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Study reveals effects of social determinants of health on kidney transplant candidates - ANI News
Washington [US], October 26 (ANI): Certain social determinants of health predict patient-reported outcomes in potential kidney transplant recipients, according to a study.
Washington [US], October 26 (ANI): Certain social determinants of health predict patient-reported outcomes in potential kidney transplant recipients, according to a study.The study was presented online during ASN Kidney Week 2020 Reimagined October 19-October 25.In the 955-participant study, patients' experience of discrimination in a medical setting, greater depressive symptoms, and a lower sense of mastery (or control over the forces that affect one's life) predicted worse physical, mental and kidney-related quality of life. Lower levels of patient-reported medical mistrust predicted greater patient satisfaction with clinical services. "In our study, social determinants of health predicted patient-reported outcomes, suggesting that these factors are important for future research and intervention development," said lead author Samuel Swift (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque). "Transplant teams can use knowledge of how these key social determinants of health predict patient-reported outcomes to improve the experience of patients with kidney failure undergoing transplant evaluation."Study: "Do Social Determinants of Health Predict Patient-Reported Outcomes in Transplant-Eligible End-Stage Renal Disease Patients"ASN Kidney Week 2020 Reimagined, the largest nephrology meeting of its kind, will provide a forum for more than 13,000 professionals to discuss the latest findings in kidney health research and engage in educational sessions related to advances in the care of patients with kidney and related disorders. (ANI)
New model predicts which patients with kidney disease may develop heartbeat irregularities - ANI News
Washington [US], October 25 (ANI): A new model that uses machine learning, which is a type of artificial intelligence, may help predict which patients with kidney disease are at especially high risk of developing heartbeat irregularities.
Washington [US], October 25 (ANI): A new model that uses machine learning, which is a type of artificial intelligence, may help predict which patients with kidney disease are at especially high risk of developing heartbeat irregularities.The findings come from a study that was presented online during ASN Kidney Week 2020 Reimagined. Atrial fibrillation (AF)--an irregular, often rapid heart rate--is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with poor kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. Researchers conducted a study to see if a new prediction model could be used to identify patients with CKD at highest risk of experiencing AF. The team compared a previously published AF prediction model with a model developed using machine learning (a type of artificial intelligence) based on clinical variables and cardiac markers.In an analysis of information on 2,766 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC), the model based on machine learning was superior to the previously published model for predicting AF."The application of such a model could be used to identify patients with CKD who may benefit from enhanced cardiovascular care and also to identify a selection of patients for clinical trials of AF therapies," said lead author Leila Zelnick, PhD (the University of Washington, in Seattle). (ANI)
IPL 13: It was painful to see Du Plessis carrying drinks, says CSK spinner Tahir - ANI News
Dubai [UAE], October 22 (ANI): South African star spinner Imran Tahir has said that it was very painful to see compatriot and former Proteas skipper Faf du Plessis carry drinks for the Chennai Super Kings (CSK) in the Indian Premier League.
Dubai [UAE], October 22 (ANI): South African star spinner Imran Tahir has said that it was very painful to see compatriot and former Proteas skipper Faf du Plessis carry drinks for the Chennai Super Kings (CSK) in the Indian Premier League.Tahir also heaped praise on how good CSK is as a franchise. The leg spinner said that the franchise and the Chennai fans give the utmost respect to their players.The South African spinner has not played a single game for CSK this season and there has been serious speculation as to when the Proteas spinner will be seen in action in the ongoing IPL."Best team, from my heart is Chennai. I've been all over the world. I've never seen so much respect given from a franchise. I've never seen someone look after my family so well, the fans in Chennai are unbelievably lovely," Tahir told Indian spinner Ravichandran Ashwin in his YouTube show 'Hello Dubaiahh.'"When I play there it was a different atmosphere. And the main reason is I love their culture. They don't talk about performances and are always supportive and that's is what I like about it as in cricket You'll perform one day, and not on another," he added. Tahir said that he has got "no clue" as to when he would play and asserted that it is quite difficult for a player to get into the CSK squad when four overseas players have already cemented their name."I have no clue. Earlier, Faf Du Plessis had to carry drinks the whole season. It was quite painful. He's got a brilliant T20 average. I'm doing that this year. I actually got an idea of how he felt. I have been talking to him as well," Tahir said.With four games remaining for Chennai Super Kings (CSK) in the 13th edition of the Indian Premier League (IPL), the MS Dhoni-led unit would ideally look to finish on a high.With Bravo ruled out, CSK is likely to finally bring last year's purple cap, Imran Tahir, into the playing XI for the remaining four games."And once four overseas players are settled in CSK then it's hard for the fifth guy. I hope I get a game," said Tahir. (ANI)
Active volcanoes feed Io's sulfurous atmosphere - ANI News
Washington [US], October 22 (ANI): The atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Io is a witches' brew, composed primarily of the sulfurous exhalations of more than 400 volcanoes that dot the surface.
ANI | Updated: Oct 22, 2020 02:19 IST Washington [US], October 22 (ANI): The atmosphere on Jupiter's moonIo is a witches' brew, composed primarily of the sulfurous exhalations of more than 400 volcanoes that dot the surface.Until now, however, it has been unclear whether volcanoes spewing hot sulfur dioxide (SO2) are the main contributors to the atmosphere, or whether the main component is the accumulated cold SO2, much of which is frozen on the surface, but in sunlight evaporates or sublimates into the atmosphere.New observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile, led by astronomer Imke de Pater of the University of California, Berkeley, partially resolve that question."It was not known which process drives the dynamics in Io's atmosphere," said de Pater, who is a Professor of the Graduate School in the departments of astronomy and of earth and planetary science at UC Berkeley. "Is it volcanic activity, or gas that sublimates from the icy surface when Io is in sunlight? What we show is that, actually, volcanoes do have a large impact on the atmosphere."With no nearby satellite currently observing the moon -- NASA's Juno mission focuses primarily on Jupiter and will end next July -- astronomers like de Pater must rely on Earth-based telescopes to probe the atmosphere. She has been observing Io's atmosphere for 30 years with radio telescopes like ALMA and optical and infrared telescopes, primarily the Keck telescopes in Hawaii.One surprise from the new observations is that the atmosphere becomes dramatically unstable when Io passes through Jupiter's shadow every 42 hours as it orbits the planet. In a paper accepted for publication in the Planetary Science Journal, de Pater and her colleagues report that the radio emissions from sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas dropped exponentially as Io was eclipsed by Jupiter on March 20, 2018, indicating that the lower atmosphere -- below 10 to 20 kilometers in altitude -- essentially collapsed, quickly freezing out onto the surface.Although Io's surface is always cold -- about 150 degrees Celsius below freezing, or -230 F -- a further drop in temperature by a few tens of degrees, down to -270 F, brings the temperature below the freezing point of SO2.As the moon reemerged from Jupiter's shadow during observations on September 2 and 11, 2018, the cold sulfur dioxide emissions returned within about 10 minutes."As soon as Io gets into the sunlight, the temperature increases, and you get all this SO2 ice subliming into gas, and you reform the atmosphere in about 10 minutes' time, faster than what models had predicted," said de Pater.She noted that not all the cold SO2 froze out as the temperature dropped in Jupiter's shadow. During the eclipse, in addition to abundant SO2 gas over some volcanoes, ALMA also detected low levels of SO2 globally in Io's atmosphere, suggesting that many unseen volcanoes -- so-called stealth volcanoes, because they emit no smoke or other particulates that can be easily seen -- are constantly spewing SO2 into the atmosphere that remains too warm to condense.There were also hints of stealth volcanism in observations reported by de Pater and her colleagues in July, based on Keck observations. They saw widespread sulfur monoxide (SO) gas in the atmosphere -- not, as expected, only over active volcanoes. As de Pater shows in her new paper, SO is likely produced when sunlight breaks the sulfur-oxygen bond in SO2 that has been ejected hundreds of kilometres above the surface. "The SO2 that we see with ALMA when Io is in eclipse is at a very low level, and we can't say if that is stealth volcanism or caused by SO2 not completely condensing out," she said. "But then, when we looked at the SO with Keck, we can only explain the SO emissions, which are widespread on the surface, through this stealth volcanism, because excitation of the SO requires a very high temperature."The volcanic SO2 eventually condenses on the surface to form a thick frozen layer of sulfur dioxide ice, recently mapped globally by de Pater and her colleagues. This frozen SO2, often overlain by a layer of volcanic dust, is what gives Io its characteristic yellow, white, orange and red colours.Though the dominance of SO2 in Io's atmosphere was well known -- de Pater was a member of the first team to observe global SO2 in 1990 -- it was still unclear whether recently emitted hot SO2 or sublimation from the accumulated SO2 ice (referred to as cold SO2) dominated the atmosphere.To disentangle the contributions of hot and cold SO2, de Pater and her colleagues, including Statia Luszcz-Cook from Columbia University in New York and Katherine de Kleer of the California Institute of Technology, chose to observe Io during its transition from sunlight into darkness during an eclipse and again when it reemerged into the light from eclipse."When Io passes into Jupiter's shadow, and is out of direct sunlight, it is too cold for sulfur dioxide gas, and it condenses onto Io's surface. During that time, we can only see volcanically-sourced sulfur dioxide. We can, therefore, see exactly how much of the atmosphere is impacted by volcanic activity," Luszcz-Cook said.Due to ALMA's exquisite resolution and sensitivity, the astronomers could, for the first time, clearly see the plumes of SO2 and SO rise up from the volcanoes, two of which -- Karei Patera and Daedalus Patera -- were erupting in March, while a third volcano was active in September. Based on the snapshots, they calculated that active volcanoes directly produce 30% to 50% of Io's atmosphere.The ALMA images also showed a third gas coming out of volcanoes: potassium chloride (KCl). Both KCl and sodium chloride -- NaCl, or common table salt -- are common components of magma."We see KCl in volcanic regions where we do not see SO2 or SO," said Luszcz-Cook. "This is strong evidence that the magma reservoirs are different under different volcanoes.""By studying Io's atmosphere and volcanic activity, we can understand more about the volcanoes, the tidal heating process and Io's interior," added de Kleer.De Pater and her colleagues also hope to observe Io at other radio wavelengths that can probe several inches below the surface, potentially revealing the content and temperature of the magma underlying the volcanoes.A big unknown remains the temperature in Io's lower atmosphere. In future research, the astronomers hope to measure this with ALMA."To measure the temperature of Io's atmosphere, we need to obtain a higher resolution in our observations, which requires that we observe the moon for a longer period of time. We can only do this when Io is in sunlight since it does not spend much time in eclipse," said de Pater. "During such an observation, Io will rotate by tens of degrees. We will need to apply software that helps us make unsmeared images. We have done this previously with radio images of Jupiter made with ALMA and the Very Large Array." (ANI)
Smile, Wave: some exoplanets may be able to see Earth, too - ANI News
Washington [US], October 21 (ANI): Three decades after Cornell astronomer Carl Sagan suggested that Voyager 1 snap Earth's picture from billions of miles away -- resulting in the iconic Pale Blue Dot photograph -- two astronomers now offer another unique cosm…
Washington [US], October 21 (ANI): Three decades after Cornell astronomer Carl Sagan suggested that Voyager 1 snap Earth's picture from billions of miles away -- resulting in the iconic Pale Blue Dot photograph -- two astronomers now offer another unique cosmic perspective that some exoplanets have a direct line of sight to observe Earth's biological qualities from far, far away.Lisa Kaltenegger, associate professor of astronomy at Cornell University and director of Cornell's Carl Sagan Institute; and Joshua Pepper, associate professor of physics at Lehigh University, have identified 1,004 main-sequence stars (similar to our Sun) that might contain Earth-like planets in their own habitable zones -- all within about 300 light-years of Earth -- and which should be able to detect Earth's chemical traces of life.The paper, 'Which Stars Can See Earth as a Transiting Exoplanet?' was published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society."Let's reverse the viewpoint to that of other stars and ask from which vantage point other observers could find Earth as a transiting planet," Kaltenegger said.A transiting planet is one that passes through the observer's line of sight to another star, such as the Sun, revealing clues as to the makeup of the planet's atmosphere. "If observers were out there searching, they would be able to see signs of a biosphere in the atmosphere of our Pale Blue Dot. And we can even see some of the brightest of these stars in our night sky without binoculars or telescopes," she said.Transit observations are a crucial tool for Earth's astronomers to characterize inhabited extrasolar planets, Kaltenegger said, which astronomers will start to use with the launch of NASA's James Webb Space telescope next year.But which stars systems could find us? Holding the key to this science is Earth's ecliptic -- the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The ecliptic is where the exoplanets with a view of Earth would be located, as they will be the places able to see Earth crossing its own Sun -- effectively providing observers a way to discover our planet's vibrant biosphere.Pepper and Kaltenegger created the list of the thousand closest stars using NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) star catalog."Only a very small fraction of exoplanets will just happen to be randomly aligned with our line of sight so we can see them transit. But all of the thousand stars we identified in our paper in the solar neighborhood could see our Earth transit the Sun, calling their attention," Pepper said."If we found a planet with a vibrant biosphere, we would get curious about whether or not someone is there looking at us too," Kaltenegger said."If we're looking for intelligent life in the universe, that could find us and might want to get in touch. We've just created the star map of where we should look first," she said. (ANI)
New study indicates supermassive black hole at center of Milky Way is low-spinning - ANI News
Washington [US], October 20 (ANI): New research has revealed that the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is not spinning much, providing more evidence that it is unlikely to have a jet.
ANI | Updated: Oct 20, 2020 23:06 IST Washington [US], October 20 (ANI): New research has revealed that the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy is not spinning much, providing more evidence that it is unlikely to have a jet.The research, by scientists at the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian (CfA), and the Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) at Northwestern University has been published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.Supermassive black holes like Sgr A* -- the monstrous black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy -- are characterized by just two numbers: mass and spin, but have a critical influence on the formation and evolution of galaxies."Black holes release a huge amount of energy that removes gas from galaxies and therefore shapes their star formation history," said Dr. Avi Loeb, Frank B. Baird Jr. Professor of Science at Harvard and CfA astronomer, and co-author on the research.While scientists know that the mass of central black holes has a critical influence on their host galaxy, measuring the impact of their spin isn't easy."The effect of black hole spin on the orbits of nearby stars is subtle and difficult to measure directly," said Loeb.To get a better understanding of how Sgr A* has impacted the formation and evolution of the Milky Way, Loeb and Dr. Giacomo Fragione, of CIERA, studied instead the stellar orbits and spatial distribution of S-stars -- the closest stars orbiting Sgr A* and traveling at a speed of up to a few percent of the speed of light -- to constrain, or place limits on the spin of the black hole. "We concluded that the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy is spinning slowly. This can have major implications for the detectability of activity in the center of our galaxy and the future observations of the Event Horizon Telescope," said Fragione. The S-stars appear to be organized into two preferred planes. Loeb and Fragione showed that if Sgr A* had a significant spin, the preferred orbital planes of the stars at birth would become misaligned by the present time."For our study we used the recently discovered S-stars to show that the spin of the black hole Sgr A* must be smaller than 10 percent of its maximal value, corresponding to a black hole spinning at the speed of light. Otherwise, the common orbital planes of these stars would not stay aligned during their lifetime, as seen today," said Loeb.The results of the research also point to another important detail about Sgr A*: it is unlikely to have a jet."Jets are thought to be powered by spinning black holes, which act as giant flywheels," said Loeb, with Fragione adding that, "Indeed there is no evidence of jet activity in Sgr A*. Upcoming analysis of data from the Event Horizon Telescope will shed more light on this issue."The find was published just days before the announcement of the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics, which was awarded in part to scientists Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for their ground-breaking research which demonstrated that Sgr A* is a black hole."Genzel and Ghez monitored the motion of stars around it," said Loeb. "They measured its mass but not its spin. We have derived the first tight limit on Sgr A*'s spin," adding that the find wouldn't be possible without Genzel and Ghez's original Nobel Prize-winning work. (ANI)
New article focuses on high social, ecological standards for chocolate - ANI News
Washington [US], October 19 (ANI): Worldwide demand for food from the tropics that meet higher environmental and social standards has risen sharply in recent years.
Washington [US], October 19 (ANI): Worldwide demand for food from the tropics that meet higher environmental and social standards has risen sharply in recent years.Consumers often have to make ethically questionable decisions: products may be available to the global market through child labour, starvation wages or environmental destruction.Building on an interdisciplinary project in Peru, an international research team with the participation of the University of Gottingen has now published an overview article on the transition to responsible, high-quality cocoa production.Chocolate is made from cocoa beans, and because cocoa is originally from Peru, using indigenous varieties means a premium price can be charged. A large cooperative for small-holder farmers in northern Peru stands for social and ecological improvements with the help of organic and fair-trade certification, as well as the cultivation of native varieties in species-rich cocoa agroforestry systems.The work was published as a "Perspective" article in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Shade trees in traditional cocoa agroforestry systems improve conditions for cocoa growth and promote biodiversity, for instance of birds. However, these trees are increasingly being removed to increase productivity, even though moderate, partial shade does not significantly reduce productivity.In addition, proven high-yielding varieties are imported, although there are unique indigenous varieties in Peru that may be associated with a particular trade advantage.The researchers' project group is working together with the cooperative Norandino Ltda. in Piura, northern Peru, which is committed to working towards developing high social and ecological standards.It represents 5,400 smallholder farmers and stands for sustainable production that pursues both ecological and economic goals. Furthermore, the cooperative is committed to fighting all forms of discrimination.The result is ecologically certified and fair-trade chocolate of a high standard, which achieves up to twice the regular market price, protects smallholder farmers against market fluctuations, and moves towards the greater use of local cocoa bean varieties in the future."Large cooperatives that stand for high social, economic, and ecological standards in production should receive more support," said Dr Bea Maas, first author of the article and now at the University of Vienna."Such exemplary initiatives that benefit the livelihoods of smallholder farmers while maximising nature conservation should be the focus of interdisciplinary research now more than ever before," Carolina Ocampo-Ariza and Professor Teja Tscharntke from the Agroecology group at the University of Gottingen said. (ANI)
COVID-19: 'Antisera' an efficient alternative to convalescent plasma, says ICMR - ANI News
New Delhi [India], October 1 (ANI): In a breakthrough, the country's top medical research body - the India Council for Medical Research (ICMR) has developed highly purified antisera (raised in animals), which may be an efficient alternative to convalescent pl…
ANI | Updated: Oct 01, 2020 23:33 IST New Delhi [India], October 1 (ANI): In a breakthrough, the country's top medical research body - the India Council for Medical Research (ICMR) has developed highly purified antisera (raised in animals), which may be an efficient alternative to convalescent plasma for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 patients.According to the ICMR, in the current state of the pandemic, due to the unavailability of approved specific vaccines and drugs for the treatment of SARS-Co-V2, an urgent need for therapeutic strategies are required as human convalescent plasma has not met the desired results.For this purpose, the apex research body collaborated with Biological E. Limited, Hyderabad."Such measures have previously been used in medical science to control many viral and bacterial infections such as rabies, hepatitis B, vaccinia virus, tetanus, botulism, and diphtheria. Although plasma recovered from patients experiencing COVID-19 could serve a similar purpose, the profile of antibodies, their efficacy, and concentration keep varying from one patient to another and therefore make it an unreliable clinical tool for patient management," said ICMR in a tweet. "Standardization achievable through equine sera based treatment modality thus stands out as yet another remarkable public health initiative supported by ICMR in the time of COVID19," it added. For the study, ten healthy horses were immunised with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus. After 21 days of immunisation, plasma samples were tested by IgG ELISA and PRNT for the detection of antibodies against the virus. The results of the plasma samples obtained from horses indicated the presence of SARS-Co-V2 specific IgG antibodies."This ICMR study suggests promising efficacy and therapeutic potential of equine hyper-immune sera against coronavirus. Equine antiserum is now known to be safer and can be prepared in bulk at a lower cost," Dr Lokesh Sharma, Scientist at the ICMR said. He added, "This indigenously developed product is cost-effective and will pave the way for clinical evaluation. Additionally, being a donor independent method, this may prove as an efficient alternative to convalescent plasma for the treatment of COVID-19 patients." (ANI)
Second alignment plane of solar system discovered - ANI News
Washington [US], September 29 (ANI): A study of comet motions indicates that the solar system has a second alignment plane. Analytical investigation of the orbits of long-period comets shows that the aphelia of the comets, the point where they are farthest fr…
Washington [US], September 29 (ANI): A study of comet motions indicates that the solar system has a second alignment plane. Analytical investigation of the orbits of long-period comets shows that the aphelia of the comets, the point where they are farthest from the Sun, tend to fall close to either the well-known ecliptic plane where the planets reside or a newly discovered 'empty ecliptic.'This has important implications for models of how comets originally formed in the solar system.In the solar system, the planets and most other bodies move in roughly the same orbital plane, known as the ecliptic, but there are exceptions such as comets. Comets, especially long-period comets taking tens of thousands of years to complete each orbit, are not confined to the area near the ecliptic; they are seen coming and going in various directions.Models of solar system formation suggest that even long-period comets originally formed near the ecliptic and were later scattered into the orbits observed today through gravitational interactions, most notably with the gas giant planets. But even with planetary scattering, the comet's aphelion, the point where it is farthest from the Sun, should remain near the ecliptic.Other, external forces are needed to explain the observed distribution. The solar system does not exist in isolation; the gravitational field of the Milky Way Galaxy in which the solar system resides also exerts a small but non-negligible influence. Arika Higuchi, an assistant professor at the University of Occupational and Environmental Health in Japan and previously a member of the NAOJ RISE Project, studied the effects of the galactic gravity on long-period comets through analytical investigation of the equations governing orbital motion. She showed that when the galactic gravity is taken into account, the aphelia of long-period comets tend to collect around two planes. First the well-known ecliptic, but also a second "empty ecliptic."The ecliptic is inclined with respect to the disk of the Milky Way by about 60 degrees. The empty ecliptic is also inclined by 60 degrees but in the opposite direction. Higuchi calls this the "empty ecliptic" based on mathematical nomenclature and because initially, it contains no objects, only later being populated with scattered comets.Higuchi confirmed her predictions by cross-checking with numerical computations carried out in part on the PC Cluster at the Center for Computational Astrophysics of NAOJ. Comparing the analytical and computational results to the data for long-period comets listed in NASA's JPL Small-Body Database showed that the distribution has two peaks, near the ecliptic and empty ecliptic as predicted.This is a strong indication that the formation models are correct and long-period comets formed on the ecliptic.However, Higuchi cautions, "The sharp peaks are not exactly at the ecliptic or empty ecliptic planes, but near them. An investigation of the distribution of observed small bodies has to include many factors. Detailed examination of the distribution of long-period comets will be our future work. The all-sky survey project known as the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) will provide valuable information for this study." (ANI)
More underground water found on Mars - ANI News
Washington [US], September 28 (ANI): European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express spacecraft has discovered several ponds of liquid water buried under the ice in the south polar region of Mars.
Washington [US], September 28 (ANI): European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express spacecraft has discovered several ponds of liquid water buried under the ice in the south polar region of Mars.The spacecraft's radar instrument, MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) had in the year 2018 revealed one underground reservoir in 2018, buried about 1.5 km below the ice. Now, taking into account more data and analysing it in a different way, three new ponds have been discovered. The largest underground lake measures about 20 x 30 km, and is surrounded by several smaller ponds. The water is thought to be very salty in order for it to remain liquid at cold temperatures.Mars was once warmer and wetter with water flowing across the surface, much like early Earth. While it is not possible for water to remain stable on the surface today the new result opens the possibility that an entire system of ancient lakes might exist underground, perhaps millions or even billions of years old. They would be ideal locations to search for evidence of life on Mars, albeit very difficult to reach.Subglacial lakes are also known on Earth, like Lake Vostok in Antarctica. They may harbour unique ecosystems, providing useful analogies for astrobiologists exploring how life can survive in extreme environments. The techniques used to analyse the radar data on Mars are similar to those used in investigations of subglacial lakes in Antarctica, Canada and Greenland. (ANI)