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NASA drops "insensitive" nicknames for cosmic objects - CBS News
The space agency will no longer use nicknames like "Eskimo Nebula" or "Siamese Twins Galaxy."
NASA is joining the ever-growing list of organizations and companies reexamining its naming system, removing names that are "insensitive" and "harmful" from its vocabulary. Aunt Jemima, The Chicks, Lady A, Mrs. Butterworth's, the Washington Football Team — and now, celestial objects — are all undergoing a rebrand. "Eskimo Nebula" and "Siamese Twins Galaxy" are just two examples of nicknames that will be retired, the space agency announced this week. "Often seemingly innocuous nicknames can be harmful and detract from the science," it said. Celestial objects such as planets, galaxies and nebulae are often given unofficial nicknames, since their official names are typically a series of letters and numbers. However, NASA said some of the names are offensive, and they plan to retire them. "As the scientific community works to identify and address systemic discrimination and inequality in all aspects of the field, it has become clear that certain cosmic nicknames are not only insensitive, but can be actively harmful," the agency said. "NASA is examining its use of unofficial terminology for cosmic objects as part of its commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion." NASA said it will no longer refer to planetary nebula NGC 2392, the glowing remains of a sun-like star near the end of its life, as the "Eskimo Nebula." It acknowledged the term's racist origins. Many indigenous people consider Eskimo a derogatory term because non-native colonizers used it to mean "eater of raw meat," connoting barbarism. In June, Dreyer's Ice Cream dropped the name "Eskimo Pie" after nearly 100 years. Why America can't escape its racist roots14:49 Additionally, the agency will no longer refer to the spiral galaxies NGC 4567 and NGC 4568 as the "Siamese Twins Galaxy." "Siamese twins" is an outdated expression used to refer to conjoined twins, originally inspired by brothers Chang and Eng Bunker, who were born in Siam, modern-day Thailand. The twins performed in "freak shows" in the 19th century for European and American audiences. NASA said that it will only use official International Astronomical Union designations to refer to the objects that previously had "inappropriate" nicknames. "Our goal is that all names are aligned with our values of diversity and inclusion, and we'll proactively work with the scientific community to help ensure that. Science is for everyone, and every facet of our work needs to reflect that value," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. The agency said it is working with diversity, inclusion and equity experts to recommend other nicknames and terms for objects moving forward. "These nicknames and terms may have historical or culture connotations that are objectionable or unwelcoming, and NASA is strongly committed to addressing them," said Stephen T. Shih, Associate Administrator for Diversity and Equal Opportunity. "Science depends on diverse contributions, and benefits everyone, so this means we must make it inclusive."
How to watch this weekend's rare solstice "ring of fire" solar eclipse - CBS News
A spectacular solar eclipse is kicking off the start of summer.
The summer solstice is nearly here, and with it comes a rare celestial phenomenon. The first solar eclipse of the decade promises to create a rare "ring of fire" — just in time to kick off the start of a new season. On June 20-21, people in certain parts of the Eastern Hemisphere will be able to view the eclipse. People in other parts of the world — or anyone who cannot go outside because of the pandemic — can view the entire spectacle online. What is an annular solar eclipse? A total solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes directly between the Earth and the sun, completely blocking the sun's light. During an annular solar eclipse, the moon does not completely cover the sun as it passes, leaving a glowing ring of sunlight visible. An annular eclipse can only occur under specific conditions, according to NASA. The moon must be in its first lunar phase, and it must also be further away from Earth on its elliptical orbit, appearing smaller in the sky than it usually would. Because the moon appears smaller under these circumstances, it cannot fully block out the sun, forming what's called a "ring of fire" or "ring of light." The "ring of fire" is seen during the first annular eclipse seen in the U.S. since 1994 on May 20, 2012. NASA / Getty Images How to watch the annular solar eclipse The path of the solar eclipse is long but extremely narrow. According to NASA, the bright spectacle will be visible, weather permitting, across a path that starts at sunrise in Africa and runs through parts of Asia before ending at sunset over the Pacific Ocean. During this time, the moon will be blocking 99.4% of the sun to show off a stunning orange ring. A partial eclipse will also be visible over much of Africa, Europe and Asia. A full list of cities and timing of the eclipse can be found at timeanddate.com. A NASA interactive map also lets users track the path to see if it will pass through their region. Looking at the sun is dangerous and can damage your eyes. If you are observing the eclipse in person, it's important to wear proper eye protection, such as solar eclipse glasses. But don't worry if you aren't in the perfect location to see the event. Starting at 5:30 UTC, you can watch the eclipse live through the Virtual Telescope Project, a set of remotely controlled robotic telescopes that will be documenting it from start to finish. You can also watch it live on YouTube. The next solar eclipse of 2020 won't occur until December 14, when skywatchers in parts of Africa and South America will get their turn to witness the celestial event.
SpaceX Crew Dragon chalks up picture-perfect docking at International Space Station - CBS News
The successful docking boosted the lab's crew to five and marked a major milestone for NASA.
Nineteen hours after a spectacular Florida launch, SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule caught up with the International Space Station early Sunday and glided in for a problem-free docking, bringing veteran astronauts Douglas Hurley and Robert Behnken to the outpost in SpaceX's first piloted space flight. The historic mission marks a major milestone in NASA's push to end the agency's sole reliance on Russian Soyuz spacecraft for carrying astronauts to and from the lab complex, the first piloted launch to orbit by a privately owned and operated spacecraft since the dawn of the space age. The Crew Dragon capsule on final approach to the International Space Station. NASA TV "Welcome to Bob and Doug," NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said to the crew in a call from mission control at the Johnson Space Center. "The whole world saw this mission, and we are so, so proud of everything you've done for our country and, in fact, to inspire the world." "We sure appreciate that, sir," Hurley replied, floating in the space station's Harmony module, flanked by crewmate Behnken, space station commander Chris Cassidy and Russian cosmonauts Anatoly Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner. "It's obviously been our honor to be just a small part of this," he said. "We have to give credit to SpaceX, the Commercial Crew Program and, of course, NASA. It's great to get the United States back in the crewed launch business, and we're just really glad to be on board this magnificent complex." Following a picture-perfect climb to space Saturday atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, Hurley and Behnken monitored an automated rendezvous with the station Sunday, approaching the lab complex from behind and below. Executing a precise series of thruster firings, the Crew Dragon looped up to a point directly in front of the station and lined up on the lab's forward docking port, the same one once used by visiting space shuttles. Hurley, a former Marine test pilot, briefly took over manual control, firing thrusters by tapping high-tech touch-screen cockpit displays to verify a crew's ability to fly the spacecraft by hand if needed. The ship's flight computer than resumed the approach and the Crew Dragon's docking mechanism engaged its counterpart on the space station at 10:16 a.m. ET, about 15 minutes ahead of schedule. A few minutes later, the capsule was pulled in and locked in place by 12 motorized latches. The combined Expedition 63 crew, back row, L-R: cosmonaut Anatoly Ivanishin, space station commander Chris Cassidy, cosmonaut Ivan Vagner; front row, L-R: Crew Dragon joint operations commander Robert Behnken and vehicle commander Douglas Hurley. The American flag on the hatch above the astronauts first flew in space on the shuttle Columbia's maiden flight in 1981; it was left aboard the station by Hurley and his Atlantis crewmates during the last shuttle mission in 2011. Hurley and Behnken plan to bring the flag home at the end of their current mission. NASA TV Cassidy, a former Navy SEAL, followed naval tradition and rang the ship's bell aboard the station to announce the Crew Dragon's arrival. "Dragon, arriving," he said. "The crew of Expedition 63 is honored to welcome Dragon and the Commercial Crew Program to ... the International Space Station. Bob and Doug, glad to have you as part of the crew. Well done. Bravo zulu." "We here at SpaceX are honored to have been part of ushering in this new era of human spaceflight," said Anna Menon, the spacecraft communicator at SpaceX's Hawthorne, California, control center. "On behalf of the SpaceX and NASA partnership, congratulations on a phenomenal accomplishment. And welcome to the International Space Station." During the post-docking welcome aboard ceremony, Republican Senator Ted Cruz of Texas asked the Crew Dragon astronauts "how does she handle?" "It flew just like it was supposed to," Hurley said. "We had a couple of opportunities to take it out for a spin, so to speak (flying manually), and my compliments to the folks back at Hawthorne and SpaceX for how well it flew. It's exactly like the simulator, and we couldn't be happier about the performance of the vehicle." A camera mounted in the Crew Dragon capsule looks over the shoulders of astronauts Douglas Hurley, left, and Robert Behnken, right, showing the ship's high-tech touchscreen displays in the moments after docking with the International Space Station. NASA TV Representative Brian Babin, a Texas Republican who represents the Johnson Space Center, asked the astronauts to describe their impressions of launching atop a Falcon 9 rocket. Behnken, who flew twice aboard the space shuttle, recalled a fairly rough ride on the orbit while its two solid-fuel boosters were firing, but a smooth ascent after that with the shuttle's three liquid-fueled engines. He and Hurley expected the Falcon 9 ride to smooth out after the rocket's first stage, powered by nine engines and generating 1.7 million pounds of thrust, was jettisoned about two-and-a-half minutes into flight. The Falcon's second stage is powered by a single engine. "We were surprised a little bit by how smooth things were off the pad," Behnken said. "The space shuttle was a pretty rough ride heading into orbit with the solid rocket boosters, and our expectation was as we continued with (our) flight into second stage, that things would basically get a lot smoother than the space shuttle. "But Dragon was huffin' and puffin' all the way into orbit, and we were definitely riding a Dragon all the way up," he said. "So it was not quite the same ride, the smooth ride as the space shuttle was up to MECO [main engine cutoff], a little bit less Gs but a little bit more 'alive' is probably the best way I could describe it." The Crew Dragon is expected to remain docked to the station for six weeks to four months, allowing Behnken and Hurley to help Cassidy with a full slate of NASA and partner agency research and, possibly, with one or more spacewalks to install new solar array batteries and complete installation of a European experiment platform. NASA astronauts Bob Behnken, right, and Doug Hurley give a thumbs-up on their way to the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket with the Crew Dragon spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, on May 30, 2020. Getty Cassidy said he looked forward to the help. "We've got a few things to take care of tonight, make sure we're all safe and we know the plan in case something bad happens," he said, referring to a standard emergency briefing given to all newly arrived crew members. "And then we're looking forward to some operational stuff later in the month, maybe we'll get outside and do some spacewalks. So we're all super excited to have two more crewmates to the Expedition 63 team." NASA originally planned a short one-week to 10-day test flight for the first piloted Crew Dragon. But delays in the agency's Commercial Crew Program and scaled-back production of Russian Soyuz spacecraft forced NASA to reduce the lab's U.S. and partner agency crew to just one — Cassidy. NASA managers are holding off on making a decision on when the Crew Dragon will return to Earth until they get a better idea of how atomic oxygen in the extreme upper atmosphere might affect the capsule's solar cells. No matter how that works out, engineers want time to thoroughly evaluate the capsule's performance before proceeding with the first operational flight. NASA and SpaceX hope to launch that flight, carrying an international three-man one-woman crew, in the late August timeframe. SpaceX and NASA successfully launch two astronauts into space