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How Video Game Industry has Evolved over the Years
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.
Prior to 1970’s there were no significant commercial aspects of the video game industry. The development of cathode ray-tube the core technology behind television created several of the first video game. In 1947 Thomas T Gold Smith Jr and Este Ray Mann filed a “patent for cathode ray tube amusement device”. Their game which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display challenges player to fire a gun at target.
One of the first known example is space war developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin, Gratez, Steve Rusell and Wayne Wittanen. In 1971 the arcade game computer space was released. The following year Atari released the first commercial successful video game, Pong the original arcade version which sold over 19000. The same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of early video games console the Magnavox Odyssey.
The industry would eventually be revitalized by the release of Nintendo Entertainment system, which resulted in home console market being dominated by Japanese companies such as Nintendo Switch. The Nintendo entertainment system released in 1985 helped to revive the American video games industry after the video game crashed in 1983. The latter part of the decade saw the rise of Gameboy handled system. In 1990 the PlayStation was the most popular video game console of the fifth generation which saw the common adoption of CD media. The six generation Play Station 2 is the best-selling console of all time.
21st Century Development
In 2000 the video game industry is a judgment of development; profit still drives technological advancement which is then used by other industry sectors. Technologies such as Smartphones, virtual reality augmented reality are major drives for game hardware and game development. The 2010’s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming, in 2016 the mobile video game market is estimated to have taken $38 billion in revenues compared to $6 billion for the console market and $33 billion for personal computer gaming.
Sony CE is the most financially successful video game company in the world. Sony has built around the high successful PlayStation console. SCE was founded in Tokyo on November 16 1993.
Nintendo is an oldest company; they came into known in US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. After this came the Nintendo 64, the Gameboy all of the highly beloved game consoles, games and character that Nintendo is known for.
Electronic Art, often abbreviated EA, is also worth mentioning for its age. It is one of the oldest software companies that have remained a successful business. It was originally founded in 1982, and it is best known for its sport representation and in its yearly games like NFL, NBA and FIFA.
In 1999 BMG games was taken over by Take-Two Interactive and Rockstar game was born. The development company is most well-known for its Grand Theft Auto series. In 2014, Rockstar shipped more than 250 million copies of its games. Rockstar is also responsible for the popular and highly praised Red Dead series. While all of their game has a similar style and feel, they are all pretty unique from the main market of games.
Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeny in 1991 while he was a student at University of Maryland. Potomac turned into Epic Mega games, an attempt to make this one person studio seem larger. In 2012 the company moved to a new “game as a service” business model that has now become popular and announced a new game called Fortnite. It wasn’t until 2017 the Fortnite was made public. Fortnite’s battle royal mode quickly gained audience. Epic managed to break new ground by convincing Sony to allow cross play with Windows and Xbox and eventually all platforms.
Video game industry earns more than Movies and Music industry
The video game industry is growing so fast that some believe that it will reach $300 billion by 2025. With billions of dollar profit and over 2.5 billion games around the world. The new trends free- to play online video games such as Fortnite and Apex Legends. Since it is completely free to register and play these games some people think that the gaming industry isn’t making much money of them. The free to play game such as Fortnite still brings in billions of dollars in revenue each year. The video game industry generated worldwide sales of $19.8 billion, $20.8 billion in 1994 and estimated ton $30 billion in 1998. Consider the top blockbuster movie to date Avengers Endgame. When it premiered on April on 16 it raked in over US $858,373,000 during its opening weekend. It even surpassed last year’s Avengers Infinity war which generated US $678,865,428 in gross revenue. These films received so much attention and hype from the public; they failed to outperform the highest grossing entertainment launch in history. Grand Theft Auto V earned US $1 billion in just over three days in 2013 when it was released.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
Pakistan top’s as Tourist Destination
A country with diverse cultures and natural beauty, Pakistan is a heaven for any tourist. From snowcapped peaks and frozen lakes to serene valleys and beautiful shores, interspersed with the ruins of ancient civilizations and Mughal monuments, Pakistan is full of breathtaking views.
Moreover, the religious sites of Hindus and Sikhs are a source of attraction for pilgrims. Religious tourism plays a vital part in boosting economic activities in the country. Old Hindu and Sikh Temples, mainly the shrine of Guru Nanak, are visited by thousands. With the opening of the Kartarpur Corridor, even more religious tourists will arrive in Pakistan.
In addition to all this, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is another opportunity Pakistan should be looking to make most out of in order to increase its tourism. Under CPEC, numerous infrastructure and power projects are being developed in the country, which will offer more facilities to travelers. In addition, the Chinese spend a great share of their earnings on sightseeing and easier travel to Pakistan will encourage them to visit the country and avail themselves of its natural beauty.
Pakistan has clear attractions for locals and foreigners alike. But terrorism and a lack of facilities had hamstrung tourism in Pakistan in the past. Previous governments did not bother much boosting this potential industry. They spent little effort to highlight the positive image of the country and neglected the essential steps needed to enhance the tourism sector. Foreigners hesitated to visit Pakistan, considering it a war-stricken, intolerant, and ultraconservative country.
But, recently, there has been a laudable improvement in the tourism industry. Enhanced security conditions are perhaps the key reason for ever-increasing numbers of tourists.
Another important development is a new visa policy, which offers e-visas and visa on arrival to tourists. Pakistan has also abolished the requirement for No-Objection Certificates (NOCs) to visit certain parts of the country. Besides this, the government is also converting its rest houses and palatial buildings to hotels, offering more charming accommodations to visitors. The Tourism Coordination Board is yet another measure taken to capitalize on the potential of Pakistan’s tourism sector and increase the inflow of wealth in the country.
Likewise, the growing hospitality industry of Pakistan is building up the trust of sightseers. International hotel chains are expanding their services and the entrepreneurs are launching innovative ways to serve guests.
Alongside these developments, international travel bloggers and vloggers are visiting the country and showing the true nature of Pakistan and the hospitality of its people. The revival of sports in Pakistan is also helping to clear the security concerns.
These developments have helped to present a softer image of the country. The high-profile royal visit by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge contributed to this trend.
As a result of all these factors, some of the world’s most reputable magazines and societies are encouraging people to tour Pakistan. Forbes considered Pakisytan to be “one of the coolest places to go” in 2019. In 2017, the British Backpacker Society, in ranking Pakistan as its best adventure travel destination, described it as “one of the friendliest countries on earth, with mountain scenery that is beyond anyone’s wildest imagination.”
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf government's efforts to promote tourism promotion have started yielding results as Traveller by Condè Nast, one of the world's best travel portals, has listed Pakistan as one of the top tourist destinations for 2020. Though more tourists are visiting Pakistan now, still there’s a long way to go.
The number of extremely tall mountains in the region — “more than China and Nepal combined”. Even the drive north on the Karakoram Highway wins praise. The opportunity to mingle with the Kalash people was also mentioned.
Southern parts of the country did not earn much praise, save for Lahore and, indirectly, other cities and towns in Punjab and K-P featuring “Mughal-era architectural masterpieces. While many a Karachiite would be deeply offended that their city did not even get a mention, it is more surprising that areas such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and many other locations with historical value were overlooked. It was probably space restrictions for the article. Still, it would be best if our tourism managers at federal and provincial levels look into what can be done to encourage tourism in such places and eco-tourism elsewhere. The piece reserves special praise for the Gilgit-Baltistan and the north in general while taking note of.
Even though tourism in Pakistan is on the rise, there are several remaining concerns for vacationers that need to be addressed by the government. A better international portrayal of Pakistan is also needed to help its nascent tourism industry.
Let us hope that the positive steps in this regard will continue, governmental efforts will bear sweet fruits, and Pakistan will become the dream destination of every nature-lover.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
The Kashmir Issue
The word Kashmir was derived from the ancient Sanskrit language was referred to as Kasmira. A valley between the great Himalayan range and Pir Panjal mountain range, Kashmir is a place of beautiful simplicity and pristine natural beauty. Kashmir is painted with a unique culture that keeps you intrigued throughout the journey, from Srinagar to Somagar and Gulmarg to Pahalgam. Kashmir has a variety of terrains ranging from lakes, snow-capped mountains, and coniferous kissed hills to glaciers fed rivers. Kashmir is covered with wild untouched terrain and on others, there are fields of saffron and orchards of apples awaiting their full bloom. There are a variety of flowers, some people compare Kashmir with Switzerland.
The Kashmir issue is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan and China as the third-party role over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entire of the former princely state of Jammu Kashmir with Pakistan recognizing Chinese sovereignty over the Trans Karakoram tract and Aksai Chin since 1963. The region escalated into three wars between India, Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls 55% of land area of the region that includes Jammu, Kashmir valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen glacier and 70% of its population. Pakistan controls 30% of the area includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan while China controls the remaining 15% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Tran-Karakoram track and Demchok sector.
From 1846 to 1947 partition of India Kashmir was ruled by Mahajras of Ghulab Singh Dogra dynasty as a princely state under the British Paramountcy. According to the 1941 census, the state’s population was 77 percent Muslims, 20 percent Hindus and 3% others Sikhs and Buddhist. The princely rule was an overwhelming a Hindu-dominated state. According to 1947 India Independence Act states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of princely state had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to stay independent because he expected that the state’s Muslim will be unhappy with accession to India and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan. Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1948
Rebel forces from the western districts of the state and Pakistan Pakhtoon tribesmen made rapid advance into the Baramulla sector in the Kashmir valley, National conference volunteers worked with the Indian Army to drive out the raiders. The Pakistan army made available arms, ammunition and supplies to rebel forces who were dubbed the “Azad Army''. Pakistani army officers were conveniently on leave and the former officers of the Indian national Army were recruited to command the forces. In May 1948, Pakistan army officially entered the conflict to defend the Pakistan border .Prime Minister Liaquat Ali khan and to refer the dispute to The United Nations under the article of 35 of the UN charter, which allow the member states to bring Security Council attention way to endanger the maintenance of International peace. On 21 April 1948 UN Security Council passed resolution 47. The measure called for an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1965
On 1 September, Pakistan launched an attack across the Cease Fire Line, targeting Akhnoor in an effort to cut Indian communications into Kashmir. In response, India broadened the war by launching an attack on Pakistani Punjab across the international border. The war lasted until 23 September, ending in a stalemate. Following the Tashkent Agreement, both the sides withdrew to their pre-conflict positions, and agreed not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.
The Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 led to loss for Pakistan of a military and surrender in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was created as a separate state with India’s support and India emerged as a clear regional power in South Asia. Accordingly, the Simla Agreement was formulated and signed by the two countries whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations and to maintain the sanctity of line of control. It was decided that the negotiations will be made by both sides not by the UN.
The 1999 Kargil Conflict
In mid-1999 alleged instruments and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistan Kashmir infiltrated Jammu and Kashmir. During the winter season, Indian forces regularly move down to lower altitudes to serve climatic conditions makes it almost impossible for them to guard the high peaks near the line of control. This results in a large-scale conflict between India and Pakistan armies. Fears of Kargil turning into a nuclear war provoked the United States President Bill Clinton to pressure Pakistan to retreat. The Pakistan army withdraws their remaining troops from the area; ending the conflict India regains control of Kargil peaks.
21st Century developments
India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is disputed territory. Pakistan argues that the status cannot be considered as a solution and further insists on a UN sponsor Plebiscite. In 2005 General Musharraf sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. The Chenab formula assigns Ladakh to India, Gilgit-Baltistan to Pakistan, proposes a plebiscite in the Kashmir valley and splits Jammu into two halves.
According to the government of India Home ministry 2008 was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years with 89 deaths compared to a high of 1413 in 1996. In 2009 protest started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as predators. A judicial inquiry by a retired high court official confirmed but a CBI inquiry reversed their conclusion. The 2010 Kashmir unrest was a series of protest in the Muslim majority Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir which started in June 2010. The protest involved the “Quit Jammu And Kashmir Movement”.
The attack by four militants on an Indian army base on 18 September 2016 also known as the 2016 Uri attack resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves. Although no one claimed the responsibility for the attack, the Indian authorities suspected the involvement of Jaish-e-Mohammad militant group. Indians blamed that Pakistan was involved, the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decided to suspend work with Pakistan. The Pakistani government “denied any role in cross border terrorism and called on the United Nation and the International community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by security forces in an Indian ruled Kashmir.
Article 370 India gaining control over Kashmir
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, it is the region located in the northern part of Indian Subcontinent. From 1954 to 2019 India administered a large region of Kashmir which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947. On 5 August 2019, the government of India issued a constitutional order superseding the 1954 order, and making all provisions of the Indian constitution applicable to Jammu and Kashmir based on the resolution passed in both houses of India’s parliament with 2/3 majority. After this the people in Kashmir started protesting in response to stop this large scale protest the Indian government imposed lockdown till now it has been 11 months to the lockdown. During lockdown more than thousands of people have lost their lives and women are brutally raped. Recently the Indian soldiers in front of a three year old boy killed his grandfather.
Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan" and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. Pakistan's claims to the disputed region are based on the rejection of Indian claims to Kashmir, namely the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population.
Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement, which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir (although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir).
India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stated after the 2010 Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
پاکستان کا مطلب اب کیا؟؟؟
کیا ہم اپنے ملک سے وفا کر رہے ہیں؟؟
کیا ہم اس کے مطابق زندگی گزار رہے ہیں جس کو حاصل کرنے کے لیے لاکھوں جانیں قربان ہوی تھیں؟؟؟
کیا یہ وہی ریاست ہے جس کو ہمارے قائد اعظم نے اسلامی لیبارٹری کہا تھا؟؟
کیا یہ وہ ملک ہے جو اسلامی نظرے کی بنیاد پر آ زاد ہوا تھا؟؟؟؟
کیا یہ ملک ایک تھوڑی سی قیمت دے کر آزاد ہو گیا تھا جس کی قدر صرف 14 آ گست یا 23 مارچ کو ہوتی ہے؟؟؟
کیا ہم اپنا نظریہ بھول گے ہیں؟؟؟
Yawning could also be a mostly involuntary process of opening the mouth and inhaling deeply, filling the lungs with air. it's a really natural response to being tired. In fact, yawning is typically triggered by sleepiness or fatigue. ... Certain conditions can cause a vasovagal reaction, which ends up in excessive yawning.
In humans, each day frequency of yawning varies between 5 and 15 instances according to day.
Sometimes when we yawn someone else does
So-called contagious yawning may be a sort of psychological effect that happens only in response to seeing, hearing, or reading about yawning. ... The findings suggest that yawning may be a sort of empathizing with people experiencing a sense , which—in the case of yawning—usually means stress, anxiety, boredom, or fatigue.
Yawning may be a sign of empathy
How plastic bags alarming for whole globe?
The modern plastic sack was created within the early 1960's by a Swedish engineer by the name of Sten Gustaf Thulin. He created these plastic bags for the packaging concern Celloplast of Norrkoping, Sweden. Thulin's design produced an easy, strong bag with a high load-carrying capacity. Celloplast exposed these plastic bags worldwide in 1965.
Plastic bags become an enormous issue environmentally and economically within the last decade. this is often due to the high demand of plastic bags. When plastic bags were first invented back within the 1960's the necessity of plastic bags was quite low but now within the 20th century with a way bigger population the necessity for plastic bags is far higher. When plastic bags were first invented the family sizes were minor therefore the families could shop once every week rather than 2-3 times every week. This means that fewer plastic bags were getting used as compared to nowadays where families are doing shopping more frequently means that more plastic bags are getting used. People also are eating tons quite they want to so more groceries are wanting to be purchased per person.
Flexible, lightweight, and affordable. For billions of individuals, plastic bags are an efficient and cheap way to transport goods. because the production of plastic bags continues to extend worldwide
Plastic composition typically consists of polymers, whether they are organic, natural, or synthetic.
The two polymers that manufacturers maximum generally use in plastic bag production are polyethylene (excessive-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE).
In Our Daily life
· When you purchase something, like foodstuff or clothes, the shopkeeper will normally pack them for you in a plastic bag. Once you get home, you’ll throw the consumer within the litter outside. this is often the foremost common way that plastic bags find yourself creating a menace to the environment.
And we all know plastic bags manufactured by polyethylene which is just too dangerous for us here I discuss few points.
Death of animals
Plastic bags kill about 100,000 animals annually. Many animals, including whales, dolphins, turtles, penguins, and dolphins, ingest plastic baggage as they mistake them food
• Plastic bags are non-biodegradable
Plastic can soak up to 2000 years to absolutely decompose, all of the plastic that has ever been synthetic nevertheless lingers within the environment. Which means you’ll never stay to determine the decomposition of plastic
Massive accumulations of plastic bags block drainage systems
Plastic bag accumulations are one among the foremost common causes of system clogging. Developing countries are the foremost affected with this problem.
A good example of this impact is that the floods that hit the Bangladesh about 20 years ago. There was extensive blockage of drainage systems, which was partly attributed to plastic shopping bags.
- Plastic bags are expose for childrens due to lungs complications
According to the planet Health Organization, when pregnant women are exposed to high concentrations of Phthalates and BPA, which are chemical compounds found in plastic, they'll give birth to children with lung problems.
- Plastic bags are made up of petroleum products
Production of plastic takes 60-100 million barrels of oil from the world’s petroleum reserves. Therefore, plastic contributes significantly to the depletion of this valuable resource, making the costs of petroleum products to rise every passing day.
- Plastic food storage packages have toxic chemicals
Studies have shown that meals that are eaten or heated in plastic bags end in the event of ulcers, asthma, obesity, and certain cancers this is often attributed to the very fact that plastic bags have some chemicals which will mix with the meal when heated.
- Toxic chemicals are released during plastic manufacturing
Ingredients of plastic bags include a plethora of neurotoxic, carcinogenic, and hormone-disruptive chemical substances. variety of those chemicals are also released as by-products of plastic production. When released, they eventually cause of death.
- Plastic can increase the danger of prostatic adenocarcinoma in men
While plastic-related chemicals largely affect women and youngsters, men also are in danger. consistent with a study by the planet Health Organization, men who are often in touch with phthalates and BPA have a better risk of developing prostatic adenocarcinoma. These chemicals also can undermine their reproductive health.
- Plastic pollution disrupts the natural organic phenomenon
Pollution from plastic materials, like plastic bags, affect the universe of feeding this is often because its harmful effects don’t spare any animal or plant within the organic phenomenon, starting from large terrestrial animals to microscopic plankton.
Government should take responsibility
We should strictly ban the plastic bags these bags destroyed our environment and still destroying we should take a hard step to avoid from plastic bags like other countries.
Instead of plastic bags we must use these things
- Paper bags
Paper bags are one hundred% biodegradable, reusable, and recyclable.
Many paper bags can withstand greater pressure or weight than plastic bags. Paper bags produce much less of a suffocation so that our children ,younger generation and animal can be save from different diastasis .it is much better as compared to plastic bag.
- Cotton bags
Cotton bags are far more beneficial for the environment thanks to their reusability and biodegradability. What’s even better is that these bags are natural renewable sources. The staple generates from farming the cotton which makes it renewable. Although the cotton farming is expensive thanks to the large water requirement, pesticides, and chemical fertilizer but it makes up an honest alternative to bag.
- Canvas bags
Canvas bags are made from cotton which is more durable and comes within the sort of sizes and shapes compared to the normal cotton bags, these bags are much lighter in weight and cost-effective to feature another specialty the canvas bags are often washed regularly and reused as repeatedly as you would like.
- Basket bags
Basket Bags might look rustic but that’s the rationale they're still around. These are few things which may be carried in basket bags like eggs, flowers, and bottles.
Asad Ur Rehman Khalid, Pakistan
5 Reasons Why Hiring a Life Coach Is a Must
There is no denying that life can be trying on occasion. You will be defied by numerous money related,
legitimate, family, and different commitments consistently, all of which spot pressure on you to
accomplish more inside extremely brief timeframe outlines.
This weight frequently leaves you feeling overpowered and restless. Things can deteriorate when weight,
nervousness, and stress keep accumulating, yet nobody is there to assist you with the weight. That is the
reason you need a holistic mentor.
Try not to resemble one of the individuals who imagines that they can beat the chances and oversee life
These are individuals who would prefer to live under tension than put resources into themselves and their
genuine feelings of serenity. At long last, these individuals wish that they could return and begin once
again, this time with a holistic mentor.
Choosing to assault life totally on your own just prevails with regards to keeping you down and keeping
you from making every second count. All the sat around idly, botched profession chances, and bombed
undertakings you are leaving unaddressed today since you aren't happy to put resources into a holistic
mentor will cause you inconceivable pressure and lament over the long haul.
Fortunately for you, you aren't past the point where it is possible to make things right. There are many
qualified holistic mentors who can assist you with finding your way throughout everyday life, regardless
of how old you are.
In the event that you aren't persuaded at this point employing a holistic mentor is an absolute necessity,
think about these 5 extra reasons:
1. Quicker Results
Since time is a scant asset, you need somebody to assist you with discovering great outcomes in all that
you reason to do and rapidly. Possibly you are "doing fine and dandy" all alone – you are making sensible
benefits in your business, all things considered. Be that as it may, what do you do with the benefit?
Perhaps you are squandering the majority of it by taking the long course to business development.
You are continually stalling out and lost in this wilderness of life, so you burn through a lot of time
attempting to discover your direction. On the off chance that you take too long to even consider .
2. Characterize a Clear Vision
Possibly you are battling to discover your heading in life since you have secured your vision with the
guidelines or wishes of others or of society as a whole.Sometimes, the objectives that you set for yourself
aren't what you really need. You are endeavoring to live another person's fantasy. A holistic mentor will
control you to understand this and set an away from for the rest of an incredible piece.
3. Center Support System
At the point when you are baffled by life challenges and the agony that accompanies them, a holistic
mentor will assist you with warding off the disappointments and re-reason your vitality to increasingly
On the off chance that the disappointments are emerging from attempting to rehash an already solved
problem, your holistic mentor can get back to you to the real world. They will assist you with seeing that
the things causing you unbelievable pressure and disappointment aren't even justified, despite all the
4. Extending Your Boundaries
It is alright to have a safe place, however it isn't alright to stay in it for an incredible remainder. Possibly
you have an extraordinary profession, however is it where you genuinely have a place? Perhaps you have
a home as of now thus you hit the sack each day sure that you have accomplished everything there is to
accomplish throughout everyday life.
Trust me, you can improve. You can join a superior calling, for example, attempted a real existence
instructing preparing; you can have another youngster; you can purchase another home. Numerous
extraordinary things lie past the limits of your usual range of familiarity. These choices will be all the
more effectively made on the off chance that you talk with a holistic mentor, who will control you to
locate your correct way.
5. Assist You With moving Beyond Limiting Beliefs
You could be the greatest hindrance to your own prosperity, purposely or unwittingly. Your psyche brain
could be the one revealing to you that what you are aiming to do is past your capacity. Recruiting a
holistic mentor is simply the initial move towards unraveling from the yolk of restricting convictions.
succeeding, dissatisfactions set in.
A nutritional benefits horticultural crop
watermelon is an important fruit crop.it is newly introduced for the highly economic importance .Watermelon contains high quantity of nutrients and minerals.which play an important role in human body.Watermelon seeds have also many health benefits due to the prescence of important amino acids ,fiber and mineral compounds.
A watermelon is a type of edible fruit.it plays an important rule in the maintaining of human health.watermelon ia a botanically concidered fruit that belongs to family Cucurbitaceae.it has diff types.some varities have green color on the outside and a red pink flesh in the inside.some varities have yellow flesh and seed less.watermelon have diff shapes.many people like to eat watermelon in summer because they consider it cool and refreshing.it us second largest fruit in the world.it has great economic importance in the world.it is 29.6% million tones production in the world.
It is large and in round shape.it has hairy leaves and have yellow flowers.the watermelon fruit has deep green thick or light green verticle stripes.the fruit color is inside is red with black seeds.flesh colors can be dark red ,red or yellow.in india about 25 varieties are grown.it has diff varieties name as: New hampshire midget,madhuri 64, black magic, sugar baby,Arka manik .
Watermelon varieties have 3 classes.open pollinated ,F1 hybrid,and seedless.
Watermelon is grown on sandy soil.which have organic matter and have good drainage of water and have high PH range.PH range should be 6.5-7.5. In pakistan watermelon is started to cultivate in December .Watermelon is a warm season croup grown on subtropical and hot rigion areas.Temperature range is 24 -27C.the seed germinate best when the the temperature highers than 20C.
Plant and transplanting:
Watermelon can be direct seeded in the field or can be transplant in the form of nursery.and then transplanted in rhe field.seeds should be soaked in the warm water before sowing for 12 hours.3.5 kg of seed of watermelon is required for planting for one hactere area.the space in the rows should be 2 to 2.5 meters A part.
N 55 kg/hac P 55 kg/ hac and K also 55 kg/ hac should be apply after 30 days of sowing.
Weeds and insect control:
The weeds depends on the season .there are 2to 3 weeding operations are required.the first weeding should be done after 20 to 25 days of sowing.where as the remaining weeding is done at any time of the month.the leaf -eating beetles are the biggest watermelon pest.these damage the flowers.,the main problem of growing watermelon is milldew.A fungus makes the flowers as they are coated with white powder.
Harvesting and storage:
The crop is done to ready for harvest in about 75 to 100 days after sowing.for local market harvest should be done when the crop is full mature.and if want for transporting to distant marketes then the crop should be done slightly earlier.watermelons can be stored for 15 days at 15C.the watermelons can not be stored with apples and bananas because the ethylene can be produced during storage from these fruits.because they softness the fruit and produced off flavour to the watermelons.
Nutritional value of fresh watermelon.
Watermelon is one of the common fruit that consumed in many countries.watermelon contains more than 91% of water and up to 7% of carbohydrates.
Nutrient value per 100 g of flesh.
% of recommended daily allownce
Heart health:watermelon plays an important rule in the damaaging of heart patients.it contains high level kf lycopene that protect cells from damage.and lower the health of heart disease.potassium is an important component of cell and body that controles heart rate and blood pressure.
hydration and dygesstion: watermelon is a best example of fruit that helps you to stay hydrated. It contains fiber that encourge a healthy digestive tract and helps to kerp you regular.
Skin and hair benefits:vitamin A helps to kerp skin and hair moisturized and it also encourage healthy growth of new elastin cells.Vitamin C is also beneficial in this regard.that promotes healthy collagen growth.
Cancer prvention: As the other fruits an vegetables watermelon is also helpfull in the reducing of cancer through the antioxient properties.Vitamin A is known to protect from lungs and cancer.
Body temperature:watermelon maintain the body temperature of the human.And it helps to clean your kidney.
Watermelon is a very good source of important nutrative components and contains a very high concentrations of nutrients for human consumpsion.it also contains diff components in medical values.it would be effective in health care management watermelon rind and seed is a rich source of an important amino acid and minerals.
Mian ibtisam latif&Dr.muhammad yaseen
Department of agriculture extention
College of agriculture.university of sargodha
Gender mainstreaming in agriculture extension
Authors: Imran Burhan
Proposed by; Dr. Muhammad Yaseen
Department of agriculture extension, College of agriculture,uos, Sargodha
Pakistan economy relay on agriculture. A significant piece of the GDP involves that salary which is produced by the agribusiness and agro-base exercises. Ladies are spine of the family unit economy and assume an extremely noteworthy job in agro-base exercises in rustic territories. This investigation comprise of practically half of the populace for example ladies interest in farming. Pakistan and India are the two different nations as the two different economies are comparative in financial societies. This paper likewise covers the reasons of change in ladies work in horticulture and measures which concerned specialists ought to receive so as to increments support as well as profitability of female work.Ladies have consistently assumed a significant job in farming, undertaking a wide scope of exercises identifying with food creation, handling and promoting. Past the homestead, ladies assume a key job in land and water the executives in every creating nation. Ladies are frequently the authorities of water, kindling and grain.
GENDER mainstreaming a way to deal with approach making that considers the two ladies' and men's inclinations and concerns. The idea of sexual orientation mainstreaming was first presented at the 1985 Nairobi World Conference on Women.Sexual orientation mainstreaming is a worldwide issue, contacting the delicate cerebrums of scholars, specialists and researchers of 21st century. Though the job of ladies in all circles of life isn't equivalent with the sources gave to them by the states and the social orders also. Despite the fact that ladies investment in farming division is noteworthy however consequently they are denied of their fundamental training and have least access to data sources; like tv،, newspaper, radio and different sources. Right now study was led to look at the deterrents to sex mainstreaming in the rural augmentation. For the current investigation 500 number of families were chosen as study test. The information were gathered with the assistance of pre-tried and approved meeting plan. Discoveries indicated least degree of training particularly for spouses. In addition, these ladies were having immaterial use of data sources. The investigation unequivocally suggests advancement of instruction and data hotspots for ranch families. The finding of research study featured the prompt consideration of Government, arrangement producers and social orders to have a look over such lacks.
The manual is planned for use in preparing field augmentation operators and provincial advancement laborers working at the town level and it accept a general information on fundamental expansion standards and strategies.The general target of this instructional booklet is to help field expansion laborers in working all the more viably with ladies ranchers. Specifically, the manual plans to give preparing materials and data that could upgrade field laborers abilities to:
• recognize needs, needs, imperatives and openings notice by country ladies;
• guarantee that augmentation bundles meet explicit sex necessities;
• contact and discuss successfully with rustic ladies.
Land Ownership: Despite an expanding obligation regarding food and other cash crops, women do not have a secure entitlement to landandasset ownership. Men dominate this space. Without a male head of family unit, old ladies may accept this accountability. Once in a while this occurs by decision or unavoidable conditions, for example, the passing of husband, divorce, out-migration of men, etc. General society and private associations have never put forth a cognizant attempt to bring mindfulness among men and women regarding their rights ownership rights. A survey conducted by AKRSP indicates that 31 percent of the households have women holding assets and these include landhouse, shops, ornaments, gold, jewellery, fruit trees, forest trees and livestock.
infrastructure/technology: Major agricultural infrastructure including water channels and roads either dont exist or is in a poor condition. The storerooms are not accessible. Network constructed and oversaw water system channels are for the most part inclined to fiascos, for example, avalanches and frequent channel breakage.
poor inputs: This causes the families to depend on customary seed assortments, low milk production breeds, and local poultry breeds. They are both the general population and private parts they have not had the option to address these issues. There is a significant issue in the flexibly of improved excellent oat, vegetable seeds and seed potato. Without guaranteed flexibly of improved seed there is minimal possibility of improving yields.
Lack of decision making:As indicated by AKRSP, in 23 percent families, ladies settle on free choices in regards to cultivate costs while in 57 percent families, ladies don't have any dynamic force. It is additionally fascinating to realize that ladies with instruction, aptitudes and specialized preparing are bound to take an interest in choice making. than women exceptance of these characteristics .Ladies working in horticulture are less inclined to choose about the deal or acquisition of advantages.
strict limitations: Women's entrance to cultivate assets relies on the strict and socio-social frameworks winning in their general vicinity of living arrangement. In a few traditionalist regions, for example, Diamer and Astore, ladies are carefully precluded from managing outsiders. Women are not allowed to work out side . During these times they remain at the house. Maybe perhaps the best obstruction in ladies' support in ranch asset the executives is their absence of versatility
Showcasing Constraint's: Women make a solid effort to amplify creation from subsistence cultivating. Because of poor promoting offices, the vast majority of the ladies who are associated with horticulture related endeavors (vegetables, natural products, nursery, poultry and so on.) are confronting extraordinary with promoting, one of which is the absence of foundation. Without great items. Pay acquiring openings are additionally not accessible for ladies.
Womens work is not recognize:: Women's unpaid work isn't perceived at family and network level. The national monetary overviews have never deciphered ladies' remaining task at hand into monitory terms.
Sustenance Situation: The most recent National Nutrition Survey 2011 uncovered that ailing health is predominant in GB particularly among youngsters and ladies of childbearing age. Around 32 percent with low birth weigh.on Body Mass Index (BMI), about 9.5 percent moms are corpulent and 15 percent are underweight,Nutrient An, Iodine and Zinc among kids as long as 5 years and moms. In common and territorial correlation, breastfeeding was most elevated (92.2 percent) in Gilgit Baltistan The detailed utilization of iodized salt for cooking was 94.8 percent.
Requirements in the entrance to farming expansion administrations and social assurance wellbeing nets: Men and ladies ranchers don't have introduction to present day cultivating rehearses because of powerless augmentation administrations. Access and Accessibility to innovation are absent. As referenced before, absence of ladies faculty in totally concerned offices further confines ladies ranchers access to improved and motorized cultivating frameworks.
Institutional and Policy Reforms: The state government needs to present and execute unique ladies shares up to 10% for enlistment in the general population and private area characteristic asset the executives divisions. Powerful institutional and lawful changes are required in all divisions counting horticulture that ought to energize ladies to work, particularly in the farming, domesticated animals, and ranger service divisions.
Women Focused Projects: Future activities structure and usage ought to be sexual orientation delicate. There is a requirement for explicit tasks intended for the individuals living in wretched neediness dependent on their particular issues and needs. The least fortunate families ought to be urged through various impetuses to turn out to be a piece of the institutional arrangement alread existing at the town, UC and locale level.
privileges: Women's interest in network land conveyance choices ought to be empowered. The two people ought to have equivalent rights to desolate terrains created by them. Mindfulness ought to be brought to consider ladies up in dynamic while selling and purchasing of land.
Water system Infrastructure Development: Rehabilitation of water system foundation through on-ranch water the executives and new water system framework is fundamental. The legislature foundations. Likewise, sufficient degree of financing for fix, upkeep and activityof water system frameworks ought to be given in the yearly spending plans. As ladies are the extreme directors of water at the homestead level, they by and large face water shortage issues both for water system and drinking purposes along these lines there is have to fuse ladies .
Quality Inputs: Provision of confirmed seeds and planting material of improved quality in expansion to game plan of essential horticultural sources of info, Such as concoction fertilzers, hardware. seeds, and so forth on financed rates to ladies ranchers will help improve neighborhood economy.
Limit Building: Capacity of ladies and men should be fortified to support them Sell their farming produce at better rates, to decrease post collect misfortunes, and improve on strategies forms engaged with picking, bundling, evaluating, item improvement, what's more, affirmation. Discount showcases likewise should be built up.
Money related Assistance: Considerable work has been done at government and common society level to improve individuals' entrance to moderate monetary administrations. Since ladies need resource possession, there is a need to make specific money related organizations or present monetary items in the current structures that can help address this issue and can encourage ladies to begin their own undertaking. These monetary organizations ought to likewise help create business abilities in ladies
Dairy Development: Dairy cultivating and handling is a region with high potential for focusing on ladies' advancement. This should be possible through presenting improved breeds, silage making, transpor tatiorn offices, improved grub assortments, better ranch the board rehearses, convenient and proficient accessibility of veterinary wellbeing administrations, and foundation of coordinated milk assortment and transportation framework.
Preservation of common assets: The legislature and improvement accomplices ought to put forth extraordinary attempts to include ladies through urging them to become of the protection boards individually of trust for preservation of regular assets and high fields lands. Association of ladies in the board of timberland and untamed life assets and connecting of preservation endeavors to salary creating openings, for example, trophy chasing, eco the travel industry and carbon exchanging, is fundamental to ration these rare assets
Improving Nutrition: In request to give the necessary nourishment, it will be imperative to advance nousenold vegetable creation. Poor and little tarmers don't nave the budgetary asset to purchase these things from showcase and vigorously depend on grain. This satisfies their caloric prerequisite however not the absence of sustenance. Developing vegetables and heartbeats will make up for the dietary benefit of the nourishment. Correspondingly heartbeats can make up for meat, which is by and large past the buying intensity of poor ranchers. Ladies can be developed and material of the soil to made the dietary substance of their family's eating routine particularly in lean seasons.