plant tissues are connected so as to continue their rise collectively. The upward part of the joined plant is known as scion and on the other hand downward part is known as root stock. The progression of this combination demands that the vascular tissues should grow collectively and this type of joining is known as inosculation. This method is extensively used in asexual propagation of plants grown on large scale for horticultural and agricultural dealings. In almost all cases a plant is selected for roots called stock or root stock. And then for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits another plant is selected known as scion. The scion plant possesses desired genes to be cloned in future yielding by means of stock-scion plant. The vascular cambium of stock and scion should be set in association with each other for fruitful grafting. Studies have shown that attachment of phloem sets up after 3 days and in case of xylem it established after 7 days of pioneer grafting. Grafting joints are not much stronger than the natural ones because only the new formed tissues will fuse with each other not the older ones.
FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL GRAFTING
- Compatibility for stock and scion:
As grafting happen when the vascular tissues of stock and scion connects. The plants like monocots can’t be grafted because they are deficient in vascular bundles. It is a common perceptive that more the two plants resemble with each other genetically the more the grafting will be successful. The chance of success for grafting of plants from same species is greater than the plants from different species. Sometimes the plants of same genus also show successful grafting.
- Cambium alignment and pressure:
For successful grafting you should apply firm pressure on the joint where vascular cambium of stock and scion connects so that the tissue connects with each other quickly and the orientation of the joint should be in the line of normal growth. This will enhance the swift movement of water and nutrients from root stock to scion.
- Completed during appropriate stage of plant:
The time when stock and scion of plant are able to yield callus the grafting will be completed. Temperature also effects grafting and high temperature can cease callus formation.
- Proper care of graft site:
When the grafting is done it is necessary to take good care of plant till the plant restores its health. You can use different grafting tapes and waxes to save plant from excessive water loss at the joint of stock and scion. If the plant structure is weak you should provide support to the plant by twine or string.
- Cutting tools:
You have to make sure that the cutting tools are pointed and sharp so that they will give less damage to the tissues of plant; to prevent the transmission of disease it is necessary to keep the tools clean. Cutting knife for usual grafting should have blade of 3 inches and handle of 4 inches. The knives used especially for grafting are bud-grafting knives, surgical knives, and pruning knives. If the size of stock is too large cleavers, chisels, and saws can be used to cut.
- Disinfecting tools:
Using tools treated with disinfectants will make sure that the grafting place is free from pathogens. Absolute alcohol is a standard sterilizing agent.
- Graft seals:
These seals make the grafting spot hydrated. These should be tight enough to stop excessive water loss and loose enough to assist plant growth. Specialized types of clay, wax, petroleum jelly and adhesive tapes are used as graft seals.
- Tying and support materials:
If the structure of plant is weak then it is necessary to provide support to the plant to keep scion and stock in the place. Strips, twine, nails and splints are the support materials for grafting.
- Grafting machines:
Grafting machines are available to reduce the time consumed because doing it by hand consumes a lot of time and skill. There are machines which have ability to graft 800 seedlings per hour.
This method is utilized to connect plants together that are tough to graft. In this method plants are grown near to each other and both have root stocks and then joined and grow collectively from that point of joining. Each scion and stock has its own parents. This grafting will complete at any time of year.
Bud grafting is also known as chip budding in which a bud is used in place of twig. The most usual example of budding is rose grafting. First cut off the shoot of the stock plant then a bud is taken from the host plant; the ground surface of bud is placed under the bark of the stem of stock plant. On stock plant any bud except grafted bud which starts emerging is cut off.
In this method first of all give a small cut in the stock with the help of a sharp knife and then put sharp end of scion into the stock. The best season for this type of grafting is early spring. This method is best for scion of 1cm on a stock of large diameter. First give a clean from to the downward on the stock or branch to make a cleft of 3cm. The scion should have long deep edge. Now put the scion into the cleft and push it down to the end. Now tape the scion from the upper end of the stock to keep the scion in spot and now overspread grafting wax. It helps to prevent excessive water loss.
In whip grafting a slanting cut is given to the stock and scion and then connected. Then the grafted end is sealed with a soft sealant to reduce water loss and attack of germs. The most usual variation is a whip and a tongue and graft it is a tough variation but the chances of success is very high as the cambium connection between scion and stock is very good. This grafting method is used in fruit trees grown on large scale. This method is commonly utilized with stock of diameter 1cm and the diameter of scion should be nearly equal to stock.
In this method less stock is required as compared to cleft grafting and it will possess shape of a tree. Commonly 6-8 buds of scion are used in this technique. A cut is given on the branch of length 1cm and then the scion is inserted into the branch. Scion must have an angle of 35 degree to the stock. And then it should be covered with grafting materials.
It is also known as banana graft and is usually utilized for pecans. It is declared for most cambium covering but this technique is tough. In this the diameters of the stock and scion should be of same size. Skin of the stock is striped into four flaps and the hardwood is eliminated this will look like a striped banana. This technique is very tough to learn.
Awl grafting consumes minimum time and resources as compared to other grafting techniques. This method is discovered accidently by an experienced grafter. In this method grafting is done by utilizing a screwdriver to give a cut in the bark not to cut the cambium layer. Then the scion is inserted into the stock.
Veneer grafting is also known as inlay grafting, this technique is utilized for stock having diameter greater than 3cm and the thickness of scion should be as pencil. A cleavage is made on the stock to same size of scion then it is inserted into the cleft and covered with tape.
In this method a small sized scion is grafted on a thick stock. On the thick stock 4cm parallel deep cut is given to the stock and then the bark is removed from the wood. The scion is of wedge shape, cambium showing off on both side is inserted into the backside of stock, with flat face towards the wood.
CULTIVATED PLANTS PROPAGTED BY GRAFTING:
• Apple – grafting
• Avocado – grafting
• Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, Tangerine, dayap) – grafting
• Grapes – stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering
• Mango – ¬grafting
• Nut crops (walnut, pecan) – grafting
• Peach – grafting
• Pear – grafting
• Rubber Plant - bud grafting
Naeem ul Hassan & Dr. Muhammad yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
In the neighborhood of Islamabad, guy cut off his wife's nose together with his brother and cousin after she refused to make him tea.
Police said the incident took place in Saddar village in the district of Mian Chunnu, 97/15 L. The victim, Parveen Bibi, told police that her father, Dameera, and his friend, Ameera, and cousin Mushtaq, brutally tortured her, causing her feet, legs, and other parts of the body to be injured.
"I work as a domestic helper in people's homes to feed my kids because my husband is not helping me. In the past, I was subjected to domestic violence, but this time, since I refused to make tea for him and his friend, he brutally beat me."
According to a recent survey, in Pakistan, 70% to 90% of women face domestic violence issues. Mentally, physically, and even murdered, they are tortured.
Although Pakistan's women's rights laws exist, they are seldom implemented. Therefore, with each passing day, the number of such incidents increases.
Budget of Federal and Provincial Government 2020-21
- Size of Budget
- IMF Policy
- Comparison of Educational Budget (2k19-2k20)
The total outlay of budget 2k20-21 is Rs.7, 294.9 billion. This size is 11
percent lower than the size of budget estimates 2k19-20.
The provincial share in federal taxes is estimated at Rs.2, 873.7 billion
during. 2k20-21, which is 11.7 percent lower than the budget estimates
Without deep structural reform, which includes reducing the size of
government and curtailing the expenses on the overbearing and overfed holy cow the military of Pakistan 'll not be able to get its finances under
- "Pakistan's economy is an unrealistic estimate"
For some years now, Pakistan’s economy has been in the throes of a slow meltdown. Like the previous two budgets, the third budget presented by
the. (PTI Government) on 12 June was supposed to be make or break, & quite like the preceding budgets, the current budget too ‘ll neither completely break nor make Pakistan, instead, Pakistan’s economy 'll remain in what is best described as suspended animation, with no clear direction, & tottering from one financial crisis to another, constantly in search of one bailout after another....
Many Pakistani analysts have pointed out that this budget has been made
with an eye on the IMF and not so much to kickstart the economy in
Pakistan. Pakistan desperately needs to remain in the Enhanced Fund
Facility (EFF) programme of the IMF, without which it’ll lose the support of
other multilateral financial institutions like World_Bank this propaganda
needs to be exposed.
(Education) As education is a provincial matter so federal budget has a
lesser chunk for it. Meanwhile last year budget allocations for education
Punjab: 383 Bn
Sindh: 239 Bn
KPK: 143 Bn
BA: 60 Bn
HEC: 45 Bn
Federal: 77 Bn
Total: 947 Bn
Defense: 1152 Bn
This is summarized data wise of Pakistan's budget. What you see in the
picture below is a breakdown of net Revenue vs. Expenditure. 1/2
- If you feel sick, buy guns and shoot yourself because you are uneducated
Author: Rtr.Abrar Ahmed Sheikh
RID:3271 (Elect.VP-RACK Innovt)
Student of UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI
Looking to burn belly fat without exercise? Or, if you are like me, searching for additional ways to burn belly fat beyond traditional exercise. Here are some great ways to increase your metabolism without getting on an exercise machine, lifting a dumbbell or doing abdominal routines.
Walking has been heavily documented as the best thing for sedentary people to add to lose weight permanently. Everyday find opportunities to walk more often. To the corner store, around the house, or in place. It really does not matter as long as you walk at least 30 minutes daily. Consistently increase your walking pace to 3.5 miles per hour.
2) Stand Up
Standing burns 33% more calories than sitting. Be sure to stand for a total of 3 hours daily to burn belly fat. Next time you find yourself sitting on the couch watching TV, Stand Up! For an increased effect walk in place as you watch TV.
3) Suck In Your Stomach
Yes, merely sucking in your stomach will tighten up your belly and strengthen the muscles underneath your future six-pack. Here's what you do - Suck in your stomach as far as you can (Pull inwards, not squeezing). Focus on pulling in your belly button as far as you can. Hold for 5 seconds, keep breathing, and release. Rest for 10 seconds and repeat, this time focus on pulling in from the top of your belly. Alternate. You will feel the burn.
Start off with 10 reps twice a day. Over the next two weeks increase the frequency and the duration of sucking in your stomach farther and farther, more and more often, holding it longer and longer. In your car, at your desk, walking, remember don't hold your breath. Eventually you want to get to the point where you are doing it constantly and unconsciously.
4) Turn Off The TV
People who watch television for 3 hours daily or more are 60% more likely to be or become obese. Watch TV for an hour a day and find something else to do. Garden, clean, build something, whatever as long as you find yourself moving.
Did you know the number one method to eliminate waste from our bodies is exhaling? When you burn fat, your body creates a lot of toxins that must be eliminated. If you have ever had a science course you will undoubtedly be familiar with the fact that mass cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. When you burn wood, the mass of the wood is converted to energy and gas. The same thing happens when we burn belly fat in our bodies. We in essence, breathe out all the fat.
If you were sealed in a glass container that just happened to be sitting on a scale, and you lost 40 pounds, the scale would not show the weight loss. Why? Because the weight of all the fat lost would be trapped in the air of the sealed glass container. What I am trying to say is, breathe! Practice deep breathing exercises, short breathing techniques and any other breathing exercise that interests you.
6) Take a Bath
Do not worry, this is not as easy as it sounds. Here we are talking about cold water immersion. Water cold enough to make you shiver. Fifteen minutes of shivering is equal to jogging for 15 minutes. In their training, Navy SEAL's are forced to sit in the ocean as waves crash over them for up to an hour. This is not warm water, rather 45-50 degree water. Due to the severity of this training, SEAL's are constantly monitored for hypothermia. This is not recommend or endorsed.
Instead there are two techniques endorsed to burn belly fat
A) Fill a bath tub with very cold water to ankle height. Get in. Walk in place 2-4 minutes. This is much more bearable than what the Navy does, but yet still triggers an increase in your metabolism that lasts quite awhile.
B) Take a bath as normal but instead fill the tub as high as possible with water at room temperature, 70 degrees. The water should not feel warm, but rather cool. Get in, read a book, practice your breathing exercises, etc. for 30-60 minutes. Drink ice water to speed the effect.
After 10-15 minutes you will find your body slightly shivering. This is good, but do not push it. When your body tells you it's time to quit, get out. There is no need to rush. In time you will be a pro at burning belly fat trough cold water immersion without risking your health.
7) Take A Steam Bath
Sweating is an excellent way of detoxifying. But, do not do this after your cold water immersion, the effect on your metabolism would be lost. You can artificially cause your body to sweat by taking a sauna or a steam. When your body is hot by fever, exercise or by steam, your heart rate increases. Blood circulation increases to cool the body, perspiring takes energy, thus burning calories and releasing hundreds of toxins. Another excellent method to burn belly fat.
Please, do not be mistaken. I am not recommending dehydration. In fact I recommend drinking lots of water, even bring water in with you to stay hydrated. Make sure it's HOT water, cool water will defeat the purpose. If you are dehydrated you will not sweat as much, if at all.
Start with 10 minutes but keep 20 minutes as the maximum. No access to a steam? No problem. Have a seat on your toilet, turn the shower on, HOT, with the door closed and the fan off. You can also put a sauna suit on to increase the effect. Drink lots of water. You could even walk in place to burn additional calories.
8) Do what the Shaolin Monks Do
Technically, I guess you could call some of these techniques exercise, however these will firm you up, and make you tougher than weight lifting, without touching a dumbbell.
A) Stand with your arms straight at your sides and your elbows locked. Forcefully press your palms down and raise your straight fingers back quickly. Repeat 49 times. You should feel this in your forearms and triceps. Do this daily and your arms will be as firm as a wood board.
B) Stand with your arms at your side. Imagine a fly at chin level at the edge of your reach. Forcefully, fluidly, throw your arm up with your left shoulder focusing on speed. Imagine catching the fly in your vertical fist, and squeeze it as hard as you can. Hold it for a second. Now, throw the right arm up and squeeze, then throw the left fist up and squeeze hard. Repeat 49 times. This will firm up the arms, chest, shoulders and improve your coordination.
C) Stretch your arms straight out in front of you. Spread your legs wider than shoulder width and squat down 1/4 of the way. Pause. Stay in this position as long as you can, aiming for 5 minutes to start. Keep your arms up. If you can only hold this for 30 seconds. No problem. Stand up, rest a moment and repeat until you have reached 5 minutes. This will tone your legs like no other exercise can. Shaolin Masters can squat down to parallel and keep their arms outstretched for an hour, easily.
Some of you may not think these are easy ways to lose weight, but they will cause your body to burn belly fat while burning body fat. Follow these tips for burning body fat with our recommended diets, or better yet, add them to the burn belly fat exercise routine to speed your results.
پاکستان کا مطلب اب کیا؟؟؟
کیا ہم اپنے ملک سے وفا کر رہے ہیں؟؟
کیا ہم اس کے مطابق زندگی گزار رہے ہیں جس کو حاصل کرنے کے لیے لاکھوں جانیں قربان ہوی تھیں؟؟؟
کیا یہ وہی ریاست ہے جس کو ہمارے قائد اعظم نے اسلامی لیبارٹری کہا تھا؟؟
کیا یہ وہ ملک ہے جو اسلامی نظرے کی بنیاد پر آ زاد ہوا تھا؟؟؟؟
کیا یہ ملک ایک تھوڑی سی قیمت دے کر آزاد ہو گیا تھا جس کی قدر صرف 14 آ گست یا 23 مارچ کو ہوتی ہے؟؟؟
کیا ہم اپنا نظریہ بھول گے ہیں؟؟؟