Oxford vaccine produces immune response among the elderly and young alike, raising hopes of effectiveness - WION
Getting weary of masks and sanitisers? We bring good news!
Getting weary of masks and sanitisers? We bring good news! One of the world's top contenders for an effective coronavirus vaccine was recently able to trigger immune responses among the old and young alike. Developed by the University of Oxford, the vaccine was able to trigger a response among both the young, as well as the elderly. The candidate vaccine produced lower adverse responses among the aged, the company helping in its manufacturing - AstraZeneca Plc announced on Monday. The COVID-19 pandemic has killed more than 1.15 people across the world, shutting down economies globally, and crippling life for billions alike. Also read: Abnormalities spotted in lungs of 60% coronavirus patients months later: Oxford University study "It is encouraging to see immunogenicity responses were similar between older and younger adults and that reactogenicity was lower in older adults, where the COVID-19 disease severity is higher," an AstraZeneca spokesman announced. "The results further build the body of evidence for the safety and immunogenicity of AZD1222," the spokesman said. AZD1222 is the technical name of the vaccine. The vaccine might become the first to receive regulatory approval, alongside vaccine candidates by Pfizer and BioNTech. This is especially important in terms of the response produced among the elderly, for that age group falls under the most vulnerable category, and the immune system is weakened over time. Additionally, the old people are also at the highest risk of dying from the virus. Work on the Oxford vaccine began in January 2020. Commonly referred to as AZD1222 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, the vaccine is based on the "viral vector" imprint, and is derived from a weakened version of the common cold virus. Also read: COVID-19 survivors experience symptoms months after catching virus: Oxford University The chimpanzee cold virus has undergone genetic modifications to become part of the vaccine. This modification is done in the spike protein, from where the COVID-19 virus gains entry into human cells. Scientists hope that the human body will attack COVID-19 if seen again. According to the Financial Times, the details of the findings will be published in a clinical journal shortly. In anticipation of successful responses, AstraZeneca has signed multiple supply and manufacturing deals with companies and governments around the globe. The company is preparing to divulge details of the late-stage clinical trial. The company announced on Friday that the US trials of the vaccine resumed after receiving approval from US regulators. According to The Sun, a hospital in London will receive the first batches of the vaccine, which will be administered on its staff.
There are minimum of 36 active, communicating intelligent civilizations in Milky Way: Study - WION
Scientists have made calculations based on Drake equation, written by astronomer and astrophysicist Frank Drake in 1961.
A study published on Monday in The Astrophysical Journal stated that there could be a minimum of 36 active, communicating intelligent civilizations in our Milky Way. But due to time and distance, we may never know if they existed ever existed. Scientists have made calculations based on Drake equation, written by astronomer and astrophysicist Frank Drake in 1961. "Drake developed an equation which in principle can be used to calculate how many Communicating Extra-Terrestrial Intelligent (CETI) civilizations there may be in the Galaxy," the authors wrote in their study. "However, many of its terms are unknowable and other methods must be used to calculate the likely number of communicating civilizations." Therefore the scientists at the University of Nottingham developed their approach. In an email to CNN, study co-author Christopher Conselice, a professor of astrophysics at the University of Nottingham said: "The key difference between our calculation and previous ones based on the Drake equation is that we make very simple assumptions about how life developed." "One of them is that life forms in a scientific way that is if the right conditions are met then life will form. This avoids impossible to answer questions such as 'what fraction of planets in a habitable zone of a star will form life?' and 'what fraction of life will evolve into intelligent life?' as these are not answerable until we actually detect life, which we have not yet done," he added. These scientists developed the Astrobiological Copernican Principle to establish weak and strong limits on life in the galaxy. According to scientists, these equations include how the stars are formed in the galaxy and its age. It also determines the metal content of the stars and whether the celestial body could host habitable planets like Earth. Co-author Tom Westby, an assistant professor in the University of Nottingham's faculty of engineering, released a statement which said: "The two Astrobiological Copernican limits are that intelligent life forms in less than 5 billion years, or after about 5 billion years similar to on Earth where a communicating civilization formed after 4.5 billion years." "It is called the Astrobiological Copernican Principle because it assumes that our existence is not special," Conselice said. "That is if the conditions in which intelligent life on Earth also developed somewhere else in the Galaxy then intelligent life would develop there in a similar way." The estimation of at least 36 civilizations is the most conservative lower limit using the strictest set of assumptionsnamely that communicating civilizations only survive for 100 years. However, the authors note that the average distance to one of these 36 civilizations is around 17,000 light-years, so detection and communication is currently impossible. Theres also the thorny question of how long intelligent civilizations tend to survive. "Searches for extra-terrestrial intelligent civilizations not only reveals the existence of how life itself forms but also gives us clues about how long our civilization will last," said Christopher Conselice, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who led the research. "If we find that intelligent life is common then this would reveal that our civilization could exist for much longer than a few hundred years.""Alternatively, if we find that there are no active civilizations in our galaxy it is a bad sign for our long-term existence."