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This is a agricultural manner in which the plant tissues are connected so as to continue their rise collectively. The upward part of the joined plant is known as scion and on the other hand downward part is known as root stock. The progression of this combination demands that the vascular tissues should grow collectively and this type of joining is known as inosculation. This method is extensively used in asexual propagation of plants grown on large scale for horticultural and agricultural dealings. In almost all cases a plant is selected for roots called stock or root stock. And then for stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits another plant is selected known as scion. The scion plant possesses desired genes to be cloned in future yielding by means of stock-scion plant. The vascular cambium of stock and scion should be set in association with each other for fruitful grafting. Studies have shown that attachment of phloem sets up after 3 days and in case of xylem it established after 7 days of pioneer grafting. Grafting joints are not much stronger than the natural ones because only the new formed tissues will fuse with each other not the older ones.
FACTORS FOR SUCCESSFUL GRAFTING
- Compatibility for stock and scion:
As grafting happen when the vascular tissues of stock and scion connects. The plants like monocots can’t be grafted because they are deficient in vascular bundles. It is a common perceptive that more the two plants resemble with each other genetically the more the grafting will be successful. The chance of success for grafting of plants from same species is greater than the plants from different species. Sometimes the plants of same genus also show successful grafting.
- Cambium alignment and pressure:
For successful grafting you should apply firm pressure on the joint where vascular cambium of stock and scion connects so that the tissue connects with each other quickly and the orientation of the joint should be in the line of normal growth. This will enhance the swift movement of water and nutrients from root stock to scion.
- Completed during appropriate stage of plant:
The time when stock and scion of plant are able to yield callus the grafting will be completed. Temperature also effects grafting and high temperature can cease callus formation.
- Proper care of graft site:
When the grafting is done it is necessary to take good care of plant till the plant restores its health. You can use different grafting tapes and waxes to save plant from excessive water loss at the joint of stock and scion. If the plant structure is weak you should provide support to the plant by twine or string.
- Cutting tools:
You have to make sure that the cutting tools are pointed and sharp so that they will give less damage to the tissues of plant; to prevent the transmission of disease it is necessary to keep the tools clean. Cutting knife for usual grafting should have blade of 3 inches and handle of 4 inches. The knives used especially for grafting are bud-grafting knives, surgical knives, and pruning knives. If the size of stock is too large cleavers, chisels, and saws can be used to cut.
- Disinfecting tools:
Using tools treated with disinfectants will make sure that the grafting place is free from pathogens. Absolute alcohol is a standard sterilizing agent.
- Graft seals:
These seals make the grafting spot hydrated. These should be tight enough to stop excessive water loss and loose enough to assist plant growth. Specialized types of clay, wax, petroleum jelly and adhesive tapes are used as graft seals.
- Tying and support materials:
If the structure of plant is weak then it is necessary to provide support to the plant to keep scion and stock in the place. Strips, twine, nails and splints are the support materials for grafting.
- Grafting machines:
Grafting machines are available to reduce the time consumed because doing it by hand consumes a lot of time and skill. There are machines which have ability to graft 800 seedlings per hour.
This method is utilized to connect plants together that are tough to graft. In this method plants are grown near to each other and both have root stocks and then joined and grow collectively from that point of joining. Each scion and stock has its own parents. This grafting will complete at any time of year.
Bud grafting is also known as chip budding in which a bud is used in place of twig. The most usual example of budding is rose grafting. First cut off the shoot of the stock plant then a bud is taken from the host plant; the ground surface of bud is placed under the bark of the stem of stock plant. On stock plant any bud except grafted bud which starts emerging is cut off.
In this method first of all give a small cut in the stock with the help of a sharp knife and then put sharp end of scion into the stock. The best season for this type of grafting is early spring. This method is best for scion of 1cm on a stock of large diameter. First give a clean from to the downward on the stock or branch to make a cleft of 3cm. The scion should have long deep edge. Now put the scion into the cleft and push it down to the end. Now tape the scion from the upper end of the stock to keep the scion in spot and now overspread grafting wax. It helps to prevent excessive water loss.
In whip grafting a slanting cut is given to the stock and scion and then connected. Then the grafted end is sealed with a soft sealant to reduce water loss and attack of germs. The most usual variation is a whip and a tongue and graft it is a tough variation but the chances of success is very high as the cambium connection between scion and stock is very good. This grafting method is used in fruit trees grown on large scale. This method is commonly utilized with stock of diameter 1cm and the diameter of scion should be nearly equal to stock.
In this method less stock is required as compared to cleft grafting and it will possess shape of a tree. Commonly 6-8 buds of scion are used in this technique. A cut is given on the branch of length 1cm and then the scion is inserted into the branch. Scion must have an angle of 35 degree to the stock. And then it should be covered with grafting materials.
It is also known as banana graft and is usually utilized for pecans. It is declared for most cambium covering but this technique is tough. In this the diameters of the stock and scion should be of same size. Skin of the stock is striped into four flaps and the hardwood is eliminated this will look like a striped banana. This technique is very tough to learn.
Awl grafting consumes minimum time and resources as compared to other grafting techniques. This method is discovered accidently by an experienced grafter. In this method grafting is done by utilizing a screwdriver to give a cut in the bark not to cut the cambium layer. Then the scion is inserted into the stock.
Veneer grafting is also known as inlay grafting, this technique is utilized for stock having diameter greater than 3cm and the thickness of scion should be as pencil. A cleavage is made on the stock to same size of scion then it is inserted into the cleft and covered with tape.
In this method a small sized scion is grafted on a thick stock. On the thick stock 4cm parallel deep cut is given to the stock and then the bark is removed from the wood. The scion is of wedge shape, cambium showing off on both side is inserted into the backside of stock, with flat face towards the wood.
CULTIVATED PLANTS PROPAGTED BY GRAFTING:
• Apple – grafting
• Avocado – grafting
• Citrus (lemon, orange, grapefruit, Tangerine, dayap) – grafting
• Grapes – stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering
• Mango – ¬grafting
• Nut crops (walnut, pecan) – grafting
• Peach – grafting
• Pear – grafting
• Rubber Plant - bud grafting
Naeem ul Hassan & Dr. Muhammad yaseen
Department of Agriculture Extension,
College of Agriculture, UOS, Sargodha
Gender mainstreaming in agriculture extension
Authors: Imran Burhan
Proposed by; Dr. Muhammad Yaseen
Department of agriculture extension, College of agriculture,uos, Sargodha
Pakistan economy relay on agriculture. A significant piece of the GDP involves that salary which is produced by the agribusiness and agro-base exercises. Ladies are spine of the family unit economy and assume an extremely noteworthy job in agro-base exercises in rustic territories. This investigation comprise of practically half of the populace for example ladies interest in farming. Pakistan and India are the two different nations as the two different economies are comparative in financial societies. This paper likewise covers the reasons of change in ladies work in horticulture and measures which concerned specialists ought to receive so as to increments support as well as profitability of female work.Ladies have consistently assumed a significant job in farming, undertaking a wide scope of exercises identifying with food creation, handling and promoting. Past the homestead, ladies assume a key job in land and water the executives in every creating nation. Ladies are frequently the authorities of water, kindling and grain.
GENDER mainstreaming a way to deal with approach making that considers the two ladies' and men's inclinations and concerns. The idea of sexual orientation mainstreaming was first presented at the 1985 Nairobi World Conference on Women.Sexual orientation mainstreaming is a worldwide issue, contacting the delicate cerebrums of scholars, specialists and researchers of 21st century. Though the job of ladies in all circles of life isn't equivalent with the sources gave to them by the states and the social orders also. Despite the fact that ladies investment in farming division is noteworthy however consequently they are denied of their fundamental training and have least access to data sources; like tv،, newspaper, radio and different sources. Right now study was led to look at the deterrents to sex mainstreaming in the rural augmentation. For the current investigation 500 number of families were chosen as study test. The information were gathered with the assistance of pre-tried and approved meeting plan. Discoveries indicated least degree of training particularly for spouses. In addition, these ladies were having immaterial use of data sources. The investigation unequivocally suggests advancement of instruction and data hotspots for ranch families. The finding of research study featured the prompt consideration of Government, arrangement producers and social orders to have a look over such lacks.
The manual is planned for use in preparing field augmentation operators and provincial advancement laborers working at the town level and it accept a general information on fundamental expansion standards and strategies.The general target of this instructional booklet is to help field expansion laborers in working all the more viably with ladies ranchers. Specifically, the manual plans to give preparing materials and data that could upgrade field laborers abilities to:
• recognize needs, needs, imperatives and openings notice by country ladies;
• guarantee that augmentation bundles meet explicit sex necessities;
• contact and discuss successfully with rustic ladies.
Land Ownership: Despite an expanding obligation regarding food and other cash crops, women do not have a secure entitlement to landandasset ownership. Men dominate this space. Without a male head of family unit, old ladies may accept this accountability. Once in a while this occurs by decision or unavoidable conditions, for example, the passing of husband, divorce, out-migration of men, etc. General society and private associations have never put forth a cognizant attempt to bring mindfulness among men and women regarding their rights ownership rights. A survey conducted by AKRSP indicates that 31 percent of the households have women holding assets and these include landhouse, shops, ornaments, gold, jewellery, fruit trees, forest trees and livestock.
infrastructure/technology: Major agricultural infrastructure including water channels and roads either dont exist or is in a poor condition. The storerooms are not accessible. Network constructed and oversaw water system channels are for the most part inclined to fiascos, for example, avalanches and frequent channel breakage.
poor inputs: This causes the families to depend on customary seed assortments, low milk production breeds, and local poultry breeds. They are both the general population and private parts they have not had the option to address these issues. There is a significant issue in the flexibly of improved excellent oat, vegetable seeds and seed potato. Without guaranteed flexibly of improved seed there is minimal possibility of improving yields.
Lack of decision making:As indicated by AKRSP, in 23 percent families, ladies settle on free choices in regards to cultivate costs while in 57 percent families, ladies don't have any dynamic force. It is additionally fascinating to realize that ladies with instruction, aptitudes and specialized preparing are bound to take an interest in choice making. than women exceptance of these characteristics .Ladies working in horticulture are less inclined to choose about the deal or acquisition of advantages.
strict limitations: Women's entrance to cultivate assets relies on the strict and socio-social frameworks winning in their general vicinity of living arrangement. In a few traditionalist regions, for example, Diamer and Astore, ladies are carefully precluded from managing outsiders. Women are not allowed to work out side . During these times they remain at the house. Maybe perhaps the best obstruction in ladies' support in ranch asset the executives is their absence of versatility
Showcasing Constraint's: Women make a solid effort to amplify creation from subsistence cultivating. Because of poor promoting offices, the vast majority of the ladies who are associated with horticulture related endeavors (vegetables, natural products, nursery, poultry and so on.) are confronting extraordinary with promoting, one of which is the absence of foundation. Without great items. Pay acquiring openings are additionally not accessible for ladies.
Womens work is not recognize:: Women's unpaid work isn't perceived at family and network level. The national monetary overviews have never deciphered ladies' remaining task at hand into monitory terms.
Sustenance Situation: The most recent National Nutrition Survey 2011 uncovered that ailing health is predominant in GB particularly among youngsters and ladies of childbearing age. Around 32 percent with low birth weigh.on Body Mass Index (BMI), about 9.5 percent moms are corpulent and 15 percent are underweight,Nutrient An, Iodine and Zinc among kids as long as 5 years and moms. In common and territorial correlation, breastfeeding was most elevated (92.2 percent) in Gilgit Baltistan The detailed utilization of iodized salt for cooking was 94.8 percent.
Requirements in the entrance to farming expansion administrations and social assurance wellbeing nets: Men and ladies ranchers don't have introduction to present day cultivating rehearses because of powerless augmentation administrations. Access and Accessibility to innovation are absent. As referenced before, absence of ladies faculty in totally concerned offices further confines ladies ranchers access to improved and motorized cultivating frameworks.
Institutional and Policy Reforms: The state government needs to present and execute unique ladies shares up to 10% for enlistment in the general population and private area characteristic asset the executives divisions. Powerful institutional and lawful changes are required in all divisions counting horticulture that ought to energize ladies to work, particularly in the farming, domesticated animals, and ranger service divisions.
Women Focused Projects: Future activities structure and usage ought to be sexual orientation delicate. There is a requirement for explicit tasks intended for the individuals living in wretched neediness dependent on their particular issues and needs. The least fortunate families ought to be urged through various impetuses to turn out to be a piece of the institutional arrangement alread existing at the town, UC and locale level.
privileges: Women's interest in network land conveyance choices ought to be empowered. The two people ought to have equivalent rights to desolate terrains created by them. Mindfulness ought to be brought to consider ladies up in dynamic while selling and purchasing of land.
Water system Infrastructure Development: Rehabilitation of water system foundation through on-ranch water the executives and new water system framework is fundamental. The legislature foundations. Likewise, sufficient degree of financing for fix, upkeep and activityof water system frameworks ought to be given in the yearly spending plans. As ladies are the extreme directors of water at the homestead level, they by and large face water shortage issues both for water system and drinking purposes along these lines there is have to fuse ladies .
Quality Inputs: Provision of confirmed seeds and planting material of improved quality in expansion to game plan of essential horticultural sources of info, Such as concoction fertilzers, hardware. seeds, and so forth on financed rates to ladies ranchers will help improve neighborhood economy.
Limit Building: Capacity of ladies and men should be fortified to support them Sell their farming produce at better rates, to decrease post collect misfortunes, and improve on strategies forms engaged with picking, bundling, evaluating, item improvement, what's more, affirmation. Discount showcases likewise should be built up.
Money related Assistance: Considerable work has been done at government and common society level to improve individuals' entrance to moderate monetary administrations. Since ladies need resource possession, there is a need to make specific money related organizations or present monetary items in the current structures that can help address this issue and can encourage ladies to begin their own undertaking. These monetary organizations ought to likewise help create business abilities in ladies
Dairy Development: Dairy cultivating and handling is a region with high potential for focusing on ladies' advancement. This should be possible through presenting improved breeds, silage making, transpor tatiorn offices, improved grub assortments, better ranch the board rehearses, convenient and proficient accessibility of veterinary wellbeing administrations, and foundation of coordinated milk assortment and transportation framework.
Preservation of common assets: The legislature and improvement accomplices ought to put forth extraordinary attempts to include ladies through urging them to become of the protection boards individually of trust for preservation of regular assets and high fields lands. Association of ladies in the board of timberland and untamed life assets and connecting of preservation endeavors to salary creating openings, for example, trophy chasing, eco the travel industry and carbon exchanging, is fundamental to ration these rare assets
Improving Nutrition: In request to give the necessary nourishment, it will be imperative to advance nousenold vegetable creation. Poor and little tarmers don't nave the budgetary asset to purchase these things from showcase and vigorously depend on grain. This satisfies their caloric prerequisite however not the absence of sustenance. Developing vegetables and heartbeats will make up for the dietary benefit of the nourishment. Correspondingly heartbeats can make up for meat, which is by and large past the buying intensity of poor ranchers. Ladies can be developed and material of the soil to made the dietary substance of their family's eating routine particularly in lean seasons.
If PTA was a policeman and he caught the thief
Policeman:why you loot the people?
Theif: because I have no money for my family.
Policeman:okay you can loot the people but you should not give negative impact to other.
پی جا ایام کی سختی کو بھی ہنس کے ناصر
غم کو سہنے میں بھی قدرت نے مزہ رکھا ہے
For those who are struggling or having difficult time in their life .
Never give up...
One day you will be awarded (انشا اللہ)
Keep struggling for your good dunya and akirat.
Organizational Review of Vital-Smarts
October 02, 2020
Review of the organization: Vital-Smarts
After the start of the industrial era, organizational structures started to emerge fastly with fast productivity pace, great structure, and a largescale network of employees. To help those organizations and companies, many services providing organizations appeared in the market as a training provider in the fields of communication, leadership skills, and habits change, and decision making. The target audiences of all such organizations are the industries and corporate sectors that are concerned about their business activities in the market, sales, overall productivity, or the organizations which are more related to public service sectors. These organizations perform research on the needs of their customers, analyze those researches, study all the factors, and plan the training sessions accordingly. The effects of their training sessions are often visible in the form of improved sales, higher ethical values in the employees, increased productivity of the company, and many others. Vital-smarts is also a training providing company that is serving from the last 35 years and helping different organizations to provide the research in any field and train their employees to achieve the required results in the field of sales, marketing, and others.
The company worked hard and performed so many researches on the topics of leadership, leadership qualities, and best practices to prove oneself worthy of any position, best habits to achieve, and provide solutions that help the individuals of all levels in any organization. Due to their unmatchable practices and competitive award-winning training offers, vital-smarts marked themselves as one of the best in the industry. The company emphasizes mainly on the crucial conversations and changing the habits to change the overall personality and shape it into something unique and increase the chances of success ultimately. These things are studied by vital-smarts and suggestions are often presented in terms of the prior research conducted on the aspects of communication, different types of communication, their impacts in different scenarios, and fruitful results of communications. Studies are also conducted on habits, their longlasting impacts, positive and negative perspectives of habits, and improvement of habits to attain the goals. These studies are presented in different sessions, group discussions, and one-to-one meetings. The primary aim of all the studies is to change the individuals to researched and designed shape to obtain certain results.
The company runs a few specialized courses and “crucial conversations online” is one of the best and most demanded training courses of the company. The audience of this course is the employees of different companies, fresh graduates, and youngsters with aims and goals to achieve. The training courses emphasize on the proper usage of different techniques to communicate, learn the dialogues skills, empower themselves with the talking techniques on any topic. Since words are attributed to the person’s action and individuals who are part of prestigious organizations or aiming to be part of any organization should possess higher communication skills. These skills turn into a person’s actions and become their habits in the long run which starts to define the personality of any individual. Vital-smarts offer all such individuals to attend their training session and learn from high rated demonstrators and top-rated performers with years of experience in different fields.
Currently, the company is offering discounted rates of almost 130$ until December 31st, 2020. Since this course is online, it allows the learners to have an opportunity to join any time, learn any time, and manage the course pace according to their own will. The course offers a complete 60 days of access to different resources and provides the students with a chance to use the company’s tools and resources to obtain any help in the future during their practical experiences. The notable outcomes of this course are individual skills which include persuasive speeches, better decision making, and improvement in the acceptance of situations leading towards resolution of conflicts and increase mutual understandings. At the organizational level, it provides improved team coordination, increases overall productivity, helps in reducing the passive and aggressive behaviors among the teammates. The abilities to resolve conflicts, improved trust among teammates, and other features of this program make it one of its kind with a lot of background research on the development of the course, and a lot of interest of the trainers in developing the course.
If the overall framework of this organization is studied, it would be evident that majorly it is divided into two parts. One part of the vital-smarts is responsible for research and developing the curriculums, methodologies, and analysis while the other part is closely associated with these researches and uses them to train. The diversity of the topics and importance of the organization can be understood by going through the news categories of the website.
There are various important pieces of articles that may affect positively and give amazing results. For example, an article published on January 13, 2020, emphasizes the improvement of personal accountability by adopting 12 new habits in 12 weeks. The idea sounds very good and shows uniqueness in sense of providing the practicality of the subject with respect to the easy and lenient time domain. Another article discusses the techniques to keep the political debates civil in the workplace or at formal gatherings and not indulge to an extent of dispute or serious conflict. Another task discussed an important aspect and addressed organizational employees as well as students of different levels about their participation in meetings and virtual meetings actively. The topic discusses various scenarios of meetings, their impacts, positive and negative ways of communication, and methods to participate in the meetings. There is another article that addresses the employers and provides them techniques to counter the challenges of pandemic and encourage them positively to have control over the organization. A study conducted by vital-smarts shows the results of online meetings, increased load, and increased ideas about the virtual aspect of meetings in almost 1097 adults. (intro to vital-smarts, web)
All these aspects show the diversity of vital-smarts researchers and depict on the positivity of the organizational mindset in conducting research in a broad variety of scenarios and obtaining the results accordingly. It also shows the amazing services even in the scenarios of the pandemic, and the commitment of the company to provide credible, best, and authentic services to its customers.
Even though the organization is working very well in different aspects, still it is not focusing on training the individuals about stress management, educating the individuals about depression management, and improving from the situations. Employers nowadays are requiring the employees to be stress-free and are analyzing the depression to observe the impacts on the work efficiency of the employees and overall productivity of the organization. Studies know that almost 90% of the employees had the impact of their depressive thoughts and stress on their commitment to work and customers. Similarly, almost 72.5% of the employees had an impact on their productivity due to job stress. There can be a range of reasons for stress during the job and likewise, a variety of methodologies and remedies can be applied to lessen the stress.( Ekienabor, E. 2019 )
Vital-smarts as an organization is required to perform deep research on different organizations, their employees, behaviors of their employees under normal conditions, under stress conditions, and different organizational pressures. Studies should also focus on the results of stress and their impacts on productivity and overall organizational progress. Then remedies and stress management techniques should be designed and delivered to the required candidates accordingly. Another aspect of this study can be expanding the research circle to the students and conducting research in the educational institute, studying the stress in students, and impacts on their performance. The study shows that 66% of students are stressed about their grading, 59% students are worried and face stress while taking any task and almost 37% reported to be stressed about their studies in general. These statistics require an organization with a solid background in research and training to take initiative, study, and research about the stress, factors of stress, and design possible remedies to counter them. The ever increasing rate of depression every coming day, their diverse impacts on the students and employees. ( Ekienabor, E. 2019)( Pascoe, M. C et al. 2020)
These services can be then provided to different organizations as well as independently by vital-smarts itself. Nowadays, vital-smarts are providing three different courses with discounted rates due to covid and other reasons, and similar principal can be followed to introduce new courses and consultancy about stress management, stress coping and impacts of stress on individuals of different backgrounds. The combination of training sessions in different domains will help the organization to strengthen its basis and flourish more in a versatile manner, on a wider skill, attracting a wider range of audience. These things are essential in this era of fast growth and modernism when things are at a click away to every individual but scattered at different forums and online platforms. A single platform will urge the audience to participate in different courses simultaneously and earn the benefits in maximum possible ways at suitable rates and with different discounted packages for attempting more than one course.
It can be concluded that vital-smarts is an amazing organization which is providing training in different fields, performing research, and designing specialized courses according to different fields and requirement of the organizations. But, the company is not performing any type of research on the stress, impacts of stress, stress management techniques, and many other things that are affecting the overall productivity of the employees and overall organizational performance. Hence, it is required that vital-smarts should work on these perspectives, and by doing so, not only their overall performance and revenue will increase. Organizations will also be having an option to hire vital smarts for their organizational training sessions and help them to improve the performance of their employees, increase coherence amount the workers, improve the ethical criteria of the company, and ultimately help to improve overall sales and productivity.
1. Introduction of VitalSmarts [Introduction]. (n.d.). Editor, VitalSmarts. doi:https://www.vitalsmarts.com/about-us/
2. VitalSmarts. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://directory.trainingindustry.com/training-supplier/vitalsmarts/
3. Good Work Habits Stick Only When Leaders Step up to the Plate and Help. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/312930
4. Most People Are Supportive of #MeToo. But Will Workplaces Actually Change? (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2020, from https://hbr.org/2018/07/most-people-are-supportive-of-metoo-but-will-workplaces-actually-change
5. Ekienabor, E. (2019). IMPACT OF JOB STRESS ON EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY AND COMMITMENT. 2, 124–133.
6. Pascoe, M. C., Hetrick, S. E., & Parker, A. G. (2020). The impact of stress on students in secondary school and higher education. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2019.1596823
620 Eighth Avenue Manhattan, New York 10018
2nd October 2020.
The NewYork Times, NewYork, United States of America.
It has been noticed that after the industrial revolution, with an increase in technology and innovation, depression and stress have increased drastically in individuals from different backgrounds. These individuals are either employees of different organizations or they are students of various colleges. Stress is deteriorating their mental capability, affecting their abilities to give their best, produce better results, or show an increase in productivity. Various organizations are providing services in terms of consultation and training sessions. Vital-Smarts also appears to be among the top few organizations that are performing really well in the field of training provision but is limited to only researching and training the individuals for better communication skills and gives consultation about leadership skills and adaptation of healthy habits.
I request the Vital-Smarts to research on the reasons for stress, stress management and stress coping techniques, impacts of employee’s stress on the productivity and business commitment, impacts of the stress on students and their learning abilities. It is also required that the company should design and arrange training sessions to educate the masses about the stress, disastrous impacts of stress, and possible remedies to counter the stress and ultimately increase their performance in real life.
Address of residence
How Video Game Industry has Evolved over the Years
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.
Prior to 1970’s there were no significant commercial aspects of the video game industry. The development of cathode ray-tube the core technology behind television created several of the first video game. In 1947 Thomas T Gold Smith Jr and Este Ray Mann filed a “patent for cathode ray tube amusement device”. Their game which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display challenges player to fire a gun at target.
One of the first known example is space war developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin, Gratez, Steve Rusell and Wayne Wittanen. In 1971 the arcade game computer space was released. The following year Atari released the first commercial successful video game, Pong the original arcade version which sold over 19000. The same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of early video games console the Magnavox Odyssey.
The industry would eventually be revitalized by the release of Nintendo Entertainment system, which resulted in home console market being dominated by Japanese companies such as Nintendo Switch. The Nintendo entertainment system released in 1985 helped to revive the American video games industry after the video game crashed in 1983. The latter part of the decade saw the rise of Gameboy handled system. In 1990 the PlayStation was the most popular video game console of the fifth generation which saw the common adoption of CD media. The six generation Play Station 2 is the best-selling console of all time.
21st Century Development
In 2000 the video game industry is a judgment of development; profit still drives technological advancement which is then used by other industry sectors. Technologies such as Smartphones, virtual reality augmented reality are major drives for game hardware and game development. The 2010’s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming, in 2016 the mobile video game market is estimated to have taken $38 billion in revenues compared to $6 billion for the console market and $33 billion for personal computer gaming.
Sony CE is the most financially successful video game company in the world. Sony has built around the high successful PlayStation console. SCE was founded in Tokyo on November 16 1993.
Nintendo is an oldest company; they came into known in US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. After this came the Nintendo 64, the Gameboy all of the highly beloved game consoles, games and character that Nintendo is known for.
Electronic Art, often abbreviated EA, is also worth mentioning for its age. It is one of the oldest software companies that have remained a successful business. It was originally founded in 1982, and it is best known for its sport representation and in its yearly games like NFL, NBA and FIFA.
In 1999 BMG games was taken over by Take-Two Interactive and Rockstar game was born. The development company is most well-known for its Grand Theft Auto series. In 2014, Rockstar shipped more than 250 million copies of its games. Rockstar is also responsible for the popular and highly praised Red Dead series. While all of their game has a similar style and feel, they are all pretty unique from the main market of games.
Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeny in 1991 while he was a student at University of Maryland. Potomac turned into Epic Mega games, an attempt to make this one person studio seem larger. In 2012 the company moved to a new “game as a service” business model that has now become popular and announced a new game called Fortnite. It wasn’t until 2017 the Fortnite was made public. Fortnite’s battle royal mode quickly gained audience. Epic managed to break new ground by convincing Sony to allow cross play with Windows and Xbox and eventually all platforms.
Video game industry earns more than Movies and Music industry
The video game industry is growing so fast that some believe that it will reach $300 billion by 2025. With billions of dollar profit and over 2.5 billion games around the world. The new trends free- to play online video games such as Fortnite and Apex Legends. Since it is completely free to register and play these games some people think that the gaming industry isn’t making much money of them. The free to play game such as Fortnite still brings in billions of dollars in revenue each year. The video game industry generated worldwide sales of $19.8 billion, $20.8 billion in 1994 and estimated ton $30 billion in 1998. Consider the top blockbuster movie to date Avengers Endgame. When it premiered on April on 16 it raked in over US $858,373,000 during its opening weekend. It even surpassed last year’s Avengers Infinity war which generated US $678,865,428 in gross revenue. These films received so much attention and hype from the public; they failed to outperform the highest grossing entertainment launch in history. Grand Theft Auto V earned US $1 billion in just over three days in 2013 when it was released.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
Pakistan top’s as Tourist Destination
A country with diverse cultures and natural beauty, Pakistan is a heaven for any tourist. From snowcapped peaks and frozen lakes to serene valleys and beautiful shores, interspersed with the ruins of ancient civilizations and Mughal monuments, Pakistan is full of breathtaking views.
Moreover, the religious sites of Hindus and Sikhs are a source of attraction for pilgrims. Religious tourism plays a vital part in boosting economic activities in the country. Old Hindu and Sikh Temples, mainly the shrine of Guru Nanak, are visited by thousands. With the opening of the Kartarpur Corridor, even more religious tourists will arrive in Pakistan.
In addition to all this, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is another opportunity Pakistan should be looking to make most out of in order to increase its tourism. Under CPEC, numerous infrastructure and power projects are being developed in the country, which will offer more facilities to travelers. In addition, the Chinese spend a great share of their earnings on sightseeing and easier travel to Pakistan will encourage them to visit the country and avail themselves of its natural beauty.
Pakistan has clear attractions for locals and foreigners alike. But terrorism and a lack of facilities had hamstrung tourism in Pakistan in the past. Previous governments did not bother much boosting this potential industry. They spent little effort to highlight the positive image of the country and neglected the essential steps needed to enhance the tourism sector. Foreigners hesitated to visit Pakistan, considering it a war-stricken, intolerant, and ultraconservative country.
But, recently, there has been a laudable improvement in the tourism industry. Enhanced security conditions are perhaps the key reason for ever-increasing numbers of tourists.
Another important development is a new visa policy, which offers e-visas and visa on arrival to tourists. Pakistan has also abolished the requirement for No-Objection Certificates (NOCs) to visit certain parts of the country. Besides this, the government is also converting its rest houses and palatial buildings to hotels, offering more charming accommodations to visitors. The Tourism Coordination Board is yet another measure taken to capitalize on the potential of Pakistan’s tourism sector and increase the inflow of wealth in the country.
Likewise, the growing hospitality industry of Pakistan is building up the trust of sightseers. International hotel chains are expanding their services and the entrepreneurs are launching innovative ways to serve guests.
Alongside these developments, international travel bloggers and vloggers are visiting the country and showing the true nature of Pakistan and the hospitality of its people. The revival of sports in Pakistan is also helping to clear the security concerns.
These developments have helped to present a softer image of the country. The high-profile royal visit by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge contributed to this trend.
As a result of all these factors, some of the world’s most reputable magazines and societies are encouraging people to tour Pakistan. Forbes considered Pakisytan to be “one of the coolest places to go” in 2019. In 2017, the British Backpacker Society, in ranking Pakistan as its best adventure travel destination, described it as “one of the friendliest countries on earth, with mountain scenery that is beyond anyone’s wildest imagination.”
The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf government's efforts to promote tourism promotion have started yielding results as Traveller by Condè Nast, one of the world's best travel portals, has listed Pakistan as one of the top tourist destinations for 2020. Though more tourists are visiting Pakistan now, still there’s a long way to go.
The number of extremely tall mountains in the region — “more than China and Nepal combined”. Even the drive north on the Karakoram Highway wins praise. The opportunity to mingle with the Kalash people was also mentioned.
Southern parts of the country did not earn much praise, save for Lahore and, indirectly, other cities and towns in Punjab and K-P featuring “Mughal-era architectural masterpieces. While many a Karachiite would be deeply offended that their city did not even get a mention, it is more surprising that areas such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and many other locations with historical value were overlooked. It was probably space restrictions for the article. Still, it would be best if our tourism managers at federal and provincial levels look into what can be done to encourage tourism in such places and eco-tourism elsewhere. The piece reserves special praise for the Gilgit-Baltistan and the north in general while taking note of.
Even though tourism in Pakistan is on the rise, there are several remaining concerns for vacationers that need to be addressed by the government. A better international portrayal of Pakistan is also needed to help its nascent tourism industry.
Let us hope that the positive steps in this regard will continue, governmental efforts will bear sweet fruits, and Pakistan will become the dream destination of every nature-lover.
Abdul Moeez Mirza
The Kashmir Issue
The word Kashmir was derived from the ancient Sanskrit language was referred to as Kasmira. A valley between the great Himalayan range and Pir Panjal mountain range, Kashmir is a place of beautiful simplicity and pristine natural beauty. Kashmir is painted with a unique culture that keeps you intrigued throughout the journey, from Srinagar to Somagar and Gulmarg to Pahalgam. Kashmir has a variety of terrains ranging from lakes, snow-capped mountains, and coniferous kissed hills to glaciers fed rivers. Kashmir is covered with wild untouched terrain and on others, there are fields of saffron and orchards of apples awaiting their full bloom. There are a variety of flowers, some people compare Kashmir with Switzerland.
The Kashmir issue is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan and China as the third-party role over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as both India and Pakistan claimed the entire of the former princely state of Jammu Kashmir with Pakistan recognizing Chinese sovereignty over the Trans Karakoram tract and Aksai Chin since 1963. The region escalated into three wars between India, Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. India controls 55% of land area of the region that includes Jammu, Kashmir valley, most of Ladakh, the Siachen glacier and 70% of its population. Pakistan controls 30% of the area includes Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan while China controls the remaining 15% of the land area that includes the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Tran-Karakoram track and Demchok sector.
From 1846 to 1947 partition of India Kashmir was ruled by Mahajras of Ghulab Singh Dogra dynasty as a princely state under the British Paramountcy. According to the 1941 census, the state’s population was 77 percent Muslims, 20 percent Hindus and 3% others Sikhs and Buddhist. The princely rule was an overwhelming a Hindu-dominated state. According to 1947 India Independence Act states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of princely state had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to stay independent because he expected that the state’s Muslim will be unhappy with accession to India and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan. Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1948
Rebel forces from the western districts of the state and Pakistan Pakhtoon tribesmen made rapid advance into the Baramulla sector in the Kashmir valley, National conference volunteers worked with the Indian Army to drive out the raiders. The Pakistan army made available arms, ammunition and supplies to rebel forces who were dubbed the “Azad Army''. Pakistani army officers were conveniently on leave and the former officers of the Indian national Army were recruited to command the forces. In May 1948, Pakistan army officially entered the conflict to defend the Pakistan border .Prime Minister Liaquat Ali khan and to refer the dispute to The United Nations under the article of 35 of the UN charter, which allow the member states to bring Security Council attention way to endanger the maintenance of International peace. On 21 April 1948 UN Security Council passed resolution 47. The measure called for an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Indo-Pakistan war 1965
On 1 September, Pakistan launched an attack across the Cease Fire Line, targeting Akhnoor in an effort to cut Indian communications into Kashmir. In response, India broadened the war by launching an attack on Pakistani Punjab across the international border. The war lasted until 23 September, ending in a stalemate. Following the Tashkent Agreement, both the sides withdrew to their pre-conflict positions, and agreed not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.
The Indo-Pakistan war of 1971 led to loss for Pakistan of a military and surrender in East Pakistan. Bangladesh was created as a separate state with India’s support and India emerged as a clear regional power in South Asia. Accordingly, the Simla Agreement was formulated and signed by the two countries whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations and to maintain the sanctity of line of control. It was decided that the negotiations will be made by both sides not by the UN.
The 1999 Kargil Conflict
In mid-1999 alleged instruments and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistan Kashmir infiltrated Jammu and Kashmir. During the winter season, Indian forces regularly move down to lower altitudes to serve climatic conditions makes it almost impossible for them to guard the high peaks near the line of control. This results in a large-scale conflict between India and Pakistan armies. Fears of Kargil turning into a nuclear war provoked the United States President Bill Clinton to pressure Pakistan to retreat. The Pakistan army withdraws their remaining troops from the area; ending the conflict India regains control of Kargil peaks.
21st Century developments
India continues to assert its sovereignty or rights over the entire region of Kashmir, while Pakistan maintains that it is disputed territory. Pakistan argues that the status cannot be considered as a solution and further insists on a UN sponsor Plebiscite. In 2005 General Musharraf sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. The Chenab formula assigns Ladakh to India, Gilgit-Baltistan to Pakistan, proposes a plebiscite in the Kashmir valley and splits Jammu into two halves.
According to the government of India Home ministry 2008 was the year with the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years with 89 deaths compared to a high of 1413 in 1996. In 2009 protest started over the alleged rape and murder of two young women in Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as predators. A judicial inquiry by a retired high court official confirmed but a CBI inquiry reversed their conclusion. The 2010 Kashmir unrest was a series of protest in the Muslim majority Kashmir valley in Jammu and Kashmir which started in June 2010. The protest involved the “Quit Jammu And Kashmir Movement”.
The attack by four militants on an Indian army base on 18 September 2016 also known as the 2016 Uri attack resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves. Although no one claimed the responsibility for the attack, the Indian authorities suspected the involvement of Jaish-e-Mohammad militant group. Indians blamed that Pakistan was involved, the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decided to suspend work with Pakistan. The Pakistani government “denied any role in cross border terrorism and called on the United Nation and the International community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by security forces in an Indian ruled Kashmir.
Article 370 India gaining control over Kashmir
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir, it is the region located in the northern part of Indian Subcontinent. From 1954 to 2019 India administered a large region of Kashmir which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan and China since 1947. On 5 August 2019, the government of India issued a constitutional order superseding the 1954 order, and making all provisions of the Indian constitution applicable to Jammu and Kashmir based on the resolution passed in both houses of India’s parliament with 2/3 majority. After this the people in Kashmir started protesting in response to stop this large scale protest the Indian government imposed lockdown till now it has been 11 months to the lockdown. During lockdown more than thousands of people have lost their lives and women are brutally raped. Recently the Indian soldiers in front of a three year old boy killed his grandfather.
Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan" and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir. Pakistan's claims to the disputed region are based on the rejection of Indian claims to Kashmir, namely the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population.
Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement, which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir (although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir).
India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stated after the 2010 Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue.