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Are We Creating Immune Resistant Variants Of SARS-CoV-2? - Forbes
Will certain variants of the Covid-19 virus evolve to evade our natural defenses against it? We don't know yet, but two recent preprints can help formulate our predictions.
STEVENAGE, ENGLAND - JANUARY 11: People wait to receive their Covid-19 vaccine at the NHS vaccine ... [+] centre that has been set up at Robertson House on January 11, 2021 in Stevenage, England. The location is one of several mass vaccination centres in England to open to the public this week. The UK aims to vaccinate 15 million people by mid-February. (Photo by Joe Giddens - WPA Pool/Getty Images) Getty Images Random variation is an essential component of all living things. It drives diversity, and it is why there are so many different species. Viruses are no exception. Most viruses are experts at changing genomes to adapt to their environment. We now have evidence that the virus that causes Covid, SARS-CoV-2, not only changes, but changes in ways that are significant. This is the second in a series of articles on how the virus changes and what that means for humanity. Read the first piece here. In May 2020, a man was hospitalized and, soon after, diagnosed with Covid-19. Within weeks he recovered and went home, only to be readmitted the following month when his Covid-19 symptoms came back with a vengeance. This time he was administered, at distinct yet overlapping intervals, a plurality of treatments, including the steroid dexamethasone; two rounds of remdesivir, an experimental drug therapy; and convalescent plasma from not one, not two, but three different patients. The man, his body unable to mount the resistance it needed to clear out the virus, succumbed to the disease in late August. Over the course of the mans hospitalization, researchers extracted, sequenced, and analyzed more than 20 different viral samples, a process they describe in a research paper currently undergoing peer review. They witnessed the virus evolving in real time, and over the course of 100-plus days noted the emergence of several mutations. One way to interpret this is that each time the man was given, via the blood plasma of previously recovered Covid-19 patients, a new mix of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, the virus found new ways to resist neutralization. In other words, we might be looking at a classic case of immune evasion, a term that refers to the sum total of strategies a virus uses to evade or otherwise overcome the immune system. Immune evasion is a potential outcome of viral variation. I discussed the mechanisms by which viral variation occurs in the first piece of this seriesthe substitutions, deletions, insertions, and other alterations to genetic code that, multiplied sufficiently in all the right places, can change how a virus functions significantly. Why this happensthe subject of this pieceis why most adaptations happen. When the coronavirus finds itself in an inhospitable environment, it must either adapt or die. What this means for us more broadly is that our attempts to counter the virus, whether at the individual and population level, push it down new evolutionary pathways. Though for most organisms this is a matter of course, that doesnt mean it occurs without consequence. Notably, prior to his Covid-19 diagnosis the aforementioned patient was already living with lymphoma, a cancer of the blood that begins in the immune system, and receiving injections of rituximab, a treatment therapy that can have immunosuppressive effects. Over the course of several plasma fusions, his body became a sort of testing ground for new variants of virusnot unlike what is now happening to populations around the world. If a barrage of antibody treatments increased evolutionary pressure on the virus responsible for his infection, it can be said that the slow but steady amalgamation of vaccinated, recovered, and other partially immune individuals is doing the same for the virus out in the wild. What is remarkable is that some of the mutations observed in this one man, like the H69-V70 deletion, were now seeing in European variants of SARS-CoV-2 that have circulated among millions, including the so-called UK variant B.1.1.7. The H69-v70 deletion is found in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, the primary target of many Covid-19 drugs and some vaccines. Another study, published last month but also awaiting review, mapped how other kinds of spike mutations impacted the potency of antibodies in preparations of convalescent plasma. Those researchers found that mutations associated with E484, one of many sites pinpointed on the spike, had the biggest and most detrimental impact, reducing the protective capabilities of some antibodies more than tenfold. One of the variants to develop the E484 mutation is none other than 501.V2, also known as the South African variant. Does this mean certain variants of SARS-CoV-2 will learn to evade our natural defenses against it, even in the majority of us who arent immunocompromised? Maybe, maybe not, but either way it remains a possibility we cant afford to ignore. I already mentioned in my last piece that B.1.1.7 is far more contagious than its predecessor, and charts showing skyrocketing case counts across Britain elucidate the dangers of increased transmissibility better than words ever could. The explosive spread of B.1.1.7 foretells what might happen in the United States if we dont patch up and ramp up our Covid-19 control measures, vaccine distribution included, sooner than later. In my next piece Ill discuss the implications viral variation has for vaccinesand what well have to do to make sure current vaccination campaigns proceed uninterrupted.
How To Use Signal: The Awesome WhatsApp Alternative - Forbes
Recent WhatsApp news has left many people looking for a secure and private alternative. Enter Signal. Here’s how to use it.
Recent WhatsApp news has left many people looking for a secure and private alternative. Enter Signal. Heres how to use it. Recent WhatsApp news has left many people looking for a secure and private alternative. Enter ... [+] Signal. picture alliance via Getty Images Ive been using secure messaging app Signal for years, but Ive had to keep WhatsApp because many of my friends and family use it to communicate. Now that could be about to changefollowing the news that WhatsApp shares data with Facebook, people are moving to Signal in droves. In fact, Signal is the number one most popular app in my version of the Apple App Store right now, compared to WhatsApp at number five and Telegram at number three. A screenshot taken January 11 2021 of the top free paid apps from the Apple App Store. Apple iPhone If you are thinking about moving to Signal, the good news is, the app is just as easy to use, and it has a desktop version too. Better still, you can voice and video chat on Signal, and calls are all end-to-end encrypted, which means no one can access themeven Signal itself. Group calls are limited to five, so Signal cant replace Zoom yet for large video conferences, but its fine to speak to friends and family. Downloading and setting up Signal The first step, of course, is to download the Signal app on your iPhone or Android device via the Apple App Store or Google Play. Once you have done that, you can create an account. Simply open the app on your smartphone, select Continue and allow permissions. You then need to enter your phone number, after which point youll receive a verification code, which you need to enter into Signal. You can then set up a profile picture and name, as well as a PIN (more on this later). If you want to use Signal on your desktop, youll need to link the device via your phone app. Its really easy to do. Go to your smartphone apps Signal Settings > Linked devices > Link New device and use your camera to scan the QR code on your desktop. This will set Signal up on the desktop too. Sending a message is as simple as it is on WhatsApp. Just tap the pen icon in the top right-hand corner and you are ready to go. You can search through your contacts using the search bar at the top. Extra Signal settings For extra security and privacy, go to your Signal Privacy settings. There you can set up or change a PINSignals future means of IDing you instead of a phone numberas well as enabling a screen lock to use biometrics such as Touch ID or Face ID to open Signal. Like WhatsApp you can allow or disallow Read Receipts too. Its also easy to move your group chats from other apps to Signal. Getting the hang of using Signal When youve been using a messaging service such as WhatsApp for years, downloading a new one can be daunting. But dont be afraida few years ago you moved from text (SMS) messages to WhatsApp. My mom even uses WhatsApp, and the same will soon apply to Signal. A new app always takes a bit of getting used to, and Signal is certainly worth it. Im excited about the prospect of more of my friends and family switching over to Signal, allowing me to finally get rid of WhatsApp altogether.
WhatsApp Uses Urged To Switch To Signal, Skype Following Controversial Privacy Update - Forbes
WhatsApp users are being urged to switch to Signal and Skype after it recently notified users that they would have to share their data with Facebook.
Belkin’s 3-in-1 MagSafe Charger Is The Charging Stand Apple Should Have Made - Forbes
It's a must-have for iPhone 12 owners.
Belkin 3-in-1 Wireless MagSafe Charger Belkin It's been a few months since Apple released the iPhone 12 series of devices and, surprisingly, we're still waiting for decent third-party MagSafe accessories. Thankfully, Belkin is finally starting to fill in that magnetic hole in the Apple ecosystem. What Is It? Announced at the iPhone 12 keynote last year, the Boost Charge Pro from Belkin is a 3-in-1 MagSafe charger, letting you charge your iPhone 12 in portrait or landscape mode after you click it into place. It also includes an Apple Watch charging puck and an additional wireless charging divot in the base for your AirPods Pro (or whatever Qi-compatible device you might have). How Does It Work? The MagSafe charger engages perfectly, as you'd expect from a product officially endorsed by Apple. A MagSafe ring shows up on the home screen to let you know that you've connected properly. The MagSafe charger delivers up to 15W of wireless power, which means your iPhone 12 will top off even faster. Whereas most 3-in-1 chargers are crowded, I like how Belkin has spread out the landing spots for each of your devices, allowing you plenty of room and ensuring that you won't bump something off its charging spot. The weighted base keeps the charger from shifting around too much as you pop devices on and off the charger (mostly, there's still some shifting due to the strong MagSafe magnet). Overall, it's extremely simple to use and quite reliable. Little touches, like the fact that the power cord is flush with the base, are a testament to the build quality. Is It Worth It? One glance at the Boost Charge Pro will tell you if this 3-in-1 is for you. Coming in a matt black or white with chrome accents, it looks more like a desktop sculpture when the charging spots aren't filled. It does its job perfectly and makes me want more MagSafe chargers as soon as possible. There's simply no substitute for your phone magnetically locking into the proper charging position (other than physically plugging it in). With MagSafe chargers, you don't risk coming back to a phone that was slightly misplaced and never charged. At $150, it's definitely not cheap. But if you have an iPhone 12, an Apple Watch, and AirPods (or any other earbuds) with a wireless charging case and you need a place to reliably charge them all, this is the best that you can get. Learn more on the Belkin site.
WhatsApp Tells Users: Share Your Data With Facebook Or We’ll Deactivate Your Account - Forbes
Fundamentally, Yes, I Do Like 'Cyberpunk 2077' - Forbes
I get the same question a lot as I continue to cover Cyberpunk 2077 a few weeks after launch here. "Why are you playing a game you hate so much?"
Cyberpunk 2077 CDPR I get the same question a lot as I continue to cover Cyberpunk 2077 a few weeks after launch here. You say you hate the game, and yet you 100%-ed it and are starting a second playthrough, what gives? So, to be clear up front, writing negative articles about a game, criticizing certain aspects, does not translate into hating the game (hello to my Destiny readers). And I think we also have to separate out good aspects from the game from the unequivocally botched release of the game in its current state, and CDPRs behavior around the release. Fundamentally, I like playing Cyberpunk 2077. If I did not, correct, I would not have cleared every icon on the map, nor would I be starting a second playthrough on PC. Why do I like Cyberpunk, despite its issues? (well get to those). Lets see. I like V, who I believe is one of the most compelling, best voice-aced first person leads of a game I can remember playing. I like Night City, a place that has genuine personality from its wildly inappropriate advertisements to its own lingo that already seems to be catching on in some gaming circles (whats up my chooms). This feels like a lovingly crafted, detailed place (AI issues aside). I like combat, whether thats gunplay, surprisingly good for a FPS RPG, or my absurd melee blade build where I can freeze time and slice through enemies before they even know Im there. In the same vein, the gore in this game is underappreciated, detailed to a degree most wont even notice (you can shoot someone wielding an AR, blow off their arm, and theyll draw a pistol with their remaining arm to continue firing at you). Cyberpunk 2077 CDPR I like hacking, which I am discovering on my second playthrough, as Ive never seen hacking builds this strong in any game in this genre, as its usually relegated to opening doors or cracking computers. Clearing an entire building with 1-2 hacks is hilarious and fun. On top of these last two, I like Cyberware mods, a genuinely interesting upgrade system when used in tandem with the great perk and skill system. I like Judy, who has been the most compelling RPG love interest I can remember romancing in a game since Mass Effect, whose diving mission will stay with me for a long time. I like Panam, one of the best NPCs period I can remember in a game with her thoughtfully storylines, and eventually I liked that the game allowed her to reject my romantic advancements and had us just stay friends. It felt like she had agency (as Judy does with males Vs). Cyberpunk 2077 CDPR I like Johnny, a complicated, messy character who is supposed to get on your nerves at first, but by the end, feels like your best friend in the world. I like the missions, which are cinematic at their best with compelling story beats before you even get to the title card. I even like the side missions, which may just be buildings or clusters of enemies to clear a lot of the time, but combat makes those fun, too. Fun enough where I wanted to do all of them. I like the endings, occasionally maddening but extremely diverse, and the game allows you experience all of them without six other full playthroughs, if you choose. I like a lot about Cyberpunk 2077, which is why Ive kept playing. And yet I am compelled to talk about what I dont like, as well, and what I outright hate, which is why youve seen articles on most of these topics. I dont like that the game was released blatantly unfinished with massive, often gamebreaking bugs, and effectively unplayable performance on last gen hardware. Cyberpunk 2077 CDPR I dont like the games AI, which somehow seems dumber than GTA 3 from 2001, which in turn makes combat easy on any difficulty, with any build, robbing the game of challenge if youre trying to find any, even on its highest difficulties. And NPC behavior makes an otherwise alive Night City feel populated by poorly programmed bots rather than citizens. I dont like all the missing features both that are just plain logical (the ability to preview clothing before purchase) or that CDPR promised (lifepath choices having a meaningful impact on the story). And some things I hate, though not necessarily about the game itself. I hate that CDPR would not let reviewers post their own game footage with their embargoed reviews. I hate that CDPR purposefully hid last generation performance, and even flat-out lied about it ahead of release, issuing only PC codes to reviewers. CDPR GamesRadar I hate that they have barely apologized for both the unfinished state of the game at release and the fact that they were outright deceptive about the state of the game in the run-up to launch. A single line in a yellow text tweet does not cut it, and the general tone has been along the lines of well I guess you guys can get refunds if you really dont want to wait for these massive patches we have planned which is unacceptable given the situation. CDPR should be taken to task for their working conditions on the game, their misleading marketing and promises about the game before launch, and their response to concerns after launch. So, in short, its complicated. Cyberpunk 2077 is a game I fundamentally enjoy with some massively glaring oversights in it, while CDPR itself has soured the whole experience with their behavior this entire time. So positive articles, negative articles, you get them all. This is where we are, I guess well see where we go next. Follow me on Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Pick up my sci-fi novels Herokiller and Herokiller 2, and read my first series, The Earthborn Trilogy, which is also on audiobook.
Women In STEM Received Some Overdue Recognition In 2020 - Forbes
2020 was a great year for recognizing the achievements of women in science and engineering.
HAMPTON, VA - 1977: Mathmatician Mary Jackson, the first black woman engineer at NASA poses for a ... [+] photo at work at NASA Langley Research Center in 1977 in Hampton, Virginia. (Photo by Bob Nye/NASA/Donaldson Collection/Getty Images) Getty Images 2020 was a great year for recognizing the achievements of women in science and engineering. Here are a few of the years long-overdue nods to women who made science history. Vera C. Rubin Observatory The National Science Foundation started the year by naming an upcoming large ground-based observatory after astronomer Vera Rubin. The telescope, which is under construction, had previously been called the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). At a January event announcing the name, physicist Kathy Turner, a program manager at the Department of Energys Office of High-Energy Physics, told reporters that reading as an undergraduate about Rubins work taught her that, yes, science is a field that women have a right to be in and a right to pursue, and we don't have to take no for an answer. Rubin discovered the first evidence of dark matter in the 1970s, when she noticed that the galaxies she was observing all seemed to rotate as if they had much more mass than astronomers could see. Decades later, one of the Rubin Observatorys main research goals will be to gather more data to help physicists figure out how dark matter fits into the structure of the universe. That work, and other observations at the new facility in Chile, should begin in November 2021. Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope NASA announced in May that the Hubble Space Telescopes successor will named for the agencys first chief astronomer, who played an instrumental role in making Hubble a reality: Nancy Grace Roman. It is because of Nancy Grace Romans leadership and vision that NASA became a pioneer in astrophysics and launched Hubble, the worlds most powerful and productive space telescope, said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine in a press release. Prior to the announcement, the Roman Space Telescope had been known officially as the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, or WFIRST. NASA plans to launch it by 2025. Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters In June, NASA renamed its Washington, D.C. headquarters building in honor of mathematician and engineer Mary Jackson, whose 27 years of work at NASA helped the agency design better, safer, faster aircraft and pave the way for crewed spaceflight. NASA facilities across the country are named after people who dedicated their lives to push the frontiers of the aerospace industry, Bridenstine said in a press release. Mary W. Jackson was part of a group of very important women who helped NASA succeed in getting American astronauts into space. Jackson joined NASA in 1951, when the agency was still called NACA and the workplace was strictly segregated by race and gender. In defiance of those barriers, Jackson became the agencys first black female engineer, authored several research reports, and performed experiments in NASAs supersonic wind tunnel.
Say Goodbye To 2020 With The Year’s Top 10 Hubble Photos - Forbes
No matter how your year went, Hubble's views of the Universe never disappoint.
Launched in 1990 and celebrating its 30th anniversary in 2020, the Hubble Space Telescope continues ... [+] to be humanity's most powerful optical observatory from its perch above Earth's atmosphere. Although it will be superseded by James Webb and Nancy Roman later this decade, its sights are still unlike any other. NASA Year after year, Hubbles telescopic views are unparalleled. Saturn, its rings, and 5 of its moons are imaged by Hubble, near opposition, in 2020. Saturn's ... [+] bands, polar hexagon, and main rings, complete with gaps, are starkly revealed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the OPAL imaging team. Hubble takes an annual photo of Saturn to track the evolution of its features and properties. NASA, ESA, A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center), M.H. Wong (University of California, Berkeley), and the OPAL Team From the Solar System to distant galaxies, it metaphorically unveils the Universe. The massive galaxy cluster, MACS J1206, is revealed by Hubble in this image. A 2020 study identified ... [+] a number of galaxies with bright, stretched, repeating streaks across them: even more distant galaxies whose light was gravitationally lensed by not only the foreground cluster, but by the individual galaxies within the cluster. Dark matter is distributed smoothly within the cluster and also clustered about the individual galaxies inside. NASA, ESA, P. Natarajan (Yale University), G. Caminha (University of Groningen), M. Meneghetti (INAF-Observatory of Astrophysics and Space Science of Bologna), and the CLASH-VLT/Zooming teams; Acknowledgement: NASA, ESA, M. Postman (STScI), and the CLASH team 2020 marked Hubbles 30th anniversary in space. From solar system objects to stars, nebulae, galaxies, and cosmic structures, Hubble's views of the ... [+] cosmos have reshaped our understanding the Universe, on large and small scales, like no other observatory in history. Each year, for the past 30 years, have provided a new window into viewing and understanding the Universe and our place in it. NASA/Hubble/STScI mosaic Here are 2020s ten most important Hubble photos. Active galaxy IC 5063, residing 156 million light-years from Earth, has a unique shadow. Its central ... [+] region is emitting copious amounts of light, but dust clouds theorized to be near the central black hole in a ring-like shape creates the visual effect of these rays, which appear to extend for ~36,000 light-years. NASA, ESA, and W.P. Maksym (CfA) 10.) A black holes dusty shadow. A dust ring surrounding active galaxy IC 5063s central black hole creates this cosmic silhouette. GAL-CLUS-022058s is one of the largest and most complete Einstein rings ever discovered. This ... [+] beautiful gravitational lens is created by a bright, distant galaxy which happens to be aligned directly behind a massive galaxy at the center of a massive galaxy cluster. The lensing effect stretches, distorts, and magnifies the background galaxy, as well as creating multiple images of it. ESA/Hubble & NASA, S. Jha; Acknowledgement: L. Shatz 9.) Relativistic rings. In Einsteins theory, massive objects behave lens-like, beautifully distorting distant objects. A cloud of gas collapses, forming new stars, while radiation works to evaporate it. The evaporative ... [+] ultraviolet radiation comes from two sources: the proto-stars forming inside, and the radiation of young stars from outside of it. When the cloud, known as a frEGG (free-floating evaporating gaseous globule) evaporates, a mix of true stars and "failed" stars will be left behind. ESA/Hubble & NASA, R. Sahai 8.) frEGGS. These free-floating evaporating gaseous globules birth new stars inside. This galaxy, UGC 2885, also known as Rubin's galaxy, is the largest spiral galaxy ever discovered at ... [+] approximately 800,000 light-years in diameter. It has approximately 10 times as many stars as the Milky Way inside of it. It is truly a G.O.U.S.: a galaxy of unusual size. NASA, ESA, AND B. HOLWERDA (UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE) 7.) Grand spiral galaxy UGC 2885. With ten times the Milky Ways stars, its truly a galaxy of unusual size. This pair of Hubble Space Telescope images of comet C/2019 Y4 (ATLAS), taken on April 20 and April ... [+] 23, 2020, provide the sharpest views yet of the breakup of the solid nucleus of the comet. Hubble's eagle-eye view identifies as many as 30 separate fragments, but astronomers still aren't sure exactly why this comet broke apart. NASA, ESA, STScI, and D. Jewitt (UCLA) 6.) Comet ATLAS disintegrates. Hubble identified 30 separate fragments of this cometary nucleus breaking apart. NGC 6302, the Butterfly Nebula, is viewed in multiple wavelengths of light. Hubble observations ... [+] including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light enable astronomers to map out the various temperatures, densities, and compositions across this nebula, revealing an S-shaped bright streak of ionized iron: thought to be the most recent ejection from the central star. NASA, ESA, and J. Kastner (RIT) 5.) The Butterfly Nebula. New observations of NGC 6302 reveal a bright S-curve, tracing a recent, iron-rich gas ejection. Jupiter's great red spot shines brilliantly in its 2020 imaging by Hubble, with Europa nearby. The ... [+] turbulent flow above and below the great red spot is a consequence of atmospheric dynamics and the interplay between Jupiter's clouds and this iconic storm. Below the Great Red Spot, Oval BA, known as "Red Spot Jr.," has changed from red to white, but is now darkening again. NASA, ESA, STScI, A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center), and M.H. Wong (University of California, Berkeley) and the OPAL team 4.) Turbulent Jupiter. A smaller, color-changing spot joins the Great Red Spot this year. What appears as a ribbon is a small section of the Cygnus supernova's blast wave. The supernova ... [+] remnant is likely 10,000-20,000 years old, having expanded to 60 light-years from its center in that time, where it continues to expand at 350 km/s, more than 1% the speed of light. This is the highest-resolution image of this ribbon ever taken. ESA/Hubble & NASA, W. Blair; Acknowledgement: Leo Shatz 3.) A ribbons edge. This gaseous shockwave is leftover from historys Cygnus supernova, 2400 light-years away. While observing targets in the Kuiper belt on November 2, 2020, a Starlink satellite passed across ... [+] Hubble's field of view. Starlink 1619 passed 80 kilometers from Hubble on this date, creating a streak that was 189 pixels wide in this image. Given that the main Starlink fleet cruises just 12 km above Hubble's operating altitude, many more of these photobombs are anticipated. NASA/Hubble/Simon Porter 2.) Starlink photobombs Hubble. SpaceXs satellite megaconstellation obscures not only ground-based observations, but Hubbles, too. A vast star-forming region has rich, gaseous structures illuminated by starlight. The giant red ... [+] nebula consists of many massive stars, with the smaller, blue nebula created by a single massive star. This was chosen to be Hubble's official 30th anniversary image. With more than 1.4 million observations of ~47,000 objects, Hubble has been the most scientifically prolific observatory in history. NASA, ESA and STScI 1.) The Cosmic Reef. Copious star formation creates the iconic red nebula, with a single glorious star creating the blue one. Like many of Hubble's images, this one is available in an ultra-high resolution. The blue nebula, ... [+] shown here, arises from a solitary mammoth star 200,000 times brighter than our Sun. The blue gas was ejected by the star through a series of eruptive events during which it lost part of its outer envelope of material. Many of its features can be seen in even greater detail than shown here. NASA, ESA and STScI Mostly Mute Monday tells an astronomical story in images, visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.
The One Big Problem With All Alternatives To Dark Matter And Dark Energy - Forbes
It might not feel that way, but a 95% dark Universe really is the best game in town.
A detailed look at the Universe reveals that it's made of matter and not antimatter, that dark ... [+] matter and dark energy are required, and that we don't know the origin of any of these mysteries. However, the fluctuations in the CMB, the formation and correlations between large-scale structure, and modern observations of gravitational lensing all point towards the same picture. CHRIS BLAKE AND SAM MOORFIELD No matter how much we might try and hide it, theres an enormous problem staring us all in the face when it comes to the Universe. If we understood just three things:
- the laws that govern the Universe,
- the components that make up the Universe,
- and the conditions that the Universe started off with,
- hydrogen (1 proton),
- deuterium (1 proton and 1 neutron),
- helium-3 (2 protons and 1 neutron),
- helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons),
- and lithium-7 (3 protons and 4 neutrons)
- the cosmic web of structure we see in our Universe and how it formed,
- the sizes, masses, and stability of individual galaxies,
- the speeds of galaxies zipping around inside clusters of galaxies,
- the temperature fluctuations imprinted in the cosmic microwave background radiation: the Big Bangs leftover glow,
- the gravitational lensing observed around clusters of galaxies, both isolating and ones in the process of colliding,
- and how the expansion rate of the Universe changes over time in the exact fashion weve observed it to change.
- modifying the laws of gravity,
- having dark energy be a dynamical field or entity that evolves with time,
- or inventing some sort of decaying dark matter or early dark energy,
What To Do If Your ‘Cyberpunk 2077’ Save File Gets Corrupted On PC - Forbes
PC is supposed to be the one place where Cyberpunk 2077 just sort of works, but now there's a bug where save file are getting corrupted.
Cyberpunk 2077 Credit: CD Projekt Red PC is supposed to be the one place where Cyberpunk 2077 just sort of works. Sure, there are still bugs of the kind that we see with large-scale releases, like a character flashing his ass while T-posing out the top of the car, characters walking through doors or other weird stuff, but my playtime so far has been eminently playable: a game that works as well as I would expect it to, and certainly well enough to feel satisfactory. Heres one bug, however, that could really put a dent in that. Apparently, PC save files are getting corrupted when they get too big, causing major headaches for players with a propensity for picking up itemsread, most people who play open world games. This first surfaced on social media a little bit ago: Since the, theres been an official response on the CD Projekt Red-owned GOG support center, and it is not particularly encouraging. Theres nothing to do about the bug right now except picking up less stuff and keeping copies of your saves in order to try to skirt around things: Unfortunately the save is damaged and can't be recovered. Please use an older save file to continue playing and try to keep a lower amount of items and crafting materials. If you have used the item duplication glitch, please load a save file not affected by it. The save file size limit might be increased in one of the future patches, but the corrupted files will remain that way. So theres your answer, as best as you can figure it. Load an older save, trim your inventory and hope for the best. Ive seen bugs like this before, notably when Skyrim first came out and saves with hundreds of hours in them would start to strain PS3s to their breaking point. It does seem like were getting up to to this limit much quicker with Cyberpunk 2077, however, especially because there isnt anywhere near the same level of content as there was with Skyrim. This will likely get fixed eventually, but its difficult to know exactly what the schedule on these sorts of things due to the massive backlog of fixes this game needs. I do not envy the CD Projekt Red developers: not now, not over the last year. Theyve made something cool, but its become clear that poor management is putting them through the ringer. I hope they get a Christmas.