Newswise — Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an essential nutrient belonging to the omega-3 group of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). As the human body cannot synthesize PUFAs, dietary supplements containing EPA are required for normal physiological functions. Found abundantly in natural sources like fish, hemp oil, and linseed oil, EPA is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular protective activities. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated its therapeutic effects in reducing mortality risk after myocardial infarction, improving insulin resistance, reducing blood lipid levels, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. Omega-3 PUFAs have also been shown to decrease inflammatory responses following COVID-19 infection. Despite the wide spectrum of its therapeutic effects, the molecular target(s) and the underlying mechanism of EPA’s action remain elusive.
Research Professor Takaaki Miyaji from Okayama University, Japan, and his team of researchers have now uncovered a novel molecular target of EPA in their recent work published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) on July 18, 2022. Explaining the rationale behind their study, Research Professor Miyaji, the corresponding author of this paper, says, “Conventional molecular targets such as COX-2 inhibitors can explain the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects for inflammatory pain, but not neuropathic pain, of EPA. However, since EPA significantly attenuates both inflammatory and neuropathic pain, there is a strong possibility that there exists another important molecular target of EPA related to neuropathy.” Diving deeper, the team, thus, sought to understand the mechanism of action of EPA in alleviating both inflammatory and neuropathic pain.