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· Is global warming is far big to me to help tackle
Here’s a straightforward meaning of an Earth-wide temperature boost. (Also, indeed, it's truly occurring.) Over the previous 50 years, the normal worldwide temperature has expanded at the quickest rate in written history. Also, specialists see the pattern is quickening: All however one of the 16 most sizzling a very long time in NASA's 134-year record have happened since 2000.
Environmental change deniers have contended that there has been a "delay" or a "log jam" in rising worldwide temperatures, yet a few late examinations, including a 2015 paper distributed in the diary Science, have discredited this case. What's more, researchers state that except if we check a worldwide temperature alteration outflows, normal U.S. temperatures could increment by up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit throughout the following century.
An Earth-wide temperature boost happens when carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air contaminations and ozone harming substances gather in the air and assimilate daylight and sunlight based radiation that have skipped off the world's surface. Typically, this radiation would escape into space—however these contaminations, which can keep going for a considerable length of time to hundreds of years in the climate, trap the warmth and cause the planet to get more sweltering. That is what's known as the nursery impact.
In the United States, the consuming of petroleum derivatives to make power is the biggest wellspring of warmth catching contamination, delivering around two billion tons of CO2 consistently. Coal-consuming force plants are by a wide margin the greatest polluters. The nation's second-biggest wellspring of carbon contamination is the transportation area, which produces about 1.7 billion tons of CO2 discharges a year. Controlling perilous environmental change requires extremely profound cuts in emanations, just as the utilization of options in contrast to non-renewable energy sources around the world. Fortunately we've begun a turnaround: CO2 discharges in the United States really diminished from 2005 to 2014, thanks to some degree to new, vitality productive innovation and the utilization of cleaner powers. What's more, researchers keep on growing better approaches to modernize power plants, create cleaner power, and consume less fuel while we drive. The test is to be certain these arrangements are put to utilize and broadly embraced.
How is an unnatural weather change connected to outrageous climate?
A: Scientists concur that the world's rising temperatures are energizing longer and more smoking warmth waves, increasingly visit dry spells, heavier precipitation, and all the more remarkable storms. In 2015, for instance, researchers said that a continuous dry spell in California—the state's most exceedingly awful water lack in 1,200 years—had been heightened by 15 percent to 20 percent by a dangerous atmospheric devation. They additionally said the chances of comparative dry spells occurring later on had generally multiplied over the previous century. What's more, in 2016, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine reported that it's currently conceivable to unhesitatingly quality certain climate occasions, similar to some warmth waves, legitimately to environmental change.
other effects of Global warming;
Dissolving icy masses, early snowmelt, and extreme dry seasons will cause increasingly emotional water deficiencies and increment the danger of out of control fires in the American West.
Rising ocean levels will prompt beach front flooding on the Eastern Seaboard, particularly in Florida, and in different territories, for example, the Gulf of Mexico.
Woods, homesteads, and urban communities will confront problematic new bugs, heat waves, substantial deluges, and expanded flooding. Each one of those elements will harm or pulverize farming and fisheries.
Interruption of environments, for example, coral reefs and Alpine glades could drive many plant and creature species to termination.
Sensitivities, asthma, and irresistible infection episodes will turn out to be increasingly regular because of expanded development of dust creating ragweed, more elevated levels of air contamination, and the spread of conditions great for pathogens and mosquitoes
Precautary measurement of different countries:
. As of late, China has started to lead the pack in an unnatural weather change contamination, creating around 28 percent of all CO2 outflows. The United States comes in second. Regardless of making up only 4 percent of the total populace, we produce an incredible 16 percent of all worldwide CO2 emanations—as much as the European Union and India (third and fourth spot) joined. Also, America is as yet number one, by a wide margin, in total discharges in the course of recent years. Our duty matters to different nations, and it should matter to us, as well.
A: We've begun. However, so as to evade the most noticeably terrible impacts of environmental change, we have to do significantly progressively—along with different nations—to lessen our reliance on petroleum products and begin utilizing clean vitality.
In 2015, the U.S. Ecological Protection Agency swore to lessen carbon contamination from our capacity plants by almost a third by 2030, comparative with 2005 levels, through its Clean Power Plan. In any case, quick forward to 2017, and under the Trump Administration, the EPA proposed canceling this basic instrument for controlling environmental change.
Is a worldwide temperature alteration too enormous of an issue for me to help tackle
A: Wondering how to stop a worldwide temperature alteration? Diminish your own carbon impression by following a couple of simple advances. Make preserving vitality a piece of your every day schedule and your choices as a shopper. At the point when you search for new apparatuses like coolers, washers, and dryers, search for items with the administration's Energy Star mark; they fulfill a higher guideline for vitality proficiency than the base government prerequisites. At the point when you purchase a vehicle, search for one with the most noteworthy gas mileage and least discharges. You can likewise diminish your outflows by taking open transportation or carpooling whenever the situation allows
Syeda sana Ahsan
Looking to burn belly fat without exercise? Or, if you are like me, searching for additional ways to burn belly fat beyond traditional exercise. Here are some great ways to increase your metabolism without getting on an exercise machine, lifting a dumbbell or doing abdominal routines.
Walking has been heavily documented as the best thing for sedentary people to add to lose weight permanently. Everyday find opportunities to walk more often. To the corner store, around the house, or in place. It really does not matter as long as you walk at least 30 minutes daily. Consistently increase your walking pace to 3.5 miles per hour.
2) Stand Up
Standing burns 33% more calories than sitting. Be sure to stand for a total of 3 hours daily to burn belly fat. Next time you find yourself sitting on the couch watching TV, Stand Up! For an increased effect walk in place as you watch TV.
3) Suck In Your Stomach
Yes, merely sucking in your stomach will tighten up your belly and strengthen the muscles underneath your future six-pack. Here's what you do - Suck in your stomach as far as you can (Pull inwards, not squeezing). Focus on pulling in your belly button as far as you can. Hold for 5 seconds, keep breathing, and release. Rest for 10 seconds and repeat, this time focus on pulling in from the top of your belly. Alternate. You will feel the burn.
Start off with 10 reps twice a day. Over the next two weeks increase the frequency and the duration of sucking in your stomach farther and farther, more and more often, holding it longer and longer. In your car, at your desk, walking, remember don't hold your breath. Eventually you want to get to the point where you are doing it constantly and unconsciously.
4) Turn Off The TV
People who watch television for 3 hours daily or more are 60% more likely to be or become obese. Watch TV for an hour a day and find something else to do. Garden, clean, build something, whatever as long as you find yourself moving.
Did you know the number one method to eliminate waste from our bodies is exhaling? When you burn fat, your body creates a lot of toxins that must be eliminated. If you have ever had a science course you will undoubtedly be familiar with the fact that mass cannot be created or destroyed, only converted. When you burn wood, the mass of the wood is converted to energy and gas. The same thing happens when we burn belly fat in our bodies. We in essence, breathe out all the fat.
If you were sealed in a glass container that just happened to be sitting on a scale, and you lost 40 pounds, the scale would not show the weight loss. Why? Because the weight of all the fat lost would be trapped in the air of the sealed glass container. What I am trying to say is, breathe! Practice deep breathing exercises, short breathing techniques and any other breathing exercise that interests you.
6) Take a Bath
Do not worry, this is not as easy as it sounds. Here we are talking about cold water immersion. Water cold enough to make you shiver. Fifteen minutes of shivering is equal to jogging for 15 minutes. In their training, Navy SEAL's are forced to sit in the ocean as waves crash over them for up to an hour. This is not warm water, rather 45-50 degree water. Due to the severity of this training, SEAL's are constantly monitored for hypothermia. This is not recommend or endorsed.
Instead there are two techniques endorsed to burn belly fat
A) Fill a bath tub with very cold water to ankle height. Get in. Walk in place 2-4 minutes. This is much more bearable than what the Navy does, but yet still triggers an increase in your metabolism that lasts quite awhile.
B) Take a bath as normal but instead fill the tub as high as possible with water at room temperature, 70 degrees. The water should not feel warm, but rather cool. Get in, read a book, practice your breathing exercises, etc. for 30-60 minutes. Drink ice water to speed the effect.
After 10-15 minutes you will find your body slightly shivering. This is good, but do not push it. When your body tells you it's time to quit, get out. There is no need to rush. In time you will be a pro at burning belly fat trough cold water immersion without risking your health.
7) Take A Steam Bath
Sweating is an excellent way of detoxifying. But, do not do this after your cold water immersion, the effect on your metabolism would be lost. You can artificially cause your body to sweat by taking a sauna or a steam. When your body is hot by fever, exercise or by steam, your heart rate increases. Blood circulation increases to cool the body, perspiring takes energy, thus burning calories and releasing hundreds of toxins. Another excellent method to burn belly fat.
Please, do not be mistaken. I am not recommending dehydration. In fact I recommend drinking lots of water, even bring water in with you to stay hydrated. Make sure it's HOT water, cool water will defeat the purpose. If you are dehydrated you will not sweat as much, if at all.
Start with 10 minutes but keep 20 minutes as the maximum. No access to a steam? No problem. Have a seat on your toilet, turn the shower on, HOT, with the door closed and the fan off. You can also put a sauna suit on to increase the effect. Drink lots of water. You could even walk in place to burn additional calories.
8) Do what the Shaolin Monks Do
Technically, I guess you could call some of these techniques exercise, however these will firm you up, and make you tougher than weight lifting, without touching a dumbbell.
A) Stand with your arms straight at your sides and your elbows locked. Forcefully press your palms down and raise your straight fingers back quickly. Repeat 49 times. You should feel this in your forearms and triceps. Do this daily and your arms will be as firm as a wood board.
B) Stand with your arms at your side. Imagine a fly at chin level at the edge of your reach. Forcefully, fluidly, throw your arm up with your left shoulder focusing on speed. Imagine catching the fly in your vertical fist, and squeeze it as hard as you can. Hold it for a second. Now, throw the right arm up and squeeze, then throw the left fist up and squeeze hard. Repeat 49 times. This will firm up the arms, chest, shoulders and improve your coordination.
C) Stretch your arms straight out in front of you. Spread your legs wider than shoulder width and squat down 1/4 of the way. Pause. Stay in this position as long as you can, aiming for 5 minutes to start. Keep your arms up. If you can only hold this for 30 seconds. No problem. Stand up, rest a moment and repeat until you have reached 5 minutes. This will tone your legs like no other exercise can. Shaolin Masters can squat down to parallel and keep their arms outstretched for an hour, easily.
Some of you may not think these are easy ways to lose weight, but they will cause your body to burn belly fat while burning body fat. Follow these tips for burning body fat with our recommended diets, or better yet, add them to the burn belly fat exercise routine to speed your results.
This is a agricultural manner in which the plant tissues are connected so as to continue their rise collectively. The upward part of the joined plant is known as scion and on the other hand downward part is known as root stock. The progression of this combination demands that the vascular tissues should grow collectively and this type of joining is known as inosculation. This method is extensively used in asexual propagation of plants grown on large scale for horticultural and agricultural dealings. In almost all cases a plant is selected for roots called stock or root stock. And then for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits another plant is selected known as scion. The scion plant possesses desired genes to be cloned in future yielding by means of stock-scion plant. The vascular cambium of stock and scion should be set in association with each other for fruitful grafting. Studies have shown that attachment of phloem sets up after 3 days and in case of xylem it established after 7 days of pioneer grafting. Grafting joints are not much stronger than the natural ones because only the new formed tissues will fuse with each other not the older ones.
FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL GRAFTING
- Compatibility for stock and scion:
As grafting happen when the vascular tissues of stock and scion connects. The plants like monocots can’t be grafted because they are deficient in vascular bundles. It is a common perceptive that more the two plants resemble with each other genetically the more the grafting will be successful. The chance of success for grafting of plants from same species is greater than the plants from different species. Sometimes the plants of same genus also show successful grafting.
- Cambium alignment and pressure:
For successful grafting you should apply firm pressure on the joint where vascular cambium of stock and scion connects so that the tissue connects with each other quickly and the orientation of the joint should be in the line of normal growth. This will enhance the swift movement of water and nutrients from root stock to scion.
- Completed during appropriate stage of plant:
The time when stock and scion of plant are able to yield callus the grafting will be completed. Temperature also effects grafting and high temperature can cease callus formation.
- Proper care of graft site:
When the grafting is done it is necessary to take good care of plant till the plant restores its health. You can use different grafting tapes and waxes to save plant from excessive water loss at the joint of stock and scion. If the plant structure is weak you should provide support to the plant by twine or string.
- Cutting tools:
You have to make sure that the cutting tools are pointed and sharp so that they will give less damage to the tissues of plant; to prevent the transmission of disease it is necessary to keep the tools clean. Cutting knife for usual grafting should have blade of 3 inches and handle of 4 inches. The knives used especially for grafting are bud-grafting knives, surgical knives, and pruning knives. If the size of stock is too large cleavers, chisels, and saws can be used to cut.
- Disinfecting tools:
Using tools treated with disinfectants will make sure that the grafting place is free from pathogens. Absolute alcohol is a standard sterilizing agent.
- Graft seals:
These seals make the grafting spot hydrated. These should be tight enough to stop excessive water loss and loose enough to assist plant growth. Specialized types of clay, wax, petroleum jelly and adhesive tapes are used as graft seals.
- Tying and support materials:
If the structure of plant is weak then it is necessary to provide support to the plant to keep scion and stock in the place. Strips, twine, nails and splints are the support materials for grafting.
- Grafting machines:
Grafting machines are available to reduce the time consumed because doing it by hand consumes a lot of time and skill. There are machines which have ability to graft 800 seedlings per hour.
This method is utilized to connect plants together that are tough to graft. In this method plants are grown near to each other and both have root stocks and then joined and grow collectively from that point of joining. Each scion and stock has its own parents. This grafting will complete at any time of year.
Bud grafting is also known as chip budding in which a bud is used in place of twig. The most usual example of budding is rose grafting. First cut off the shoot of the stock plant then a bud is taken from the host plant; the ground surface of bud is placed under the bark of the stem of stock plant. On stock plant any bud except grafted bud which starts emerging is cut off.
In this method first of all give a small cut in the stock with the help of a sharp knife and then put sharp end of scion into the stock. The best season for this type of grafting is early spring. This method is best for scion of 1cm on a stock of large diameter. First give a clean from to the downward on the stock or branch to make a cleft of 3cm. The scion should have long deep edge. Now put the scion into the cleft and push it down to the end. Now tape the scion from the upper end of the stock to keep the scion in spot and now overspread grafting wax. It helps to prevent excessive water loss.
In whip grafting a slanting cut is given to the stock and scion and then connected. Then the grafted end is sealed with a soft sealant to reduce water loss and attack of germs. The most usual variation is a whip and a tongue and graft it is a tough variation but the chances of success is very high as the cambium connection between scion and stock is very good. This grafting method is used in fruit trees grown on large scale. This method is commonly utilized with stock of diameter 1cm and the diameter of scion should be nearly equal to stock.
In this method less stock is required as compared to cleft grafting and it will possess shape of a tree. Commonly 6-8 buds of scion are used in this technique. A cut is given on the branch of length 1cm and then the scion is inserted into the branch. Scion must have an angle of 35 degree to the stock. And then it should be covered with grafting materials.
It is also known as banana graft and is usually utilized for pecans. It is declared for most cambium covering but this technique is tough. In this the diameters of the stock and scion should be of same size. Skin of the stock is striped into four flaps and the hardwood is eliminated this will look like a striped banana. This technique is very tough to learn.
Awl grafting consumes minimum time and resources as compared to other grafting techniques. This method is discovered accidently by an experienced grafter. In this method grafting is done by utilizing a screwdriver to give a cut in the bark not to cut the cambium layer. Then the scion is inserted into the stock.
Veneer grafting is also known as inlay grafting, this technique is utilized for stock having diameter greater than 3cm and the thickness of scion should be as pencil. A cleavage is made on the stock to same size of scion then it is inserted into the cleft and covered with tape.
In this method a small sized scion is grafted on a thick stock. On the thick stock 4cm parallel deep cut is given to the stock and then the bark is removed from the wood. The scion is of wedge shape, cambium showing off on both side is inserted into the backside of stock, with flat face towards the wood.
CULTIVATED PLANTS PROPAGTED BY GRAFTING:
• Apple – grafting
• Avocado – grafting
• Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, Tangerine, dayap) – grafting
• Grapes – stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering
• Mango – ¬grafting
• Nut crops (walnut, pecan) – grafting
• Peach – grafting
• Pear – grafting
• Rubber Plant - bud grafting
Naeem ul Hassan & Dr. Muhammad yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
A nutritional benefits horticultural crop
watermelon is an important fruit crop.it is newly introduced for the highly economic importance .Watermelon contains high quantity of nutrients and minerals.which play an important role in human body.Watermelon seeds have also many health benefits due to the prescence of important amino acids ,fiber and mineral compounds.
A watermelon is a type of edible fruit.it plays an important rule in the maintaining of human health.watermelon ia a botanically concidered fruit that belongs to family Cucurbitaceae.it has diff types.some varities have green color on the outside and a red pink flesh in the inside.some varities have yellow flesh and seed less.watermelon have diff shapes.many people like to eat watermelon in summer because they consider it cool and refreshing.it us second largest fruit in the world.it has great economic importance in the world.it is 29.6% million tones production in the world.
It is large and in round shape.it has hairy leaves and have yellow flowers.the watermelon fruit has deep green thick or light green verticle stripes.the fruit color is inside is red with black seeds.flesh colors can be dark red ,red or yellow.in india about 25 varieties are grown.it has diff varieties name as: New hampshire midget,madhuri 64, black magic, sugar baby,Arka manik .
Watermelon varieties have 3 classes.open pollinated ,F1 hybrid,and seedless.
Watermelon is grown on sandy soil.which have organic matter and have good drainage of water and have high PH range.PH range should be 6.5-7.5. In pakistan watermelon is started to cultivate in December .Watermelon is a warm season croup grown on subtropical and hot rigion areas.Temperature range is 24 -27C.the seed germinate best when the the temperature highers than 20C.
Plant and transplanting:
Watermelon can be direct seeded in the field or can be transplant in the form of nursery.and then transplanted in rhe field.seeds should be soaked in the warm water before sowing for 12 hours.3.5 kg of seed of watermelon is required for planting for one hactere area.the space in the rows should be 2 to 2.5 meters A part.
N 55 kg/hac P 55 kg/ hac and K also 55 kg/ hac should be apply after 30 days of sowing.
Weeds and insect control:
The weeds depends on the season .there are 2to 3 weeding operations are required.the first weeding should be done after 20 to 25 days of sowing.where as the remaining weeding is done at any time of the month.the leaf -eating beetles are the biggest watermelon pest.these damage the flowers.,the main problem of growing watermelon is milldew.A fungus makes the flowers as they are coated with white powder.
Harvesting and storage:
The crop is done to ready for harvest in about 75 to 100 days after sowing.for local market harvest should be done when the crop is full mature.and if want for transporting to distant marketes then the crop should be done slightly earlier.watermelons can be stored for 15 days at 15C.the watermelons can not be stored with apples and bananas because the ethylene can be produced during storage from these fruits.because they softness the fruit and produced off flavour to the watermelons.
Nutritional value of fresh watermelon.
Watermelon is one of the common fruit that consumed in many countries.watermelon contains more than 91% of water and up to 7% of carbohydrates.
Nutrient value per 100 g of flesh.
% of recommended daily allownce
Heart health:watermelon plays an important rule in the damaaging of heart patients.it contains high level kf lycopene that protect cells from damage.and lower the health of heart disease.potassium is an important component of cell and body that controles heart rate and blood pressure.
hydration and dygesstion: watermelon is a best example of fruit that helps you to stay hydrated. It contains fiber that encourge a healthy digestive tract and helps to kerp you regular.
Skin and hair benefits:vitamin A helps to kerp skin and hair moisturized and it also encourage healthy growth of new elastin cells.Vitamin C is also beneficial in this regard.that promotes healthy collagen growth.
Cancer prvention: As the other fruits an vegetables watermelon is also helpfull in the reducing of cancer through the antioxient properties.Vitamin A is known to protect from lungs and cancer.
Body temperature:watermelon maintain the body temperature of the human.And it helps to clean your kidney.
Watermelon is a very good source of important nutrative components and contains a very high concentrations of nutrients for human consumpsion.it also contains diff components in medical values.it would be effective in health care management watermelon rind and seed is a rich source of an important amino acid and minerals.
Mian ibtisam latif&Dr.muhammad yaseen
Department of agriculture extention